XING LONG TANG - Bodhidharma: Értekezés a Gondolatok Megszüntetéséről 《破相論》



   



Bodhidharma: Értekezés a Gondolatok Megszüntetéséről 《破相論》
達磨大師破相論終 (第二門, 2. Kapu)

X63n1220_001 達磨大師破相論 第1卷
CBETA 電子佛典集成 » 卍續藏 (X) » 第 63 冊 » No.1220 » 第 1 卷

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[0008c09] 論曰。若復有人。志求佛道者。當脩何法。最為省要。

Teaching says If someone is determined to reach enlightenment, what is the most essential method he can practice?

[0008c09] 答曰。唯觀心一法。總攝諸法。最為省要。

Bodhidharma: The most essential method, which includes all other methods, is beholding the mind.

[0008c10] 問曰。何一法能攝諸法。

Student: But how can one method include all others?

[0008c11] 答曰。心者萬法之根本。一切諸法唯心所生。若能了心。則萬法俱備。猶如大樹所有枝條及諸花果。皆悉依根。栽樹者存根而始生子。伐樹者去根而必死。若了心脩道。則少力而易成。不了心而修。費功而無益。故知一切善惡皆由自心。心外別求。終無是處。

Bodhidharma: The mind is the root from which all things grow if you can understand the mind, everything else is included. It's like the root of a tree. All a tree's fruit and flowers, branches and leaves depend on its root. If you nourish its root, a tree multiplies. If you cut its root, it dies. Those who understand the mind reach enlightenment with minimal effort. Those who don't understand the mind practice in vain. Everything good and bad comes from your own mind. To find something beyond the mind is impossible.

[0008c17] 問曰。云何觀心稱之為了。

Student: But bow can beholding the mind be called understanding?

[0008c17] 答。菩薩摩訶薩。行深般若波羅蜜多時。了四大五陰本空無我。了見自心起用。有二種差別。云何為二。一者淨心。二者染心。此二種心法。亦自然本來俱有。雖假緣合。互相因待。淨心恒樂。善因染體。常思惡業。若不受所染。則稱之為聖。遂能遠離諸苦。證涅槃樂。若墮染心造業。受其纏覆。則名之為凡。沈淪三界。受種種苦。何以故。由彼染心。障真如體。

Bodhidharma: When a great bodhisattva delves deeply into perfect wisdom, he realizes that the four elements and five shades are devoid of a personal self. And he realizes that the activity of his mind has two aspects: pure and impure. By their very nature, these two mental states are always present. They alternate as cause or effect depending on conditions, the pure mind delighting in good deeds, the impure mind thinking of evil. Those who aren't affected by impurity are sages. They transcend suffering and experience the bliss of nirvana. All others, trapped by the impure mind and entangled by their own karma, are mortals. They drift through the three realms and suffer countless afflictions and all because their impure mind obscures their real self.

[0008c17] 故十地經云。眾生身中。有金剛佛性。猶如日輪。體明圓滿廣大無邊。只為五陰重雲所覆。如缾內燈光。不能顯現。又涅槃經云。一切眾生悉有佛性。無明覆故。不得解脫。佛性者即覺性也。但自覺覺他。覺知明了。則名解脫。故知一切諸善以覺為根。因其覺根。遂能顯現諸功德樹涅槃之果德。因此而成。如是觀心。可名為了。

The Sutra of Ten Stages says, "in the body of mortals is the indestructible buddha-nature. Like the sun, its light fills endless space, But once veiled by the dark clouds of the five shades, it's like a light ĽŽinside a ĽŽat, hidden from view." And the Nirvana Sutra says, "All mortals have the buddha-nature. But it's covered by darkness from which they can't escape. Our buddha-nature is awareness: to be aware and to make others aware. To realize awareness is liberation," Everything good has awareness for its root. And from this root of awareness grow the tree of all virtues and the fruit of nirvana. Beholding the mind like this is understanding.

[0009a07] 問。上說真如佛性一切功德因覺為根。未審無明之心。以何為根。

Student: You say that our true Buddha-nature and all virtues have awareness for their root. But what is the root of ignorance?

[0009a08] 答。無明之心。雖有八萬四千煩惱情欲。及恒河沙眾惡。皆因三毒。以為根本。其三毒者。貪嗔癡是也。此三毒心。自能具足一切諸惡。猶如大樹。根雖是一。所生枝葉其數無邊。彼三毒根。一一根中。生諸惡業。百千萬億。倍過於前。不可為喻。如是三毒心。於本體中。應現六根。亦名六賊。即六識也。由此六識。出入諸根。貪著萬境。能成惡業。障真如體。故名六賊。一切眾生由此三毒六賊。惑亂身心。沈沒生死。輪迴六趣。受諸苦惱。由如江河。因小泉源。洎流不絕。乃能彌漫。波濤萬里。若復有人斷其本源。即眾流皆息。

Bodhidharma: The ignorant mind, with its infinite afflictions, passions, and evils, is rooted in the three poisons. Greed, anger, and delusion. These three poisoned states of mind themselves include countless evils, like trees that have a single trunk but countless branches and leaves. Yet each poison produces so many more millions of evils that the example of a tree is hardly a fitting comparison. The three poisons are present in our six sense organs' as six kinds of consciousness' or thieves. They're called thieves because they pass in and out of the gates of the senses, covet limitless possessions, and mask their true identity. And because mortals are misled in body and mind by these poisons or thieves, they become lost in life and death, wander through the six states of existence, and suffer countless afflictions. These afflictions are like rivers that surge for a thousand miles because of the constant flow of small springs.

[0009a08] 求解脫者。能轉三毒。為三聚淨戒。轉六賊為六波羅蜜。自然永離一切諸苦

But if someone cuts off their source, rivers dry up. And if someone who seeks liberation can turn the three poisons into the three sets of precepts and the six thieves into the six paramitas, he rids himself of affliction once and for all.

[0009a20] 問。六趣三界廣大無邊。若唯觀心。何由免無窮之苦。

Student: But the three realms and six states -of existence are infinitely vast. How can we escape their endless afflictions if all we do is behold the mind?

[0009a21] 答。三界業報。唯心所生。本若無心。於三界中。即出三界。其三界者。即三毒也。貪為欲界。嗔為色界。癡為無色界。故名三界。由此三毒。造業輕重。受報不同。分歸六處。故名六趣。

Bodhidharma: The karma of the three realms comes from the mind alone. If your mind isn't within the three realms, it's beyond them. The three realms correspond to the three poisons- greed corresponds to the realm of desire, anger to the realm of form, and delusion to the formless realm. And because karma created by the poisons can be gentle or heavy, these three realms are further divided into six places known as the six states of existence.

[0009b01] 問。云何輕重分之為六。

Student: And how does the karma of these six differ?

[0009b01] 答。眾生不了正因。迷心脩善。未免三界。生三輕趣。云何三輕趣。所謂迷脩十善。妄求快樂。未免貪界。生於天趣。迷持五戒。妄起愛憎。未免瞋界。生於人趣。迷執有為。信邪求福。未免癡界。生阿脩羅趣。如是三類。名三輕趣。

Bodhidharma: Mortals who don't understand true practice and blindly perform good deeds are born into the three higher states of existence within the three realms. And what are these three higher states? Those who blindly perform the ten good deeds and foolishly seek happiness are born as gods in the realm of desire. Those who blindly observe the five precepts and foolishly indulge in love and hate are born as men in the realm of anger, And those who blindly cling to the phenomenal world, believe in false doctrines, and pray for blessings are born as demons in the realm of delusion. These are the three higher states of existence.

[0009b01] 云何三重。所謂縱三毒心。唯造惡業。墮三重趣。若貪業重者。墮餓鬼趣。瞋業重者。墮地獄趣。癡業重者。墮畜生趣。如是二重。通前三輕。遂成六趣。故知一切苦業。由自心生。但能攝心。離諸邪惡三界六趣輪迴之苦。自然消滅離苦。即得解脫。

And what are the three lower states? They're where those who persist in poisoned thoughts and evil deeds are born. Those whose karma from greed is greatest become hungry ghosts. Those whose karma from anger is greatest become sufferers in hell. And those whose karma from delusion is greatest become beasts. These three lower states together with the previous three higher states form the six states of existence. From this you should realize that all karma, painful or otherwise, comes from your own mind. If you can just concentrate your mind and transcend its falsehood and evil, the suffering of the three realms and six states of existence will automatically disappear. And once free from suffering, you're truly free.

[0009b11] 問。如佛所說。我於三大阿僧祇劫。無量勤苦。方成佛道。云何今說。唯只觀心制三毒。即名解脫。

Student: But the Buddha said, "Only after undergoing innumerable hardships for three asankhya kalpas did I achieve enlightenment," Why do you now say that simply beholding the mind and over-coming the three poisons is liberation?

[0009b12] 答。佛所說言。無虗妄也。阿僧祇劫者。即三毒心也。胡言阿僧祇。漢名不可數。此三毒心。於中有恒沙惡念。於一一念中。皆為一劫。如是恒沙不可數也。故言三大阿僧祇。真如之性。既被三毒之所覆盖。若不超彼三大恒沙毒惡之心。云何名為解脫。今若能轉貪瞋癡等三毒心。為三解脫。是則名為得度三大阿僧祇劫。末世眾生。愚癡鈍根。不解如來三大阿僧祇秘密之說。遂言成佛塵劫未期。豈不疑誤行人退菩提道。

Bodhidharma: The words of the Buddha are true. But the three-asankhya kalpas refer to the three poisoned states of mind. What we call asankhya in Sanskrit you call countless. Within these three poisoned states of mind are countless evil thoughts, And every thought lasts a kalpa. Such an infinity is what the Buddha meant by the three asankhya kalpas, Once the three poisons obscure your real self, how can you be called liberated until you overcome their countless evil thoughts? People who can transform the three poisons of greed, anger, and delusion into the three releases are said to pass through the three-sankhya kalpas. But people of this final age are the densest of fools. They don't understand what the Tathagata really meant by the three-asankhya kalpas. They say enlightenment is only achieved after endless kalpas and thereby mislead disciples to retreat on the path to Buddhahood.

[0009b21] 問。菩薩摩訶薩由持三聚淨戒。行六波羅蜜。方成佛道。今令學者唯只觀心。不修戒行。云何成佛。

Student: But the great bodbisattvas have achieved enlightenment only by observing the three sets of precepts"' and practicing the six Paramitas, Now you tell disciples merely to behold the mind. How can anyone reach enlightenment without cultivating the rules of discipline?

[0009b22] 答。三聚淨戒者。即制三毒心也。制三毒成無量善聚。聚者會也。無量善法普會於心。故名三聚淨戒。六波羅蜜者。即淨六根也。胡名波羅蜜。漢名達彼岸。以六根清淨。不染六塵。即是度煩惱河。至菩提岸。故名六波羅蜜。

Bodhidharma: The three sets of precepts are for overcoming the three poisoned states of mind, When you overcome these poisons, you create three sets of limitless virtue, A set gathers things together-in this case, countless good thoughts throughout your mind. And the six paramitas are for purifying the six senses. What we call paramitas you call means to the other shore. By purifying your six senses of the dust of sensation, the paramitas ferry you across the River of Affliction to the Shore of Enlightenment.

[0009c03] 問。如經所說。三聚淨戒者。誓斷一切惡。誓修一切善。誓度一切眾生。今者唯言制三毒心。豈不文義有乖也。

Student: According to the sutras, the three sets of precepts are, "I vow, to put an end to all evils. I vow to cultivate all virtues. And I vow to liberate all beings." But now you say they're only for controlling the three poisoned states of mind. Isn't this contrary to the meaning of the scriptures?

[0009c05] 答。佛所說是真實語。菩薩摩訶薩於過去因中修行時。為對三毒。發三誓願。持一切淨戒。對於貪毒。誓斷一切惡。常修一切善。對於瞋毒。誓度一切眾生。故常修慧。對於癡毒。由持如是戒定慧等三種淨法。故能超彼三毒成佛道也。諸惡消滅名為斷。以能持三聚淨戒。則諸善具足。名之為修。以能斷惡修善。則萬行成就。自它俱利。普濟群生。故名解脫。

Bodhidharma: The sutras of the Buddha are true. But long ago, when that great bodhisattva was cultivating the seed of enlightenment, it was to counter the three poisons that he made his three vows. Practicing moral prohibitions to counter the poison of greed, he vowed to put an end to all evils. Practicing meditation to counter the poison of anger, he vowed to cultivate all virtues. And practicing wisdom to counter the poison of delusion, he vowed to liberate all beings. Because he persevered in these three pure practices of morality, meditation, and wisdom, he was able to overcome the three poisons and reach enlightenment. By overcoming the three poisons he wiped out everything sinful and thus put an end to evil. By observing the three sets of precepts he did nothing but good and thus cultivated virtue. And by putting an end to evil and cultivating virtue lie consummate all practices, benefited himself as well as others, and rescued mortals everywhere. Thus he liberated beings.

[0009c05] 則知所修戒行不離於心。若自心清淨。則一切佛土皆悉清淨。故經云。心垢則眾生垢。心淨則眾生淨。欲得佛土。當淨其心。隨其心淨。則佛土淨也。三聚淨戒自然成就。脫。

You should realize that the practice you cultivate doesn't exist apart from your mind. If your mind is pure, all buddha-lands are pure. The sutras say, "if their minds are impure, beings are impure. If their minds are pure, beings are pure," And "To reach a buddha-land, purify your mind. As your mind becomes pure, buddha-lands become pure." Thus by overcoming the three poisoned states of mind the three sets of precepts are automatically fulfilled.

[0009c15] 問。矣。如經所說。六波羅蜜者。亦名六度。所謂布施持戒忍辱精進禪定智慧。今言六根清淨。名波羅蜜者。若為通會。又六度者。其義如何。

Student: But the sutras say the six Paramitas are charity, morality, patience, devotion, meditation, and wisdom. Now you say the paramitas refer to the purification of the senses. What do you mean by this? And why are they called ferries?

[0009c17] 答。欲修六度。當淨六根。先降六賊。能捨眼賊。離諸色境。名為布施。能禁耳賊。於彼聲塵。不令縱逸。名為持戒。能伏鼻賊。等諸香具。自在調柔。名為忍辱。能制口賊。不貪諸味。讚詠講說。名為精進。能降身賊。於諸觸慾。湛然不動。名為禪定。能調意賊。不順無明。常修覺慧。名為智慧。六度者運也。六波羅蜜。喻若船筏。能運眾生。達於彼岸。故名六度。

Bodhidharma: Cultivating the paramitas means purifying the six senses by overcoming the six thieves. Casting out the thief of the eye by abandoning the visual world is charity. Keeping out the thief of the ear by not listening to sound is morality. Humbling the thief of the nose by equating smells as neutral is patience. Controlling the thief of the mouth by conquering desires to taste, praise, and explain is devotion. Quelling the thief of the body by remaining unmoved by sensations of touch is meditation. And taming the thief of the mind by not yielding to delusions but practicing wakefulness is wisdom, These six paramitas are transports. Like boats or rafts, they transport beings to the other shore. Hence they're called ferries.

[0010a01] 問。經云。釋迦如來。為菩薩時。曾飲三斗六升乳糜。方成佛道。先因飲乳。後證佛果。豈唯觀心得解脫也。

Student: But when Sbakyamuni was a bodhisattva, he consumed three bowls of milk and six ladles of gruel prior to attaining enlightenment. If he bad to drink milk before be could taste the fruit of buddhahood, how can merely beholding the mind result in liberation?

[0010a02] 答。成佛如此。言無虗妄也。必因食乳。然始成佛。言食乳者。有二種。佛所食者。非是世間不淨之乳。乃是清淨法乳。三斗者。三聚淨戒。六升者。六波羅蜜。成佛道時。由食如是清淨法乳。方證佛果。若言如來食於世間和合不淨牛羶腥乳。豈不謗誤之甚。真如者。自是金剛不壞。無漏法身。永離世間一切諸苦。豈須如是不淨之乳。以充飢渴。

Bodhidharma: What you say is true. That is how he attained enlightenment. He had to drink milk before he could become a Buddha. But there are two kinds of milk. That which Shakyamuni drank wasn't ordinary impure milk but Pure Dharma-talk. The three bowls were the three sets of precepts. And the six ladies were the six paramitas. When Shakyamuni attained enlightenment, it was because he drank this pure dharma-rnilk that he tasted the fruit of Buddhahood. To say that the Tathagata drank the worldly concoction of impure, rank-smelling cow's milk is the height of slander. That which is truly so, the indestructible, passionless Dharma-self, remains forever free of the world's afflictions. Why would it need impure milk to satisfy its hunger or thirst?

[0010a02] 經所說。其牛不在高原。不在下濕。不食糓麥糠麩。不與牸。牛同群。其牛身作紫磨金色。言牛者。毗盧舍那佛也。以大慈悲。憐愍一切。故於清淨法體中。出如是三聚淨戒六波羅蜜微妙法乳。養育一切求解脫者。如是真淨之牛。清淨之乳。非但如來飲之成道。一切眾生若能飲者。皆得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。

The sutras say, "This ox doesn't live in the highlands or the lowlands. It doesn't eat grain or chaff. And it doesn't graze with cows. The body of this ox is the color of burnished gold." The ox refers to Vairocana. Owing to his great compassion for all beings, he produces from within his pure Dharma-body the sublime Dharma-milk of the three sets of precepts and six paramitas to nourish all those who seek liberation. The pure milk of such a truly pure ox not only enabled the ĽŽtathagata to achieve buddhahood but also enables any being who drinks it to attain unexcelled, complete enlightenment.

[0010a16] 問。經中所說。佛令眾生。修造伽藍。鑄寫形像。燒香散花然燈。晝夜六時。遶塔行道。持齋禮拜。種種功德。皆成佛道。若唯觀心。總攝諸行。說如是事。應虗空也。。

Student: Throughout the sutras the Buddha tells mortals they can achieve enlightenment by performing such meritorious works as building monasteries, casting statues, burning incense, scattering flowers, lighting eternal lamps, practicing all six periods" of the day and night, walking around stupas, observing fasts, and worshipping. But if beholding the mind includes all other practices, then such works as these would appear redundant.

[0010a18] 答。佛所說經。有無量方便。以一切眾生鈍根狹劣。不悟甚深之義。所以假有為喻無為。若復不脩內行。唯只外求。希望獲福。無有是處。言伽藍者。兩。國梵語。此土翻為清淨地也。若永除三毒。常淨六根。身心湛然。內外清淨。是名脩伽藍。

Bodhidharma: The sutras of the Buddha contain countless metaphors. Because mortals have shallow minds and don't understand anything deep, the Buddha used the tangible to represent the sublime. People who seek blessings by concentrating on external works instead of internal cultivation are attempting the impossible, What you call a monastery we call a sangbarama, a place of purity. But whoever denies entry to the three poisons and keeps the gates of his senses pure, his body and mind still, inside and outside clean, builds a monastery.

[0010a18] 鑄寫形像者。即是一切眾生求佛道也。所為修諸覺行。彷像如來真容妙相。豈遣鑄寫金銅之所作也。是故求解脫者。以身為爐。以法為火。以智慧為巧匠。三聚淨戒六波羅蜜以為模樣。鎔鍊身中真如佛性。遍入一切戒律模中。如敬。奉行。一無漏缺。自然成就真容之像。所謂究竟常住微妙色身。非是有為敗壞之法。若人求道。不解如是鑄寫真容。憑何輙言功德。

Casting statues refers to all practices cultivated by those who seek enlightenment. The Tathagata's sublime form can't be represented by metal. Those who seek enlightenment regard their bodies as the furnace, the Dharma as the fire, wisdom as the craftsmanship, and the three sets of precepts and six paramitas as the mold. They smelt and refine the true buddha-nature within themselves and pour it into the mold formed by the rules of discipline. Acting in perfect accordance with the -Buddha's teaching, they naturally create a perfect likeness. ĽŽMe eternal, sublime body isn't subject to conditions or decay. If you seek the Truth but dont learn how to make a true likeness, what will you use in its place?

[0010a18] 燒香者。亦非世間有相之香。乃是無為正法之香也。薰諸臭穢無明惡業。悉令消滅。其正法香者。有其五種。一者戒香。所謂能斷諸惡。能修諸善。二者定香。所謂深信大乘。心無退轉。三有。慧香。所謂常於身心。內自觀察。四者解脫香。所謂能斷一切無明結縛。五者解脫知見香。所謂觀照常明。通達無礙。如是五種香。名為最上之香。世間無比。

And burning incense doesn't mean ordinary material incense but the incense of the intangible Dharma, which drives away filth, ignorance, and evil deeds with its perfume. There are five kinds of such Dharma-incense. First is the incense of morality, which means renouncing evil and cultivating virtue. Second is the incense of meditation, which means deeply believing in the Mahayana with unwavering resolve. Third is the incense of wisdom, which means contemplating the body and mind, inside and out. Fourth is the incense of liberation, which means severing the bonds of ignorance. And fifth is the incense of perfect knowledge, which means being always aware and nowhere obstructed. These five are the most precious kinds of incense and far superior to anything the world has to offer.

[0010a18] 佛在世日。令諸弟子。以智慧火。燒如是無價珍香。供養十方諸佛。今時眾生不解如來真實之義。唯將外火。燒世間沈檀。薰陸質礙之香。希望福報。云何得。

When the Buddha was in the world, he told his disciples to light such precious incense with the fire of awareness as an offering to the Buddhas of the ten directions. But people today don't understand the Tathagata's real meaning. They use an ordinary flame to light material incense of sandalwood or frankincense and pray for some future blessing that never comes.

[0010a18] 散花者。義亦如是。所謂豈。說正法。諸功德花。饒益有情。散沾一切。於真如性。普施莊嚴。此功德花。佛所讚歎。究竟常住。無彫落期。若復有人。散如是花。獲福無量。若言如來令眾生。剪截繒彩。傷損草木。以為散花。無有是處。所以者何。持淨戒者。於諸天地森羅萬像。不令觸犯。誤犯者猶獲大罪。況復今者故毀淨戒。傷萬物。求於福報。欲益返損。豈有是乎。

For scattering flowers the same holds true. This refers to speaking the Dharma, scattering flowers of virtue, in order to benefit others and glorify the real sell. These flowers of virtue are those praised by the Buddha. They last forever and never fade. And whoever scatters such flowers reaps infinite blessings. If you think the Tathagata meant for people to harm plants by cutting off their flowers, you're wrong. Those who observe the precepts don't injure any of the myriad life forms of heaven and earth. If you hurt something by mistake, you suffer for it. But those who intentionally break the precepts by injuring the living for the sake of future blessings suffer even more, How could they let would-be blessings turn into sorrows?

[0010a18] 又長明燈者。即正覺心也。以覺明了。喻之為燈。是故一切求解脫者。以身為燈臺。心為燈炷。增諸戒行。以為添油。智慧明達。喻如燈火。常燃如是真正覺燈。照破一切無明癡暗。能以此法。轉相開示。即是一燈。燃百千燈。以灯續然。然燈無盡。故號長明。

The eternal lamp represents perfect awareness. Likening the illumination of awareness to that of a lamp, those who seek liberation see their body as the lamp, their mind as its wick, the addition of discipline as its oil, and the power of wisdom as its flame. By lighting this lamp of perfect awareness they dispel all darkness and delusion. And by passing this Dharma on to others they're able to use one lamp to light thousands of lamps. And because these lamps likewise light countless other lamps, their light lasts forever.

[0010a18] 過去有佛。名曰然燈。義亦如是。愚癡眾生。不會如來方便之說。專行虗妄。執著有為。遂燃世間蘇油之燈。以照空室。乃稱依教。豈不謬乎。所以者何。

Long ago, there was a Buddha named Dipamkara, or lamplighter. This was the meaning of his name. But fools don't understand the metaphors of the Tathagata. Persisting in delusions and clinging to the tangible, they light lamps of everyday vegetable oil and think that by illuminating the interiors of buildings they're following the Buddha's teaching. How foolish! The light released by a Buddha from one curl between his brows can illuminate countless worlds. An oil lamp is no help. Or do you think otherwise?

[0010a18] 佛放眉間一毫相光。上能照萬八千世界。豈假如是蘇油之燈。以為利益。審察斯理。應不然乎。又六時行道者。所謂六根之中。於一切時。常行佛道。脩諸覺行。調伏六根。長時不捨。名為六時。遶塔行道者。塔是身心也。當令覺慧巡遶身心。念念不停。名為遶塔。過去諸聖皆行此道。得至涅槃。今時世人不會此理。曾不內行。唯執外求。將質礙身。遶世間塔。日夜走驟。徒自疲勞。而於真性。一無利益。又持齋者。當須會意不達斯理。徒爾虗切。

Practicing all six periods of the day and night means constantly cultivating enlightenment among the six senses and persevering in every form of awareness. Never relaxing control over the six senses is what's meant by all six periods. As for walking around stupas, the stupa is your body and mind. When your awareness circles your body and mind without stopping, this is called walking around a stupa. The sages of long ago followed this path to nirvana. But people today don't understand what this means. Instead of looking inside they insist on looking outside. They use their material bodies to walk around material stupas. And they keep at it day and night, wearing themselves out in vain and coming no closer to their real self.

[0010a18] 齋者齊也。所謂齋正身心。不令散亂。持者護也。所謂於諸戒行。如法護持。必須外禁六情。內制三毒。勤覺察。淨身心。了如是義。名為持齋。又持齋者。食有五種。一者法喜食。所謂依持正法。歡喜奉行。二者禪悅食。所為內外澄寂。身心悅樂。三者念食。所謂常念諸佛。心口相應。四者願食。所謂行住坐臥。常求善願。五者解脫食。所謂心常清淨。不染俗塵。

The same holds true for observing a fast. It's useless unless you understand what this really means. To fast means to regulate, to regulate your body and mind so that they're not distracted or disturbed. And to observe means to uphold, to uphold the rules of discipline according to the Dharma. Fasting means guarding against the six attractions on the outside and the three poisons on the inside and striving through contemplation to purify your body and mind.

[0010a18] 此五種食。名為齋食。若復有人。不食如是五種淨食。自言持齋。無有是處。唯斷於無明之食。若輙觸者。名為破齋。若有破。云何獲福。

Fasting also includes five kinds of food. First there's delight in the Dharma. This is the delight that comes from acting in accordance with the Dharma. Second is harmony in meditation. This is the harmony of body and mind that comes from seeing through subject and object. Third is invocation, the invocation of Buddhas with both your month and your mind. Fourth is resolution, the resolution to pursue virtue whether walking, standing, sitting, or lying down. And fifth is liberation, the liberation of your mind from worldly contamination. These five are the foods of fasting. Unless a person eats these five pure foods, he's wrong to think he's fasting.

[0010a18] 世有迷人。不悟斯理。身心放逸諸惡。皆為貪欲恣情。不生慚愧。唯斷外食。自為持齋。必無是事。

Also, once you stop eating the food of delusion, if you touch it again you break your fast. And once you break it, you reap no blessing from it. The world is full of deluded people who don't see this. They indulge their body and mind in all manner of evil. They give free rein to their passions and have no shame. And when they stop eating ordinary food, they call it fasting. How absurd!

[0010a18] 又禮拜者。當如是法也。必須理體內明。事隨權變。理有行藏。會如是義。乃名依法。

It's the same with worshipping. You have to understand the meaning and adapt to conditions. Meaning includes action and nonaction. Whoever understands this follows the Dharma.

[0010a18] 夫禮者敬也。拜者伏也。所謂恭敬真性。屈伏無明。名為禮拜。若能惡情永滅。善念恒存。雖不現相。名為禮拜。其相即法相也。世尊欲令世俗表謙下心。亦為禮拜。故須屈伏外身。示內恭敬。舉外明內。性相相應。若復不行理法。唯執外求內。則放縱瞋癡。常為惡業。外即空勞身相。詐現威儀。無慚於聖。徒誑於凡。不免輪迴。豈成功德。

Worship means reverence and humility it means revering your real self and humbling delusions. If you can wipe out evil desires and harbor good thoughts, even if nothing shows its worship. Such form is its real form. The Lord wanted worldly people to think of worship as expressing humility and subduing the mind. So he told them to prostrate their bodies to show their reverence, to let the external express the internal, to harmonize essence and form. Those who fail to cultivate the inner meaning and concentrate instead on the outward expression never stop indulging in ignorance, hatred, and evil while exhausting themselves to no avail. They can deceive others with postures, remain shameless before sages and vain before mortals, but they'll never escape the Wheel, much less achieve any merit.

[0011a10] 問。如溫室經說。洗浴眾僧。獲福無量。此則憑於事法。功德始成。若為觀心可相應否。

Student: But the Bathhouse Sutra says, "By contributing to the bathing of monks, people receive limitless blessings." This would appear to be an instance of external practice achieving merit. How does this relate to beholding the mind?

[0011a11] 答。洗浴眾僧者。非洗世間有為事也。世尊甞。爾為諸弟子。說溫室經。欲令受持洗浴之法。故假世事。比喻真宗。隱說七事供養功德。其七事云何。一者淨水。二者燒火。三者澡豆。四者楊枝。五者淨灰。六者蘇[月*高]。七者內衣。與此七法。喻於七事。一切眾生由此七法。沐浴莊嚴。能除毒心無明垢穢。應否。

Bodhidharma: Here, the bathing of monks doesn't refer to the washing of anything tangible. When the Lord preached the Bathhouse Sutra, he wanted his disciples to remember the Dharma of washing. So he used an everyday concern to convey his real meaning, which he couched in his explanation of merit from seven offerings. Of these seven, the first is clear water, the second fire, the third soap, the fourth willow catkins, the fifth pure ashes, the sixth ointment, and the seventh the inner garment He used these seven to represent seven other things that cleanse and enhance a person by eliminating the delusion and filth of a poisoned mind. The first of these seven is morality, which washes away excess just as water washes away dirt. Second is wisdom, which penetrates subject and object, just as fire warms water. Third is discrimination, which gets rid of evil practices, just as soap gets rid of grime. Fourth is honesty, which purges delusions, just as chewing willow catkins purifies the breath. Fifth is true faith, which resolves all doubts, just as rubbing pure ashes on the body prevents illnesses. Sixth is patience, which overcomes resistance and disgrace, just as ointment softens the skin. And seventh is shame, which redresses evil deeds, just as the inner garment covers up an ugly body. These seven represent the real meaning of the sutra. When he spoke this sutra, the Tathagata was talking to farsighted followers of the Mahayana, not to narrow-minded people of dim vision. It's not surprising that people nowadays don't understand.

[0011a11] 其七法者。一者謂淨戒。洗蕩僭非。猶如淨水濯諸塵垢。二者智慧。觀察內外。由如然火能溫淨水。三者分別。簡棄諸惡。猶如澡豆能淨垢膩。四者真實。斷諸妄想。如嚼楊枝。能淨口氣。五者正信。決定無疑。由如淨灰摩身。能辟諸風。六者謂柔和忍辱。由如蘇[月*高]。通潤皮膚。七者謂慚愧。悔諸惡業。猶如內衣遮醜形體。如上七法。是經中秘密之義。如來當爾為諸大乘利根者說。非為小智下劣凡夫。所以今人無能解悟。其溫室者。即身是也。所以燃智慧火。溫淨戒湯。沐浴身中。真如佛性。受持七法。以自莊嚴。當爾比丘聰明上智。皆悟聖意。如說脩行。功德成就。俱登聖果。今時眾生莫測其事。將世間水。洗質礙身。自謂依經。豈非誤也。且真如佛性。非是凡形。煩惱塵垢。本來無相。豈可將質礙水。洗無為身。事不相應。云何悟道。若欲身得淨者。當觀此身。本因貪欲不淨所生。臭穢駢闐。內外充滿。若也洗此身求於淨者。猶如壍壍盡方淨。以此驗之。明知洗外非佛說也。

The bathhouse is the body. When you light the fire of wisdom, you warm the pure water of the precepts and bathe the true Buddha nature within you. By upholding these seven practices you add to your virtue. The monks of that age were perceptive. They understood the Buddha's meaning. They followed his reaching, perfected their virtue, and tasted the fruit of Buddhahood. But people nowadays can't fathom these things. They use ordinary water to wash a physical body and think they're following the sutra. But they're mistaken. Our true buddha-nature has no shape. And the dust of affliction has no form. How can people use ordinary water to wash an intangible body? It won't work. When will they wake up? To clean such a body you have to behold it. Once impurities and filth arise from desire, they multiply until they cover you inside and out. But if you try to wash this body of yours, you have to scrub until it's nearly gone before it's clean. From this you should realize that washing something external isn't What the Buddha meant.

[0011b10] 問。經說言至心念佛。必得往生西方淨土。以此一門。即應成佛。何假觀心。求於解脫。

Student: The sutras say that someone who wholeheartedly invokes the Buddha is sure to be reborn in the Western Paradise. Since is door leads to Buddhahood, why seek liberation in beholding the mind?

[0011b11] 答。夫念佛者。當須正念。了義為正。不了義為邪。正念必得往生。邪念云何達彼。

Bodhidharma: If you're going to invoke the Buddha, you have to do it right. Unless you understand what invoking means, you'll do it wrong. And if you do it wrong, you'll never go anywhere. ...

[0011b11] 佛者覺也。所謂覺察身心。勿令起惡。念者憶也。所謂憶持。戒行不忘。精進勤了。如是義名為念。故知念在於心。不在於言。因筌求魚。得魚忘筌。因言求意。得意忘言。既稱念佛之名。須知念佛之道。若心無實。口誦空名。三毒內臻。人我填臆。將無明心不見佛。徒爾費功。且如誦之與念。義理懸殊。在口曰誦。在心曰念。故知念從心起。名為覺行之門。誦在口中。即是音聲之相。執相求理。終無是處。故知過去諸聖所脩。皆非外說。唯只推心。即心是眾善之源。即心為萬德之主。涅槃常樂。由息心生。三界輪迴。亦從心起。心是一世之門戶。心是解脫之關津。知門戶心。豈慮難成。知關津者何憂不達。

Buddha means awareness, the awareness of body and mind that prevents evil from arising in either. And to invoke means to call to mind, to call constantly to mind the rules of discipline and to follow them with all your might. This is what's meant by invoking. Invoking has to do with thought and not with language. If you use a trap to catch fish, once you succeed you can forget the trap. And if you use language to find meaning, once you find it you can forget language. To invoke the Buddha's name you have to understand the Dharma of invoking. If it's not present in your mind, your mouth chants an empty name. As long as you're troubled by the three poisons or by thoughts of yourself, your deluded mind will keep you from seeing the Buddha and you'll only waste your effort. Chanting and invoking are worlds apart, Chanting is done with the mouth. Invoking is done with the mind. And because invoking comes from the mind, it's called the door to awareness. Chanting is centered in the mouth and appears as sound. If you cling to appearances while searching for meaning, you won't find a thing. Thus, sages of the past cultivated introspection and not speech. This mind is the source of all virtues. And this mind is the chief of all powers, The eternal bliss of nirvana comes from the mind at rest. Rebirth in the three realms also comes from the mind. The mind is the door to every world and the mind is the ford to the other shore. Those who know where the door is don't worry about reaching it. Those who know where the ford is don't worry about crossing it.

[0011b11] 竊見今時淺識。唯知事相為功。廣費財寶。多傷水陸。妄營像塔。虗促人夫。積木疊泥。圖青畫緣。傾心盡力。損己迷它。未解慚愧。何曾覺泥。見有為則勤勤愛著。說無相則兀兀如迷。且貪現世之小慈。豈覺當來之大苦。此之脩學。徒自疲勞。背正歸邪。誑言獲福。

The people I meet nowadays are superficial. They think of merit as something that has form. They squander their wealth and butcher creatures of land and sea. They foolishly concern themselves with erecting statues and stupas, telling people to pile up lumber and bricks, to paint this blue and that green. They strain body and mind, injure themselves and mislead others. And they don't know enough to be ashamed. How will they ever become enlightened?

[0011b11] 但能攝心內照。覺觀外明。絕三毒永使銷亡。[門@卞]六賊不令侵擾。自然恒沙功德。種種莊嚴。無數法門。一一成就。超凡證聖。目擊非遙。悟在須臾。何煩皓首。真門幽秘。寧可具陳。略述觀心。詳其少分。而說偈言。 :

    我本求心心自持,   求心不得待心知
    佛性不從心外得,   心生便是罪生時
    我本求心不求佛,   了知三界空無物
    若欲求佛但求心,   只這心心心是佛

They see something tangible and instantly become attached. If you talk to them about formlessness, they sit there dumb and confused. Greedy for the small mercies of this world, they remain blind to the great suffering to come. Such disciples wear themselves out in vain. Turning from the true to the false, they talk about nothing but future blessings.

If you can simply concentrate your mind's Inner Light and behold its outer illumination, you'll dispel the three poisons and drive away the six thieves once and for all. And without effort gain possession of an infinite number of virtues, perfections, and doors to the truth, Seeing through the mundane and witnessing the sublime is less than an eye-blink away, Realization is now. Why worry about gray hair? But the true door is hidden and can't be revealed. I have only touched upon beholding the mind.

達磨大師破相論終

Pár gondolat

    "Senki nem tudja, mit hoz a jövő. De a múlt tettei a mában, ezekben a pillanatokban hozzák meg termésüket. Sem az egeket, sem az isteneket sem embertársaimat nem vonhatom felelősségre sorsomért. Csak és kizárólag múltbéli tetteim következménye mindaz, amit ma megélek. Ha ma élek és szenvedek, az azért van, amit a múltban én tettem, és senki mást nem vonhatok érte felelősségre."

    Bodhidharma

Aki haladó szinten gyakorolja a harcművészetet, túljut a formákon és technikákon. A helyes gyakorolás során természetes módon alakul ki az igény és a szándék a háttér-, a szemlélet-, a kultúra-, az adott stílus történelme-, valamint mesterei tanításainak mélyebb megértése iránt. A rendszeres, tiszta gyakorlásra kell figyelned, a megértés - ha itt az idő - természetes módon megérkezik. A Mahayana tanítása szerint a szamádhiban a tudat megnyugszik és egy dologra koncentrál míg a gyakorlatot végző személy tudatánál marad. Ez igaz a Chan gyakorlatokra, mely állapot szükséges a harcművészetben a belső erő (Qi) irányításához is. Nincs semmi különbség. Haladó szinten a kungfu minden mozdulatában, minden technikájában megjelenik a szándék (Yi). Ahhoz, hogy ez minél természetesebben jelen legyen-, bármikor képes légy a szándék általi irányításra, a gyakorlás során megfelelő erőfesztítésre és tudatosságra van szükség (tiszta fenntartható koncentráció). A szándék által vezetet mozdulatok és technikák a "szemlélődés" (观, guan) okán ennél tovább méllyülnek. Többször említette Mesterem, Zhang Mester azt, hogy a "rácsodálkozás művészetét" sosem szabad elfelejteni, mindíg gyakorolni kell.

Láthatod, hogy a Chan szútrák tanításainak megismerése, e szemléleten való gondolkodás, a meditáció és a harcművészet gyakorlásában a "szándék" megerősítése, az "erőfeszítés" (koncentráció) megtartása, a "tudatosság" kialakítása és a gyakorlatokon való "szemlélődés" nélkül nincsen valódi fejlődés.

❀ ❀ ❀

Javasolt irodalom és források

0. További buddhista iratok, fordítások és tanítások

1. Fodian
2. CBETA
3. X63n1220_001 達磨大師破相論 第1卷
4. 心經頌 Xin Jing Song (Elme Tana, Szív Szútra),
5. 破相論 Po Xiang Lun [X63n1220_001 達磨大師破相論 第1卷] - Értekezés a Gondolatok Megszüntetéséről Ua. mint 觀心論 Guan Xin Lun - Értekezés a Gondolatok Szemléléséről, melyet Bodhidharmának tulajdonítanak, de történeti kutatások azt támasztják alá, hogy Shenxiu (神秀 , 606?-706), az Északi Iskola Pátriárkája írta.
6. 二種入 Er zhong ru [X63n1217_001 菩提達磨大師略辨大乘入道四行觀 第1卷] - Két Bejárat (a gyakorlások vázlata) v. Két Út Négy Gyakorlat,
7. 安心法門 An Xin Fa Men - Dharma Kapuja az Elme Elcsendesítéséhez vagy nyugalomban Maradás Dharmája [X63n1224_001 諸方門人參問語錄 第1卷]
8. 悟性論 Wu Xing Lun [X63n1219_001 達磨大師悟性論 第1卷] - Értekezés az Elme Természetének Felébresztéséről (Ébredés Beszéd),
9. 血脈論 Xue Mai Lun [X63n1218_001 達磨大師血脉論 第1卷] - Értekezés az Átadásról (Véráram Beszéd; az igazi természet meglátásáról szóló szentbeszéd)
10. CBETA, X63n1217 és http://ctzen.org/sunnyvale/enBodhiDharmaSutraWithAnnotation.htm
11. Lotus Sutra - 妙法蓮華經, Miàofǎ Liánhuá jīng, röviden: 法華經 Fǎhuá jīng
12. ...

Köszönetet mondunk minden barátunknak, mindazon szerzőknek, tanítóknak, buddhistáknak és harcművészeknek, akik hozzájárultak a harcművészet-történeti-, buddhista-, bölcseleti és egyéb tanításokkal, írásokkal, tanulmányokkal, jegyzetekkel minden érző lény tanításához és tanulásához. Buddhák és Mesterek tanításait megosztani érdem, mindezen érdemeket felajánljuk az összes Buddháknak. A Xing Long Tang elfogulatlan, pártatlan, szektarianizmustól mentes elv alapján törekszik a Dharmát, a Chan hagyományvonal tanítását, a harcművészeti stílusok történeteit megosztani. 武林一家! 阿弥陀佛!

各位朋友, 作者, 老师, 佛教徒和功夫爱好者, 请允许我向你们表示感谢, 感谢你们一直以来用功夫, 历史, 佛教, 哲学和各类教学, 文章, 研究和教义, 对教学和学习的支持。分享佛教和大师的教义非常有价值, 我们以此恭敬诸佛。《醒龙堂》 将依据不偏依, 不分宗派的原则努力分享佛法, 传承佛教思想和传统功夫。

magyar nyelvre fordította Yao Dong jushi 翻译: 耀东居士 @ Xing Long Tang | 2017 v1; első kiadás
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