The Gates of Chan Buddhism 《入禅之门》
by Venerable Jing Hui, Chan Master and a viceâpresident of the Buddhist Association of China, 2004
❀ ❀ ❀
净慧法师 Jinghui Fashi (1933-2013.04.20) Chan Master and a viceâpresident of the Buddhist Association Abbot of Bailin Chan Monastery (柏林禪寺)
Jing Hui (净慧法师) is one of the first monks in China to receive a master's degree in Buddhism. His scholarship led him to launch two influential Buddhist magazines, Fa Yin and Zen, in China. He was Vice President of the Buddhist Association of China (中国佛教协会) and President of the Buddhist Association of Hebei Province. Jing Hui was born in 1933 and raised in a monastery. When he was 14, he began learning about Buddhism at Sanfo Monastery in Wuchang, Hubei Province. He was greatly inspired by the religion and also showed a lot of talent for it. He became a Bhikkhu, a fully ordained male Buddhist monk, at 18 and was accepted as a disciple of Xu Yun (虛雲), a Chan master, at 19. From 1956 to 1963, he studied at the Buddhist Academy of China and received his master's degree in Buddhism. He was Abbot of Bailin (Cypress Forest) Chan Monastery, founded by the renowned Chan Master Zhao Zhou, 1402-1441 B.E. (858-897 A.D.), and the Yunju Monastery (14,278, 1,300 year old, stone tablettes: the entire Tripitaka) in Hebei Province, China. Grandmaster Jing Hui is Dharma successor to Grandmaster Xu Yun, the most famous Chan master of the 20th century, who died in 1959 at the age of 120 years.
The Gates of Chan Buddhism 《入禅之门》
2001年6月18日净慧长老因玉佛寺的大和尚、各位班首、执事以及两序大众的盛情邀请，随喜追思真禅大和尚逝世五周年的水陆法会，并在水陆法会期间，为大家作佛法方面的开示。 禅不是讲的，禅也很难讲，可是为了方便初学的理解，又不能不讲。因此净慧法师讲诉的《入禅之门》分了六个小题，从 "什么是禅" 开始，展开讲诉了达摩禅法、四祖禅法、六祖禅法、无门关、生活禅几个方面。 后来为了给参加第九届生活禅的夏令营营员提供参阅的教材，门下弟子根据净慧法师的录音整理了此稿，因此保持了口语特点。
The first lecture - What is Chan? 什么是禅
此次承蒙玉佛寺的大和尚、各位班首、执事以及两序大众的盛情邀请,要我来随喜追思真禅 大和尚逝世五周年的水陆法会,并在水陆法会期间,为大家作一点点佛法方面的交流,谈不上是 什么讲经,更谈不上开示。从清末民国一直到解放以后,上海都是中国佛教的中心所在,是中国佛教的一个重镇,许多大德长老都在这里弘法利生,青年法师也很多,居士大德和学者研究佛法、弘扬佛法的大有人在。上海是一个人才济济、龙象群集的地方,我来这里讲佛法,实在感到非常惶恐。好在今天有几位长老、几位老居士在此,如果讲得有什么不妥当的地方,希望各位指正。更希望各位大德、长老加持,使这次讲法活动能够达到彼此欢喜、彼此交流默契的效果。
To begin, I would like to express my deep gratitude to the Abbot and executive directors of the Yufo (Jade Buddha) temple, the Sangha and the laity, for inviting me to this grand occasion in commemoration of the late Abbot Zhen Chan (1916 - 1995), who passed away five years ago. I feel honored to be given this opportunity to have an exchange of views on the Dharma. What I address here though, I suppose, is far from being a discourse on sutra, neither is it a formal commentary. During the time of the later Qing Dynasty (1840-1911), the Republic (1911-1949), and the founding of New China in 1949 â and up until the present day, Shanghai was and still is a Buddhist center, a stronghold where Buddhism came and continues to come into full play. It is here in Shanghai that various venerable masters and elders proclaim the Dharma; many young masters are progressing daily; and what is more, such people as household followers and Buddhist scholars who study the Buddhaâs teachings and try to impart the Dharma to others, are by no means rare. I really feel quite uneasy about coming here to talk, because there are so many well-established masters and talented scholars in Shanghai. Fortunately, with the presence of several elders and, dedicated household followers here today at the temple, there are many who, I am sure, will be kind enough to correct me in case I say something inappropriate or not quite right. It is my hope, by dint of the efforts of various venerable masters and elders, to make this Dharma talk a promising and opportune occasion for joyful and agreeable mutual dialogue and exchange.
The ❀ Yufo Temple (玉佛禅寺) has carried out discourses on sutras for more than a year, and various masters have preached here. The title of the talk I have chosen to give on this occasion is "Lectures on Chan Cultivation". It is subdivided into six parts, and I plan to deliver them one by one in six days. Everybody knows that Chan is beyond description, something very difficult to talk about, yet for the sake of helping beginners to understand we must endeavor to speak the unspeakable. Today, I come first to discuss what Chan is, and then to explain how to take to the path of Chan cultivation. Once again, I wish to make it clear that what I am going to talk about is not a discourse but an exchange of views and an opportunity to receive your comments.
今天讲第一个题目: "禅是什么" ,或者说 "什么是禅" 。这是个老题目,有很多人讲过。怎么讲、能不能讲得好,还请大家指教。
Today, let us begin with the first sub-title "What is Chan?" or "What does Chan mean?" These are perennial and frequently debated questions. I am not sure how to talk about it or whether I can do it well. I look for your advice or comments.
我今天所讲的禅,不是六度禅波罗蜜的禅,当然也不是四禅八定的禅,而是禅宗所提倡的禅。 禅宗的禅与六波罗蜜的禅是同一个事物,又是分别的两个事物;它与四禅八定的禅可说是同一个事物,又有所不同。众所周知,禅宗有四句格言,叫做 "教外别传,不立文字,直指人心,见性 成佛," 既然是 "教外别传、不立文字" ,语言也是应当扫除的,那为什么还要讲呢?因为不借助语言文字,要想进入禅就很困难,不得其门而入。所以六祖大师在《坛经》里有一个解说,所 谓不立文字并非不用文字。六祖大师说: "直道不立文字,即此不立两字,亦是文字。" 所以不 立文字者就是不执著文字,但又不能离开文字,还是要用语言文字作标月之指, "因指见月,得月亡指" ,这就是语言的功能。
The term Chan I address here, is not that mentioned in the ❀ Six Paramitas (六度), nor that mentioned in the Catvaridhyanani. It is, rather, what the Chan School upholds. On the one hand, yes, this is the same thing as that referred to in the Six Paramitas (六度), whilst simultaneously remaining independent of them. Similarly, it is inseparable from, yet different to the one in the Catvari-dhyanani (四禅八定). We all know the maxim that Chan is a "special transmission, outside the scriptures, with no dependence on words and letters." It is "a direct pointing at the human mind; seeing into oneâs own nature and the attainment of Buddhahood." This is the term Chan I am going to talk about today. As Chan is a "special transmission, outside the scriptures, with no dependence on words and letters", language should also be discarded. Why am I here to talk then? The reason is that, without the help of language and words, it is very hard to take to the path of Chan cultivation; very hard to find a point of entry. This is why, in the ❀ "Tan Sutra 《坛经》" the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng (惠能, 638-713) explains that: the so-called "with no dependence on words and letters" does not mean not using words and letters. He said: "Some might argue that in the direct method (literally, the straight Path) letters are to be discarded. But would they realize and appreciate that the two words âare discardedâ are also letters?" In this case, "with no dependence on words and letters" means to be free from words and letters, but not to be separated from them. We have to use language and words as the finger that points to the moon. "We see the moon because of the finger, whereas we forget the finger because we have seen the moon." That is the function of language and words.
Now, let us come to what Chan is. I would like to talk a bit about the origin of Chan first, in a succinct way, of course. Had I extended this subject into a more comprehensive one, I would have used up all these six days, yet might still not have been clearly understood. In addition, that would be more like an academic approach, which is not suitable for this occasion.
On the origin of Chan, I want to explain it from its beginning in early Indian Buddhism through to its transmission in China. In India, as we all know, Chanâs beginning is recounted as follows: one day on Mount Gridhrakuta the Buddha, realizing that his end was at hand, addressed an assembly of thousands; holding up a flower he blinked his eyes. Nobody amongst the audience recognized the true significance of what was happening yet there was one exception. At that very moment the only one who understood the message was Mahakashyapa (摩诃迦叶), who smiled.
The Buddha then said:
"吾有正法眼藏,涅槃妙心,实相无相,微妙法门,不立文字,教外别传,付嘱摩诃迦叶。" "I have the Treasury of the True Dharma Eye, the serene Mind of Nirvana, the formless form of the Absolute Existence and the marvelous Path of Teachings. It does not rely on letters and it is transmitted outside the scriptures. I now hand it over to Mahakashyapa."
这就是禅宗所说的禅的起源。当然这个公案 的用意,只是就禅是 "教外别传、不立文字、直指人心、见性成佛" 这一件事提出,不能用我们 现在人历史的、考证的眼光来看。有这件事,还是没有这件事,究竟是历史还是传说,和禅都没 有什么关系。因为禅要说明的既不是历史,也不是传说,即使是历史也说明不了禅。所以佛在灵山会上拈花示众这个公案就是禅在印度的起源。摩诃迦叶尊者是西天禅的第一祖,一直传到菩提 达摩第二十八祖。
This is the origin of Chan that the Chan School upholds. The intention of this Gongan (公案, koan), of course, does not define the origin academically, but stresses the fact that Chan is a "special transmission, outside the scriptures, with no dependence on words and letters"; it is "a direct pointing at the human mind; seeing into oneâs own nature and the attainment of Buddhahood." Weâd better not review or analyze this event, the origin of this Gongan (公案), from it historical or textual background as people often do today. Whether there was or was not such an event, whether historical or legendary, I think none of these points relate to Chan itself. This is because what Chan expounds is neither history nor legend; even if it was an historical event that event itself cannot explain what Chan is. This Gongan (公案), "the Buddha raising a flower to the assembly on Mount Gridhrakuta" is, then, taken as the beginning of the Chan School in India. Arya Mahakashyapa was the First Patriarch of the Chan School in India, after that the Dharma was handed down one by one, all the way down to Arya ❀ Bodhidharma (菩提达磨), the 28th Patriarch.
菩提达摩到中国来传法,他既是西天的第二十八祖,也是中国的初祖,他的传法经历了许多的坎坷。达摩大师到中国来的时候正是中国佛教义理盛行的时期,义理的规模基本上具备了。在这样一种环境下,达摩大师要来中国传 "教外别传、不立文字" 的禅法就有相当的困难。达摩祖 师到了南京,跟梁武帝一席问答,相互之间不能默契。所以他只有辞别金陵,沿着往长安的路线 直抵河南嵩山。在那里,九年面壁,等一个人来。从九年面壁这样一个简单的事实,大家可以想 见当时弘扬禅宗法门的艰难。经过九年的时间,才有一位神光二祖到嵩山去依止达摩禅师,求安心法门。神光后来叫慧可,是由菩提达摩给他改的名。这个公案大家都很熟悉,我就不占用过多 的时间来讲了。
Bodhidharma (?â628 or 536), the 28th Patriarch in India and also the First Patriarch in China, came to China to proclaim the Dharma. He encountered and overcame all kinds of hardships. The time of his arrival in China coincided with the period of doctrinism (义理) that was then prospering throughout the country; dogma and intellect knowledge was also being stressed to a certain extent. In such circumstances, it was very difficult for him to disseminate the Chan tradition, that is, a "special transmission outside the scriptures, with no dependence on words or letters." Upon his arrival in Nanjing he had a conversation with Emperor Wu of Liang. Evidently, neither he nor the emperor was particularly impressed with the other. He thus left Nanjing, traveled along the road toward Changan (present day Xian), and finally reached Mount Song in Henan. There he spent nine years sitting facing a wall in the Shaolin temple, waiting for a man to come. From this simple fact we can imagine how difficult it was to proclaim the Chan tradition at that time. It took him a full nine years before the ❀ Second Patriarch Shen Guang (神光, 487-593) came to Mount Song to be his disciple, and to seek for the path that could pacify the Mind. We see that, at the time, it was not at all an easy task to teach the marvelous path of "a direct pointing at the human mind; seeing into oneâs own nature and the attainment of Buddhahood." Later on, Shen Guang was renamed Hui Ke (慧可) by Bodhidharma. I suppose, you all know this Gongan (公案) well, so there is no need to take the time covering the whole message.
The ❀ Path of Pacifying the Mind (安心法门) was transmitted from Bodhidarma to Hui Ke. This was the beginning of the Chan School in China. After two hundred years the Dharma was handed down to the ❀ Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng (惠能, 638-713). Before him, transmission took place between a master and his chief disciple, by what was called the "lantern transmission of six generations". Why by means of individual transmission? Since a qualified heir was extremely rare, the Dharma could not be handed down to many people. In fact, during the times when the Second, Third and the Fourth Patriarch preached the teachings, there were only a few followers.
四祖就是黄梅双峰山的道信大师。最近四祖道信禅师的道场正觉禅寺,在本焕老和尚的主持下,经过四年多的时间得到全面的复兴。那个地方非常好,是一个出人才的地方。从四祖开始才开了一个道场,建立了传法的基地,而且据文献上描述,四祖是 "大敞禅门,广接徒众" 。就是说禅宗到了四祖,才真正逐步地打开了局面。
❀ Master Dao Xin (道信, 580-651), on Mount Shuangfeng of Huangmei, was the Fourth Patriarch. Recently, the ❀ Zhengjue Temple (真覺寺), the Bodhimandala (道场) of Master Dao Xin, has been completely rebuilt. It took approximately four years, and was supervised by the well-known master Ben Huan. The temple is situated in an auspicious and pleasant location, where many talented masters were and still are nurtured. It was Master Dao Xin who first tried to set up a Bodhimandala - a base for the dissemination of the Dharma. According to historical documents, it is said that Master Dao Xin "opened the door wide for Chan training and received the faithful from far and near." That is to say, it was not until Master Dao Xin that the Chan School had really come into being. From then on, on the one hand, greater prospects opened up for Dharma dissemination whilst, on the other, another way of living and earning oneâs livelihood was being stressed; that is, masters would support themselves by their own physical labor. By means of self-sufficiency, masters could actually extricate themselves from a difficult position in terms of Dharma dissemination.
从四祖开始,不但是传法打开局面,在生活资源方面,他也另辟蹊径,自耕自食,自己来养 活自己,才真正走出传法的困境。由此可以看出,当时广大的信众资源都是在弘扬教义的法师们 掌握之下,传心地法门在当时还不能够被很多的人接受。没有信众资源,在生活上一定是很困难 的。在中国托钵乞食行不通,又没有信徒资源,怎么办呢?在山区里只能自耕自食。四祖的道场号称住有1500人,自己开田,自己种粮食,自谋生活。由此以后,四祖传五祖,五祖传六祖,才真正使禅宗在中国开了花。中国禅宗的起源大略如此:达摩祖师开其端,二祖三祖承其绪,四祖 五祖六祖正式开创一个规模。六祖以后,禅宗才得到了广泛的发展,这期间经过二百多年艰苦的传法阶段。中国禅宗的起源大略如此。
From the proceeding points we can see that, at the time, lay followers under the guidance of masters who taught the Dharma, were few in number, and not many of these could understand the Mind-to-Mind approach. Without the human resource of followers, masters would have found life very difficult. In China, it did not work for masters to live by means of holding an alms bowl and begging for their bread. How then did they make a living? They had to do manual labor and attain support for themselves in the mountainous areas. It was claimed that 1,500 people had once lived in the Bodhimandala of the Fourth Patriarch Dao Xin. They ploughed the fields and sowed seeds with their own hands, living a self-sufficient life.
From that time on, the Dharma was handed down successively from the Fourth to the Fifth and, thence, to the Sixth Patriarch, thus resulting in a true full blossoming of Chan in China. This was the beginning of the Chan School in China. It could, then, be dated right back to the initial stage of the First Patriarch Bodhidharma, the transition stage of the Second Patriarch Hui Ke and the ❀ Third Patriarch Seng Can (鑑智僧璨, ?-606), the developing stage of the Fourth Patriarch Dao Xin, the ❀ Fifth Patriarch Hong Ren (弘忍, 602-675), and the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng. Prior, then, to its widespread flourishing by the time of the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng, Dharma transmission had been subject to a long, harsh and vigorous process of development for more than two hundred years. This concludes a brief summary of the early stages of the Chan School in China.
那么禅到底是什么?作为禅宗的禅——直指人心、见性成佛的禅,它是离开语言文字的,不是用逻辑思维可以解决的问题,只能用 "以言遣言" 的方法提示一下。至于究竟什么是禅,或禅是什么,还得我们自己切身去体会。
Now, let us come to the point: "What is Chan?" We may firstly define the term Chan, I suppose, in light of the "Six Paramitas (六度)" or "Catvari-dhyanani". The term Chan that the Chan School upholds, however, is "a direct pointing at the human mind; seeing into oneâs own nature and the attainment of Buddhahood." It places no direct reliance on words and letters. It is not an issue that can be dealt with by logical thinking. It is, therefore, very difficult to talk about. I could only give you a rough idea by means of "using words to deal with words." As to the question, "What is Chan?" or "What does Chan mean?", each of us must attain his or her own personal experience.
什么是禅?首先,禅是一种境界。禅宗有一句话,叫做 "如人饮水,冷暖自知。" 这是一种 什么样的境界呢?是觉者的生活境界。觉者就是佛,佛时时都在禅当中,佛的一举一动、一言一行无不是禅,所以说 "行亦禅,坐亦禅,语默动静体安然。" 这是觉者的生活,这是佛的生活。 "那伽常在定,无有不定时" ,这就是禅的境界。我们可以从外表看到佛的那种安祥、自然、喜悦。这也是悟者的生活境界。开了悟的人,还没有完全成佛,他也有这个境界,这是第二个层次。 第三个层次就是行者的境界,修行者、修禅的人有时也有这个境界,但是他的这种境界不能完全打成一片,是有间断性的,而且他的这种境界在层次上与佛的境界有差别。
What is Chan? Firstly, Chan is a state. There is a saying in the Chan School that: "When drinking water, the drinker knows how hot or how cold the water is." What kind of a state is this? It is the state in which an enlightened person lives. The enlightened one is the Buddha, who was always in the state of Chan, whose every single act or every single word was nothing other than Chan. Hence the saying "hold on to the state of Chan in walking or sitting, enjoying the wholeness at depth of oneâs being no matter whether giving a speech or keeping silent, no matter whether moving or remaining still." This is the life the enlightened person lives. This was the life the Buddha lived. That "the monk is in the state of meditation at all the times, without losing it for a single moment" is the state of Chan. We could only see the Buddhaâs serenity, naturalness and great joy on the surface, but these qualities reflected the true depth of that pure enlightened state in which he lived. People who are enlightened yet do not attain Buddhahood might also reach such a state, but only on a secondary horizon or level. There is also a state, on the third horizon, which practitioners might reach. Those engaged in Buddhist practice or Chan cultivation might attain that state, which is, however, fragmented and disconnected, or reveals itself segment by segment, not as a continuous whole. In terms of gradation, such a state differs greatly from that of the Buddha.
就是说,虽然你的知见与佛是平等的, "心、佛、众生三无差别" ,但那指的还仅仅是因地 中的一种平等,不能完全做到与果位上的佛等同。但是说心、说佛、说众生、说平等,仍是一种 理论、一种思维分别,却要这一切的一切都抛开。只有把一切的理论架构抛开了,把一切的思维 分别抛开了,你才能体验禅的境界。换句话说,只要你把二元对立的东西彻底放下,当下就是禅 的境界。并不是说还要等到什么时候才是那个境界,一切都是当下的。我们每个人不妨试一试,在片刻之间,一秒钟、两秒钟、三秒钟,你可以体会一下这种境界。从效果来说,禅是一种境界,我们每个人真正要去把握的就是这个东西。
We say that one comes to a realization that "the mind, the Buddha, and a living being are actually one" only if and when he has attained to the same level of enlightenment as that achieved by the Buddha. This implies that he has much experience only in the preparatory stage towards Buddhahood. This is by no means equivalent to a Buddha from the point of Buddha-fruit (degree of enlightenment or realization). The Chan School breaks down all theoretical frameworks and modes of dichotomous thinking; it is only after such a radical cognitive transformation that can one penetrate the state of Chan. In other words, so long as one completely tears down all forms of separation, the state of Chan can be revealed as right here at this very moment. It does not mean that one has to wait for a certain period of time, and then the state of Chan is revealed. It is always here at the present moment. Each of us is invited to try for oneself. I suppose, one could experience such a state of Chan in a moment lasting one second, two seconds, or three seconds. From the perspective of attainment, Chan is a state that each of us truly needs to seek.
第二,禅是一种受用、一种体验。禅的境界是看不见摸不着的,只有自己去体验、自己去受 用;而且这种受用是自受用,与他人不能共。禅的受用和体验唯行者有,唯证者得。你若是个修 禅的人,就会有这样的体验和受用;你若证得了禅的境界,你就会得到这种受用。用一个比喻来 说,在六月三伏天,我们走在大太阳底下,那个时候我们最想什么呢?就现代人而言,是想到一个有空调的屋子里面去。当我们进到这个有空调的屋子里以后怎么样呢?好清凉、好自在、好舒服。那种感受只有你自己知道,那种感觉你说得出来吗?用语言描述不出来。别人只看到你在那 里很安祥很自在,你的那种受用他是体验不到的,你那种体验是不共的。当然这是由空间的转移 得到的受用。
Secondly, Chan is experience, something received and applied in person. Just now, we said that as invisible and untouchable as Chan is, one can still penetrate and experience it by oneâs own efforts. The process of attainment is entirely personal such that it cannot be shared by others. Therefore, the practitioner or seeker is the only one who is able to experience Chan, and the spontaneity of Chan. One would have such experience and spontaneity if he were disciplined in the Chan tradition. In addition, attaining the state of Chan, one would be able to respond dynamically to the Dharma. For instance, in the dog days of June (according to the Chinese lunar calendar) we walk under the scorching sun. What do we want most at that time? For contemporary people, we naturally want to be inside an air-conditioned room. How would we feel after entering such a room? We would think, how cool and fresh it feels; how easy it is; how pleasant it is. You yourself are the only one that has such a feeling. But can you adequately express it? No. You could not successfully put it into words. Another person may only see that you are there in the room, serene and quiet, but he could never have the feeling you have experienced by yourself. This is because it is the actual experience - personally attained by each individual - that is of importance. This, of course, is just a kind of feeling you have due to your change of location or environment.
我刚才说,禅是直接的、当下的。它不需要空间的转移,也不需要时间的转移,即此事,成 此事。这就像古代一位诗人描写一位禅师在炎天暑热的时候感受到的禅的受用。这位诗人在他的 诗是怎么写的呢?大家可能都知道: "人人避暑走如狂" ,在暑热炎天,都想避暑,东奔西走好像发了狂一样。 "独有禅师不出房" ,只有参禅的人、学禅的人、修禅的人,他没有这种奔走如 狂的现象。 "不是禅师无热恼" ,并不是禅师就感受不到这种热恼。 "只缘心静自然凉" ,心静 了自然就凉了。心静是个什么状态呢?就是我刚才说的,凉和热这种二元对立的状态不存在了,没有什么热或者不热。一有二元对立,他的感受马上不同了。二元对立是什么呢?就是我们的分别。
As I said, Chan is straightforward, and is right here, right now at the present moment. It does not rely on the spatial shift, or temporal shift; it is right here as it is. This mode of being was given expression by an ancient poet; he wrote about how a Chan master felt on a burning hot summerâs day. How did the poet express this? Perhaps you may already know the poem:
"To keep away from the scorching weather, Everyone blindly hurries hither and thither. The Chan master alone remains inside. It means not that the master feels no heat. Only he burns less due to a peaceful Mind."
"To keep away from the scorching weather, everyone blindly hurries hither and thither" During the hot summer months people bustle about in a crazy way, trying to escape from the heat. "The Chan master alone remains inside." Those engaged in Chan penetration, Chan practice, or Chan cultivation not blindly run around here and there. "It means not that the master feels no heat." This does not suggest that the Chan master has no feeling or sensation of the obvious heat. " Only he burns less due to a peaceful Mind." He feels less hot only because of a peaceful mind. With a quiet Mind, he naturally feels cooler. What is the state of a quiet Mind? As I mentioned before, as long as one remains free from duality â from division or separation he does not care about how hot or how cold it is. But with division or separation he at once feels entirely different. What is this division, separation or duality we speak of here? It is our dichotomous Mind.
这里还有一个故事,讲的是明朝有一位紫柏尊者。紫柏又叫真可,明末四大高僧(紫柏、憨 山、莲池、蕅益)之一。紫柏尊者有一天看书,一直看到太阳下山,到了掌灯时分,虽然没有点 灯,但他依然在看,书上的字非常地清楚,一点都不模糊。这时憨山大师秉烛夜行来到他的房间,看到紫柏尊者在没有灯光的情况下仍然在那里看书,便说: "天色已晚,你怎么还在看书啊?看得见吗?" 紫柏尊者经他提醒,马上起了分别心来:哦,看不见了。当下他就眼前一抹黑,什么也看不见了。
There is story about a venerable master, Zi Bai (紫柏, 1543 - 1603), of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1661). Master Zi Bai, named Zhen Ke (真可), was one of the four great masters (Zi Bai (紫柏), Han Shan, Lian Chi (莲池), and Ou Yi (藕益) in the later Ming Dynasty. One day he was reading a book until sunset, the time at which a lamp needed to be lit. Without a lamp, however, he kept on reading as clearly and distinctly as he had before. At this time, Master Han Shan (憨山德清, 1546â1623), holding a lamp in hand, came to Zi Baiâs room. On seeing that Zi Bai was still reading without a light, Han Shan asked: "It is late in the evening, how can you still read? Can you see?" Brought by Han Shan to an immediate awareness of his predicament, a dichotomous mentality returned to Zi Bai in an instant. At once he could not see at all, as if his eyes had been covered up at that very moment.
像这种故事很多。唐朝时候的新罗国(就是现在韩国的一部分)的元晓大师到中国来求法。 走到中国的边远地方,傍晚时分,前不着村后不着店,在荒郊野外也找不到一个借宿的地方。几个人没办法就露地而宿,没有水,也没有吃的东西。晚上模模糊糊地到处找水喝,突然找到一个很小很小的坑,里边有一点水,他们就拼命地喝,喝了以后感觉甘甜舒服。到第二天早上一看,那水是从棺材里面流出来的尸水。当下起了分别心,呕吐不止。同一件事情,由于有分别和没有 分别,截然是两种效果。没有分别的那一刻,就是禅的境界、禅的受用,这种受用非常地明显。
Such stories are numerous. In the Tang Dynasty (618-907) Master Yuan Xiao (元晓大师) came to China from Xin Luo (新罗国) (a part of present day Korea) to seek the Dharma. At nightfall he, together with several others, traveled to a remote and lonely place. As there was neither a village nor an inn nearby where they could stay overnight, they had no other choice but to sleep in the open. They neither had water to drink nor any food to eat. During the night they tried blindly here and there to get water. By chance they found a bit of water in a tiny pit; wasting no time, they immediately began to drink and felt pleasantly contented and refreshed. Next morning however, they could see that the water was actually dripping down from a coffin. Stricken by separation â by dichotomous thinking, they were at once vomiting incessantly. In both cases the event was the same: finding water. Nevertheless, there were two entirely different outcomes resulting from the two contrasting mental perspectives â separated, dichotomous thinking, and non-separated, non-dichotomous thinking. The moment prior to, above or beyond separation is the state of Chan, the experience of Chan. It is very obvious.
It is the same with a monk registered in a temple. If he comes and is led to a room where he feels at ease he is able to sleep soundly throughout the night. The next day, someone informs him that it was in that very room that a person died of a terrible illness or that a person hung himself the day before. After hearing the shocking news he does not dare to stay in that room again for fear of ghosts. Where are the ghosts? They are in his mind, in the mind of separation. Each and every one of us might come across such a situation. Therefore, we say, clinging to separation is utterly harmful. It is the sole root from which all problems in the world issue forth. We have to get rid of this first, if we want to attain Buddhahood. That is why we say: Chan is experience. It is a process of acquisition and application; and that in order to reach a state of oneness one needs to be free from separation. All things in the world are equal in nature. They are equivalent to one another. Separation is only the form whereas equality is the nature. We have to seek for the true nature in the process of being, away from the form. Then the experience we gain through such a way will be down-to-earth.
第三,禅是一种方法、一种手段。这是从禅的方便来讲,不是从禅的究竟来讲。当然究竟不离方便,方便不离究竟,二而一,一而二。从本质上看,禅是见性的方法, "直指人心,见性成 佛" 。这种方法,它最究竟的目标就是直指见性,不走弯路。如何才是直指呢?就是要我们每个人彻底地相信自己是佛,要彻底地相信,不是半信半疑,而是一点怀疑都不要有。然后就在此观 念的指导下,把佛的一切要求一步到位,这就是 "直指人心,见性成佛" 。所谓 "见性成佛" ,用现在的话来讲就是一步到位——直指嘛。
Thirdly, Chan is an approach, a way of doing things. This reflects Chanâs state of readiness, of spontaneity, but not from the perspective of the ultimate truth of Chan. The ultimate truth is, of course, not separated from the readiness, whereas the readiness is not separated from the ultimate truth. They are two in one; one in two. Chan, in nature, is an approach that is "a direct pointing at the human mind; seeing into oneâs own nature and the attainment of Buddhahood." The ultimate goal the Chan School offers is direct enlightenment; therefore, a practitioner need not go via a roundabout and circuitous route. How can one point directly at oneâs Mind? He has to believe completely that he himself is a Buddha. It should be a thoroughgoing belief, not half-hearted nor with even the slightest of doubts. Guided by such a faith, one has then to put what the Buddha taught into practice. That is what the message means and entails. "Seeing into oneâs own nature and the attainment of Buddhahood", in this context, means to forcefully drive this message home, to work on it and to realize it in one step. That is what it means.
这种方法不是死的,而是活的。它是一种动态的方法,因人、因时、因地在起变化。释迦牟 尼佛拈花示众用的就是这个方法。迦叶没有说话,只是笑一下。禅传到中国后还用拈花示众的方 法吗?在禅宗的灯录、语录中,好像没看到有人再用这种方法。没有哪一位祖师拈起花来,你一笑——你轰堂大笑也没用,你不是见性。所以这种方法是不能抄袭的,抄袭无用。这种方法是活的,是动态的。祖师他这么一做,一比划,你怎样能够知道他开了悟呢?这一定是要有那样的老 师,再有那样的弟子才可以。老师有见地,弟子有见地,彼此默契,心心相印,才能够达到这个 效果。所以说,禅的方法是活的。禅宗讲 "不以死法与人" ,就是它没有一个固定的模式。古代 祖师在接引学人的时候用过很多的方法,总结起来就有一千七百则公案。一千七百则公案是什么 呢?初步总结一下,就是一千七百种方法。我想那也只是见于语录记载的,还有那些不见语录记 载的,恐怕一万七千种方法也不止。禅的方法和手段是因时、因地、因人而灵活运用,不断发展 的。一直到今天还在发展。今天有 "安祥禅" 、 "现代禅" ,都是方法在改变。我在河北提倡 "生活禅" ,也是方法在改变。要因人、因地、因时而契理契机地运用禅来接引大众。
This approach is not static but dynamic, varying from person to person, and in relation to time and place. This was the approach Shakyamuni (释迦牟尼) adopted when raising the flower to the assembly, in response to which Mahakahshyapa, remaining profoundly silent, simply smiled. After the Dharma was transmitted to China, who else came to use this same approach, the approach of âShakyamuniâs flowerâ? In the Lantern Transmission Recordings or Quotations of Chan School, it appears that nobody used the same approach again. Since this particular and specific instance of the approach could not be blindly copied, that to do so would have been useless, none of the succeeding masters had tried it again. It would also have been useless, I suppose, if one smiled or was all smiles, because that would not indicate that he had seen into his own nature. Such an approach is a living and dynamic approach. How can one come to know whether or not a masterâs single act or single move issues from an enlightened Mind? The answer is simply that for each great master a suitable disciple will come. Suppose a master and a disciple both possess paranormal vision, both agree with each other tacitly, and both have a deep and profound understanding of one another, then direct Mind-to-Mind transmission would be effective. Therefore, the way of Chan training is a living and dynamic approach. The Chan School maintains the principle that: "Do not offer people dead approaches." This indicates that there does not exist a single fixed mode or format for the Chan approach. The ancient masters used a great variety of ways to receive and guide practitioners. According to a rough estimate, there are, in total, about one thousand seven hundred different Gongan (公案). What are those Gongan? In general, they can be seen to represent one thousand seven hundred different and uniquely adapted ways. In fact, the number of ways is actually beyond that number, as we only take into account those documented in writing. There are, in addition, still many unwritten ones. The approaches or methods used in Chan training are applied effectively relative to the period of time, the place, and the people; indeed, they have progressed and continue to progress right up to the present day. Following this transformation of approaches, the most recent approaches to have arisen are called "An Xiang (安祥禅, serenity in meaning) Chan", and "Xian Dai (modern times) Chan". Similarly, in Hebei Province, we promote the "Sheng Huo Chan (Chan in Daily Life)". Nowadays, masters have to guide sentient beings using varied ways, according to the people, time, and place. Such ways should be in line with the Buddhaâs teachings and reflect the particular social environment.
第四,禅是一条道路。禅既然是个方法,有了这个方法,就有路可循。是一条什么路呢?是 一条探索开发智慧之路。我们每个人都具足如来智慧德相,只因妄想执著而不能证得。我们应该 用什么方法来开发它?禅告诉我们,有一个方法,这个方法拈来便是: "当机立断,直下承当。" 这个方法很简便,但是也很难,这就叫壁立万仞、无门可入。但是你在这壁立万仞的情况下得有 一点勇气,一步迈上去。
禅又是挣脱桎梏之路。我们生活在相对的世界当中,一切相对的东西都像枷锁一样把我们捆 得紧紧的,使我们不得解脱、不得自在。比如说,晚上我们要休息、要入睡,如果此时妄想纷飞,却躺在床上辗转反侧、不得入眠,越睡越清醒,是什么东西使我们不得入睡呢?是妄想在作怪, 是分别在作怪。如果你没有妄想,上床就能睡着。这样的人也很多。但更多人晚上爱东想西想, 难以入睡,他非常羡慕那种头一挨到枕头就睡着了的人,他非常羡慕。但羡慕也没有用,因为羡 慕本身又是一种执著。你要睡就睡,睡觉时就睡觉,要心无二用,要从一切分别的枷锁之下挣脱出来。
禅又是追求解脱之路。桎梏就是脚镣手铐,去掉桎梏,当下就是解脱,禅就是起这个作用。总而言之,禅是圆满生命之路。我们的生命有很多缺陷,这些缺陷都是自己制造的,并不是我们 本有的。我们本来应该有圆满觉悟的人生,圆满觉悟的生命。我们之所以有很多缺陷就是因为不 能够觉悟,不能够回归生命的当下,总是心外求法,向外驰求,所以不得圆满、不得自在、不得 解脱。千万不要在桎梏之外去求解脱,不要在生死之外去求涅槃,不要在烦恼之外去求菩提。解 脱是一种无限的自在,是一种彻底的自由。这种彻底的自由自在在什么地方?无限就在有限中实 现,涅槃就在生死中寻求。生死与涅槃是不二的,无限与有限是不二的,烦恼与菩提也是不二的。 其中隔了些什么呢?隔了一些无明,即分别心。你当下超越了它, "不二" 就能实现。所谓生死 即涅槃,烦恼即菩提,有限即无限,就是这个道理。禅的这个道路,就是告诉我们这样一个事实。
Fourthly, Chan is a Path. As Chan is an approach, there should exist a path towards its application. What is that path then? It is the path of seeking for profound wisdom. Within each and every one of us there is primordial wisdom and morality, but because of delusion and attachment we do not realize it. What kind of an approach then should we use in order to make progress? The Chan School teaches us that there is an approach right at our very fingertips, right in the palm of our hands and that we can: "make up our minds at this very moment and penetrate directly." It is very simple, but by no means easy. It is called, "confronted by a high wall yet with no gate to enter." In such circumstances one needs to have a bit of courage and to step forward resolutely.
Chan is also a way to break apart the shackles of convention. We are living in a relative world; the relative externals, like fetters and handcuffs, tie us firmly up and prevent us from acting or speaking freely. For instance, one wishes to rest and sleep soundly at night, yet carried away by various anxieties he cannot fall asleep but, instead, lies in bed tossing and turning. The harder he tries to sleep the more awake he becomes. What prevents him from falling asleep? The culprit is none other than the delusive and separated Mind. There are also those people who are free from anxieties and can drop off to sleep the moment their head hits the pillow. However, a great many others get so used to thinking about this, that, or the other at night, that they make it very difficult for themselves to fall asleep. They very much envy those who can drop off the moment they lie down in bed. It is, however, quite useless to feel envious. Why? - because that envy alone is yet another attachment. One just directly goes to bed if one wants to sleep, and sleeps single-mindedly, free from the shackles of separation.
Chan is also a path one seeks for emancipation. The shackles of convention are fetters and handcuffs. If one breaks them apart, he becomes emancipated right at that very moment. This is what Chan offers. In terms of the ultimate end, Chan is a path that leads to a perfect life. Now, we are living a life full of self-made and self-inflicted faults and defects, yet this does not reflect our primordial state or nature. We are actually perfect, enlightened beings in nature, living a perfect and enlightened life. The reason why we are so full of faults and defects is that we can barely gain the slightest awareness of our own self-nature, can barely fathom the deepest recesses of our being; instead we are constantly driven outwards to seek the Dharma, or driven outwards by our enormous and utterly insatiable desires. That is why we cannot be perfect, free, and emancipated. Regarding emancipation, shackles, and conditioning, we really should not look outwards for emancipation from these shackles, from this conditioning. That is, we should really not seek for Nirvana (涅槃) as existing as other than or as apart from life-death (生死) (The term "life-death" used here means Samsara - 轮回 - in Sanskrit, which is in contrast to Nirvana.) itself. We should not seek for Bodhi (enlightenment) as apart or distinct from klesa (all the mental functions and morally defiling worldly passions and afflictions that prevent a person from becoming enlightened). Emancipation is a boundless freedom, a thoroughgoing freedom. Where does such a kind of freedom exist? This is to say that: the infinite can be realized within the finite; Nirvana does exist within life-death. In other words, life-death and Nirvana are not separated and, in like manner, neither are finite or infinite, nor Bodhi and klesa (烦恼). They are united. What though, we may ask, is it that does seem to be between them? It is the ignorance, that is, our dichotomous Mind. The moment one goes beyond all separation, he at once realizes that there is no separation at all, that life-death is Nirvana, Bodhi is klesa, and limit is infinite. As long as one breaks up ignorance, realization comes in an instant. He could then know directly what "no-separation" is. This is the down-to-earth fact that the Chan approach seeks to communicate
第五,禅是一种生活的艺术,生活的方式。我们一般人的生活,基本上不具备禅的超然性、超脱性,不具备禅者的喜悦安祥,都是在痛苦中挣扎,谈不上什么生活的艺术,无非柴米油盐妻 儿老小。我们出家人也有种种的烦恼。出家人的烦恼,高尚一点的叫求学,叫参访善知识。古人 讲 "不愁无庙,只愁无道" ,都希望在修行上达到一定的层次、在道业上有所成就。有了道就一定有庙。这是讲出家人的烦恼。在家人的烦恼,如果是学佛的人,今天听到说参禅好,就来参禅, 明天听到念佛好,又去念佛,想阿弥陀佛马上就把他接到西方极乐世界去,不在这个娑婆世界停 留,娑婆世界太苦太苦。这是学佛人的烦恼。不学佛的人烦恼就更多,痛苦就更多,可以说是一 言难尽。生活当中哪有什么艺术啊!即使是艺术家,他的生活也并不就等于是艺术;也不等于是 演戏,演戏是比较轻松的。
但是禅者的生活,那真是一种艺术。百丈禅师写过一首诗,讲出家人的生活。他说: "幸为 福田衣下僧,乾坤赢得一闲人。有缘即住无缘去,一任清风送白云。" 在乾坤天地之间,是一个 清闲自在的人,可见这种生活的艺术性很高。阵阵清风,缕缕白云,就像我们僧人的生活一样, 就像我们僧人的形象一样,多潇洒多自在!可以说是真正达到了潇洒走一回。我们一般人说潇洒, 实际上是硬着头皮说的。哪里有真正的潇洒?真正的潇洒是禅者的生活,是一种艺术化的生活, 所以说禅是一种生活的艺术。
在这里我想提一提赵州和尚,赵州祖师。他一生活到120岁。翻开他的语录一看,就可以发现,他的一生真是艺术化的生活。他是一个极好的艺术形象,超脱、自由、自在。人家来向他请法, 问怎么样修行,他说: "你请坐一会,我还有点事要去做。" 去做什么呢?他到洗手间去。从洗 手间回来了,他再对那位参访者说: "你要知道修行这件事,别人是无法代替的,连我要上洗手间这一点小事别人都代替不了。修行这么大的事情,光说是不行的,一定要自己踏实去做。" 他 用这样的方法来说法。我们现在没有修行的人像这样说法,真这么说人家会说你神经病。但是他 这样说,人家相信,因为他有德望,有摄受力。多潇洒,多自在!
有一次,参学的人问赵州和尚: "如何是祖师西来意?" 他把手一指: "庭前柏树子。" 你 说东他答西, 你说南他答北,好像是风马牛不相及,实际上他是明明白白向你指示了西来意是什么:一切现现 成成。还有一个 "吃茶去" 的公案。学人来参拜他,他就问: "你是第一次来还是第二次来?" 学人说: "我第一次来。" 赵州说: "吃茶去。" 又有一位学人来参见赵州,他又问: "你是第 一次来还是第二次来?" 学人说: "我是第二次来。" 赵州说: "吃茶去。" 当时院主站在旁边 不理解,向赵州发问: "第一次来的叫他吃茶去,宾主相见,有个礼貌,可以吃茶去。第二次来 嘛,就不是客人了,为什么还是吃茶去呢?" 赵州和尚叫一声当家师的名字,当家师就答应了他。赵州说: "你也吃茶去。" 这是多么高的艺术啊!他就在这样的一种潇洒自在当中,向我们指示 佛法大意。不是像我这样坐在这个地方,耽误大家这么多时间,还要讲六天,滔滔不绝地这么讲。 实际究竟能够起多少作用?我自己都怀疑。因为我连做赵州和尚的学生都不够资格,所以我讲的东西究竟有什么用,我也不知道。
禅是我们生活的艺术,禅师、禅者的生活就是艺术化的生活。禅又是一种生活方式,这种生活方式是什么呢?一切现成。我们每个人都是饥来吃饭困来眠。这样,我们不是都在修行吗?不 对。我们在吃饭的时候有种种的分别:这个好吃这个不好吃,这个是酸的这个是辣的,这个是甜 的这个是苦的。我们睡觉的时候也是在百般思索,辗转反侧睡不着,睡不着又硬要睡。那不是在 睡觉,那是在挣扎;那不是在吃饭,是在吃分别。这个菜辣的,这是腐竹,这还可以吃,一直在 分别。禅者的生活方式跟他对待一切问题一样,超越了二元对立,是在无分别中生活。一般来说,禅者的这种生活方式,我们没有达到那种地步,千万不要去模仿。你去模仿就糟糕了,因为你没 有那种境界,没有那种受用。你的模仿仅仅是东施效颦而已。总之,禅是一种生活的艺术,生活 的方式,是智者觉者的生活体现,是悟者行者的生活内涵。
Fifthly, Chan is the art of life, a way of living oneâs life. In general, we ordinary people are usually unable to live our lives in such a natural and free style, nor are we able to experience a state of bliss and inner peace the same as that experienced by an enlightened Chan practitioner. Caught up painfully in the day-to-day life, worrying about wood, rice, oil and salt, and the practicalities of caring for wife, children, the old and young, it is hardly surprising that our life can not be a kind of art. Monks or masters also have various klesa, which are, from the point of a noble aspiration, called "seeking for truth" or "visiting learned masters for advice." It was said by ancient masters that: "One need not worry about a temple but about a Path." This indicates that monks or masters hope to reach a certain degree of accomplishment in their practice, and in trying to achieve success along the Path of Buddhahood. As long as they have gravitated to the Buddhaâs Path there should be no need to worry about a temple. Progress or otherwise along the Path, this is what monks or masters worry about. Regarding lay Buddhists, let us suppose that those engaged, today, in the study of scriptural teachings want to change immediately and instead engage in sitting meditation the moment they happen to come across this wonderful Chan practice. The very next day, however, when they hear from another source that the simple method of recitation of Amitabhaâs (阿弥陀佛) name works well, they then immediately want to change again in the hope of being whisked off right away by Amitabha to the blissful Western Pure Land â liberated from this mortal world, a world full of sufferings. This is what lay Buddhists are anxious about. Those not engaged in Buddhist practice feel even more anxious, suffering even more. Indeed, their state can hardly be explained in a few words. With life going on like this, how can it be an art? Even if one were an artist, it would not necessarily imply that his life was an art or a graceful performance. Acting out a performance is actually more relaxed and more relaxing.
The life of the Chan practitioner is really an art. We all know ❀ Master Bai Zhang (百丈懷海, 720-814). He once wrote a poem describing how a monk lives his life. The poem goes as follows:
"It is a good fortune to be a monk in kasaya (robe). The whole universe gains an utterly free being. Staying when the condition is right whilst going away when it is not. He is as free as white clouds being blown on the breeze."
In the universe there then exists a free and unoccupied person. Such a life reveals a very high artistry. Puffs of cool breeze, wisps of white cloud, they are just like the way monks or masters live, the image and example they express. How natural it is; how free it is. In this way, we say, monks or masters really live an unconfined life. Sometimes we say that ordinary people live a free life. It is, however, unconvincing. How could we really live a free life? It is only the Chan practitioner who can live an ultimately free and unconfined life, a life full of artistry. That is why we say Chan is an art of living.
Now, I want to say a few words about ❀ Master Zhao Zhou (趙州從諗, 778-897), our specially honored National Master. He lived to the great age of 120 years. In reading his quotations, we can easily get the impression that he did in fact live his life in an artistic way; he was really an excellent artistic image, free, unconfined, and without attachment. Once, someone came for the Dharma, asking him how to practice. He said, "please sit for a while, I will be back in a minute." What did he do? He went to the toilet. Coming back to the room, he said to the visitor, "practicing the Path, you see, is something that can not be done for you by others. Even going to the bathroom, a petty thing as it is, could not be done by another on your behalf. In regard to such a great task as self-training, it is useless just to talk. One has to put it in action by himself." This was the way Master Zhao Zhou used to preach the Dharma. If a person who was not as enlightened as Master Zhao Zhou was to proclaim the Dharma in such a manner, people would think him crazy. People, however, believe what Master Zhao Zhou said because of his reputation and ability to teach. How free and unconfined he was!
Once, a practitioner asked Master Zhao Zhou: "What is the meaning of Bodhidharmaâs coming to China?" Pointing outside, Zhao Zhou answered: "The cypress tree in front of the yard." The practitioner asked one question but appeared to receive a totally unrelated answer. In fact, Zhao Zhou clearly showed what the meaning of Bodhidharmaâs coming to China was: all is right here as it is. There was another Gongan called "Go to have tea". Once, when a practitioner came for a visit, Master Zhao Zhou asked him: "Is this your first or your second time here?" He replied: "I have come here for the first time." Zhao Zhou said: "Go to have tea, please." Later on, when another practitioner came, Zhao Zhou again asked the same question: " Is this your first or your second time here?" The answer was: "It is my second time." Again, Zhao Zhou also said: "Go to have tea, please." The supervisor that stood by could not understand, saying: "It is all right to invite the one that came for the first time to have tea. To invite such a guest to do so on the occasion of a first visit is the polite and natural way to behave. However, the one that came again for a second time is not a guest; why did you also invite him to have tea?" Instead of explanation Zhao Zhou cried out the supervisorâs name, saying: "You too go to have tea, please!" What a nice artistic way that is! What a paranormal artistry it is! Master Zhao Zhou demonstrated and revealed the Dharma in such a free and unconfined way, differing greatly from what I am doing here. I am afraid I just keep on talking and talking so long, for six days; what will be the result? I myself feel doubtful. I am even unqualified to be a pupil of Master Zhao Zhou: what is the use of my talking? I really do not know.
Chan is an art of life, an art for life. Chan masters and practitioners live an artistic style of life. Chan is also a way of living. What is this way then? Since all is right here as it is, we just eat when we feel hungry and go to bed when we feel sleepy. In this case, we are all practicing the Path, arenât we? No. When we eat we have various separations. This is nice to eat while that is not. This is sour while that is hot. This is sweet while that is bitter. When we sleep we keep worrying about this or that in every possible way, tossing and turning about in bed unable to fall asleep. In such a way, and in desperation, we try to force ourselves to sleep, but this then becomes a struggle and not really sleep. Likewise what we eat are separations but not food. With a separated Mind, we would think, as this hot dish is made of bean curd, I will eat it. Therefore, and in contrast, Chan practitioners â however they may be occupied - live their life in the same way, that is, always naturally and beyond separation. In other words, they live a life free from separation. In general, when we have not actually reached this state, weâd better not just simply imitate the life style of Chan practitioners. If we did, it would be even worse. Since we have not yet reached that state we could not have that kind of experience. Such blind imitation can only result in ludicrous effects; we ourselves would get nothing out of it. That is why we say that Chan is an artistic style of life, a way of living. It is the manifestation and expression of how the talented and enlightened live their lives. It is this essential aspect that seekers and practitioners live to pursue and pursue to live.
第六,禅是永恒的幸福、真正的快乐。禅最终的目标,就是要达到永恒的幸福,得到真正的 快乐。禅是清凉自在的享受,是超越一切对立的圆满,是脱离生死的大自在,是不住生死不住涅 槃的究竟自由,禅能够把生命固有的一切活力释放出来。我们本身具有佛陀的十力、四无所畏等 种种功德智慧,三身圆满具足,为什么显现不出来?因为被无明妄想的尘埃盖覆了。我们只要通 过禅修的方法、通过直指人心见性成佛这样一种超然体验,就能够把我们生命固有的一些能量活 力释放出来,最后就能真正一切无碍,究竟解脱十方世界。有缘即住,无缘即去,庄严国土,利乐有情。
禅最终的目标与一切言教的佛法是一致的,只是进路不同。一切言教的佛法,不是直指,而 是间接地、则一步一步地来做;禅要一步到位,顿超直入。禅与一切言教佛法的区别就在于此。 禅要得到这种永恒的幸福、真正的快乐,如果是上根利智的人,一瞬间可以做到。根机陋劣的人,不可随便地来效仿。因为根机利的人也是一种积累,根机钝的人积累还不够。就等于做生意一样,谈一个大生意几十亿,有资本的人他一下子就答应下来,买下来做成了,他有积累。从表面看来 这是顿,一步到位,但是他的艰苦努力在前,这是过去生中往昔积累的结果。积累不够的人,资本不够的人,一千块钱的生意要做成都不容易,只能慢慢来,修行也是如此。所以我们要培植善根,广结善缘,广种福田,使我们的福德因缘不断积累,不断扩充,不断地来培植我们的善因善缘。
第一个题目 "禅是什么" 就讲到这里。最后我想用苏东坡的一首见道诗结束今天的讲座: "庐山烟雨浙江潮,未到千般恨不消。及至归来无一事,庐山烟雨浙江潮。"
Sixthly, Chan is an eternal happiness, a true blissfulness. The ultimate end of Chan is to reach the state of eternal happiness and attain the state of true bliss. It could be said that Chan is a serene and relaxed enjoyment, the perfection out of all separations, a great freedom beyond life and death, and the ultimate freedom that abides neither in life-death nor in Nirvana. As such, Chan can enable us to release all our intrinsic potentials. We all have perfectly within our nature the Ten Forces (十力), Four Fearlessnesses (四无所畏), various merits and wisdom and, also, the Three Bodies (三身) as possessed by the Buddha himself. Yet, covered by worldly dust, how can they manifest themselves? Through Chan training, through the kind of paranormal vision of "a direct pointing at the human mind" and "seeing into oneâs own nature", we can â if only we make the effort - release some of our intrinsic potentials and then, finally breaking up the mass of hindrance, of klesa, truly liberate ourselves from the Ten Directions. We would then stay when the condition is right and go away when it is not; we would then purify the Buddha Land and benefit all sentient beings.
The ultimate goal of the Chan School is the same as that of all scriptural Schools. The only difference is that they do not take the same kind of path. The scriptural teachings are not direct, but indirect through a continuous process. The Chan approach is immediate, straightaway. It is a bursting into enlightenment in one step. This is how the Chan approach differs from others. For the quick-witted and quick-minded, the state of eternal happiness and true bliss can be reached in the blink of an eye. Those that are slow-witted had better not imitate blindly. It is through successive accumulation that one becomes more talented and able to react both readily and appropriately. Lacking in accumulation one would naturally become slow-witted. It is just like business dealings. For example, suppose a large deal is to be made, to the score, let us say, of several billion Yuan/RMB. As one has accumulated and therefore possesses enough assets, he could easily sign such a contract, buying and selling successfully. On the surface it seems to happen all of a sudden yet, in fact, previously he has struggled hard. He has had to prepare himself over a long period of time spanning countless lives. Without accumulation, one would not possess sufficient assets, it is thus not easy for him to manage small business â even a deal of a thousand Yuan/RMB. One has to accumulate bit by bit. In the same way, we run our self-training: we have thereby to cultivate our moral excellence bit by bit, welcome all sentient beings, and have a deep respect for them. What we pursue is to gradually accumulate and strengthen our practice of virtue and cultivate our spiritual discipline. That is all for todayâs first topic of "What is Chan?" Lastly, however, I would like to end with a poem by Su Dongpo (1009 - 1066):
"The misty rain on Mount Lu and the breathtaking waves in Zhejiang. How deep is my regret at not having visited these two sights. It is all the same as it is after my sightseeing. The misty rain on Mount Lu and the breathtaking waves in Zhejiang."
All is actually right here as it is. What I talk about is merely the process.
净慧法师 Jinghui Fashi
The Second Lecture - Bodhidharmaâs Gate 达摩禅法
如果说禅真正有门可入,那个门也仅仅是个方便,禅本来就是一个铜墙铁壁,无门可入。所以人家问赵州和尚狗子有没有佛性?他就答一个 "无" 。后来这个公案就形成了禅宗的话头。宋朝的时候,无门慧开禅师写了一本书叫做《无门关》。开头的第一句话就是 "佛语心为宗,无门为法门" ,无门就是入禅之门。 "佛语心为宗" 源于《楞伽经》中的品题 "一切佛语心品" 。 "无门为法门" ,说是禅机也可以,说是佛法的真正门径也可以。大家都知道,佛法讲究的是法 无定法,定法不是法。所以严格地讲,禅的实际理地肯定是无门可入,是一个铜墙铁壁。历代祖师为接引学人,不得不在无门可入的前提之下大开方便之门所谓百千法门,又有所谓一千七百则公案,那些都是禅的门。
Chan in fact is an "impregnable fortress", without a gate to enter. Suppose there is really a gate, that gate would simply be a method of training to be taken up in the Chan tradition. That is why when a monk asked Master Zhao Zhou (778 - 897): "Has a dog Buddha-nature or not?" Master Zhao Zhou retorted: "Wu." Later on, this Gongan (公案, koan) formed part of a specific approach in the Chan School. During the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279), Master Wumen Huikai (1183 - 1260) wrote a book entitled "Wumenguan" (the Gateless Barrier) based on this specific word (话头) "Wu". The very first sentence in the "Wumenguan" states that: "Mind is the essence of the Buddhaâs teachings, while the gateless gate is the gate." This is the gate we must use to enter. "Mind is the essence of the Buddhaâs teachings", is also one of the chapter titles in the Lankavatara Sutra (楞伽经), which reads, "All Buddhaâs words are related to the Mind." That "the gateless gate is the gate" might possibly be taken as a state that reveals itself in line with the truth, or as a real gateway to the Dharma. We all know that there is no fixed Dharma in the Buddhist teachings, or that the fixed Dharma is not truly the Dharma. Strictly speaking, therefore, at the level of higher intuition, there exists no gate to enter. Chan is as it is: a wall of iron. Under such a gateless condition, it was necessary for ancient masters to open various gateways for practitioners. In this case, as gateless as it is, numerous gateways to the Dharma were opened up. Later on, the "one thousand and seven hundred Gongan" were formed. They are also gateways of the Chan tradition.
今天讲 "入禅之门" ,先介绍一下菩提达摩大师是怎样教导我们进入禅这个门槛的。菩提达 摩大师是中国禅宗的奠定者,而奠基不仅仅是建立了一个宗派,且必然具有他自己的思想宗旨和修行法门作为这一宗派和另一宗派的区别。菩提达摩大师有一篇法语,专门阐述入禅之门的方法,就是《略辨大乘入道四行》,又叫《略辨大乘四行观》、《入道四行观》。其教导的修禅方法就是 "二入四行" 。 "二入" 就是理入和行入, "四行" 就是报冤行、随缘行、无所求行、称法行。此为菩提达摩大师禅法的基本内容。
Today, we come to discuss the "Gates of Chan Buddhism". To begin with, I would like to say a few words about how Bodhidharma (? - 628 or 536) taught us to cross the threshold of Chan. In China, Bodhidharma was the seminal figure of early Chan Buddhism. What Bodhidharma laid down was not only the Chan School tradition, but also the essential aspects or connotations of his thought, including the practical way of training that distinguish the Chan School from that of other Buddhist schools. We all know of his article specifically expounding upon the way of entrance: the "General Discourse on the Twofold Entrance to the Tao and the Four Acts of Mahayana." It is also entitled the "General Discourse on the Four Acts of Mahayana" or simply "On the Twofold Entrance and the Four Acts." The way of Chan training Bodhidharma taught was the "twofold entrance and the four acts" (二入四行). The "twofold entrance" means the "Entrance by Reason" (理入) and "Entrance by Conduct" (行入). The "four acts" include:
a) To know how to requite hatred; b) To be obedient to karma; c) Not to crave anything; and d) To be in accord with the Dharma.
All these constitute the fundamental principles and practical way as taught by Bodhidharma.
这篇五百多字的论文前面有一篇昙琳法师的序言,序言中,昙琳法师给我们传递了一个很重要的信息,但是这个信息历来没有受到禅门以及学术界的重视。这篇序文除了介绍达摩祖师的简 要生平和其禅法中的成就以外,还提到就禅法达摩的四句口诀。修任何法门,这个口诀都是非常重要的。这四句口诀是他直接跟慧可、道育两位弟子说的: "如是安心,如是发行,如是顺物,如是方便。" 四个 "如是" 。
"The General Discourse" is not long, comprising of only about five hundred or more Chinese characters. The Discourse also contains a preface written by Master Tan Lin, in which he delivered a very important message. Unfortunately, the Chan School and academic circles have not paid enough attention to this message. In the preface, Master Tan Lin not only wrote a brief account of Bodhidharmaâs biography and his achievements, but also presented something very important, the Bodhidharmaâs gate. It consists of four fixed phrases, which are crucial for the practice of any Buddhist training. The four pithy phrases are the four fixed formulae â each beginning using the form: act "in such a way as toâŠ" The full text of these instructions that Bodhidharma gave directly to his two close disciples, Hui Ke (487 - 593) and Dao Yu, is as follows: Act "in such a way as to pacify the Mind; in such a way as to behave properly; in such a way as to be congenial to others; and in such a way as to be natural".
所谓 "如是安心者壁观" 。达摩祖师在嵩山九年面壁,他的安心法门就是面壁。第二句口诀叫 "如是发行" , "如是发行者四行" 。第三句口诀叫做 "如是顺物" , "如是顺物者防护讥 嫌" 。第四句口诀 "如是方便" , "如是方便者遣其不著" 。我感觉这四句话非常重要,它既是 达摩大师的真传,也是从达摩以后禅门所有禅法的源头。当时昙琳法师在写好这篇序言的时候,他就认为这是菩提达摩大师所传的真道,真正的道就这四句口诀。我们可以从这四句口诀简单地分析一下菩提达摩大师是怎样教我们进入禅门的。
What does "in such a way as to pacify the Mind" mean? I mentioned yesterday that the First Patriarch Bodhidharma had spent nine years sitting facing a wall on Mount Song. The Path of Pacifying the Mind that he taught was facing a wall. It is called "Facing a wall is the way to pacify the Mind"; this is the first formula. The second is, "in such a way as to behave properly". This means, how to conduct oneself in the right way, that is, "The four acts are ways to behave properly". The third is, "in such a way as to be congenial to others", that is, "not to cause doubt in the mind of others is the way to be congenial to them". The fourth is, "in such a way as to be natural", that is, "to advice practitioners to remain free from all attachments is the natural way". I think these four formulae, as directly taught by Bodhidharma, are very important. In addition, thereafter, they came to be the very source of all the varied methods of training in the Chan tradition. At the time when Master Tan Lin wrote the preface, he realized that what Bodhidharma had taught in terms of the four formulae was truly practical. Now let us roughly analyze the formulae so as to see how Bodhidharma taught us to begin our training.
首先说 "如是安心者壁观" 。唐朝,圭峰宗密禅师的《禅源诸诠集都序》总结达摩的禅法说: "以壁观教人安心" 。壁观包括四点: "外息诸缘,内心无喘,心如墙壁,可以入道" 我们要安 心,就要使心成为一道墙。这道墙不是土墙、不是泥巴墙,而是铜墙铁壁,连苍蝇蚊子都钻不进来,任何细菌都侵蚀不了,像这叫心如墙壁。要把这个心防护得像一道墙,任何的尘劳妄想、世间物欲都无法侵蚀进来。
Let us first come to "Facing a wall is the way to pacify the Mind". In the Tang dynasty (618 - 907), Master Guifeng Zongmi (780 - 841) wrote a well-known book entitled "Prelude to the Work on the Five Kinds of Chan Buddhism". In that book Master Guifeng, summing up what Bodhidharma taught, said: Bodhidharma "taught practitioners to pacify their Mind by facing a wall." What does "facing a wall" mean? It includes four aspects. Practitioners should be: "free from all attachments, and should breathe deeply and rhythmically, whilst making the Mind as peaceful as a wall, in such a way they can enter the Tao." This is Master Guifengâs explanation of what "facing a wall" means. That is, to pacify the Mind practitioners need to make it not like a wall of clay or mud, but like one of iron. Such a wall is called "the Mind as peaceful as a wall" â so strong and solid that even flies and mosquitoes can hardly enter, or so firm that even bacteria can hardly invade. This is actually a metaphor emphasizing that the Mind is as protective as a wall, preventing delusion, material desire, and the hurly-burly of life any means of entry.
我们现在也用这样的比喻—— "筑起一道心里的长城" 。这个——长城做什么用呢?社会上 的人用来防腐败;我们修行人防止烦恼无明妄想的产生,防止外面一切物欲对我们的侵蚀。要做 到心如墙壁必须 "外息诸缘" ,外在的一切的缘都要让它法住法位,互不干扰。外缘息是息不了 的,就让一切法住在它应该住的地方就可以了,互不妨碍,你不要去攀缘它就没有关系。因为一切东西都是 "天下本无事,庸人自扰之" 。烦恼都是自己找的,没有什么烦恼会跑到我们心里来,都是我们去攀缘所致。我们能够让一切东西安住它的本位,不去攀缘,就是 "止息诸缘" 。什么 缘呢? "苦乐忧喜,人我是非" ,如是等等而已。说起来容易,做起来太难太难太难!
We also have such a metaphor nowadays, that we must "build up a great wall in the Mind". What does the "great wall" do? As social beings, we need it to curb corruption. Regarding practitioners, to what use is such a wall to be put? It is used to help prevent them from succumbing to anxieties and delusions and from being affected by material desires. In order to make the Mind like a wall, we have to be "free from all attachments", letting all things be in their own place without interference. In fact, we cannot be free from all attachments, yet the best way is to let all things be as they are naturally, whilst we ourselves do not cling to them. "There is nothing unusual in the universe, only the ignorant are anxious about it." This is a right description of all things in the world. Nobody else makes us anxious except ourselves, because anxieties only arise simply because we cling to them. If we could let all things be exactly as they are, not clinging to them, this would be "free from all attachments". What are these things to which we cling? They are our "sorrow and joy, grief and happiness, others and oneself, right and wrong" and so forth. It is easy to say, "be free from all attachments", it is, however, very, very, very difficult to put these words into action! I have to use "very" three times here in order to stress the point.
洞山禅师有一句开示,说我们修行人,要防范心里的种种攀缘,必须要有进入到蛊毒之乡一 滴都不沾身的警觉心。蛊毒者就是吸血虫,过去江苏、广东等地方都有。血吸虫病很容易传染,你只要喝上一口水,只要脚挨到有血吸虫的地方,这个虫就进入到你的身体里。一辈子摆脱不了。 我们修行人必须把一切攀缘心看作是蛊毒。将要进入蛊毒之乡的时候,我们修道学佛的人,不可沾着一滴水。能够这样来对待一切人我是非、苦乐忧喜,保持高度的警惕性,修道就不愁不成功。
对内要 "内心无喘" 。从修行的用心方面来讲,我们心要越用越细。比如说修数息观, "息有四相,风喘气息" 。我们用心的时候,不能在 "风" 上用心,不能在 "喘" 上用心,不能在 "气" 上用心,要在 "息" 上用心。在 "息" 上用心,就能够如丝如缕、若有若无,气息就会越 来越细,还有第二层意思,就是让观照、觉照的力量不要有间断,不要有起伏,要真正做到绵绵 密密。时时刻刻能够观照当下,这也是 "内心无喘" 。
做到 "外息诸缘、内心无喘" ,就能够心如墙壁。心如墙壁就能够把一切内外的攀缘干扰一 眼识破。就能真正看到诸法的本质是什么,诸法的实相是什么。诸法的本质、诸法的实相就是 "缘生无自性、无自性故空" 。做到这三点,就可以进入禅门,就可以入道。这就是达摩讲的第一句口诀, "如是安心者壁观" 。
但是到了壁观是不是就究竟了呢?我看还不是。那叫入道,仅仅是个起点而已。记得过去周 恩来总理写过一首诗,里边提到菩提达摩大师的这个公案,叫做 "面壁九年图破壁" ,面壁九年 不是目的,要穿透这个墙壁才是目的。 "面壁九年图破壁" ,这句话讲得非常有深度,用世间话来说,就是来一次飞跃、一次突破;用修行的话来说,就是开悟。所以说做到心如墙壁以后还要把这个墙壁捅破,这样才能够真正地一切任运,一切随缘度生,随缘不变,不变随缘。做到这样了,那就是修行到家了,有一个结果了。
Master Dongshan Liangjia (807 - 869), in one sentence of commentary, said that practitioners should prevent themselves from clinging to external things as if they had come to a place full of parasitic blood-sucking worms. In the olden days, such worms were common in Jiangsu and Guangdong Provinces; there, snail fever was prevalent and it was easy to become infected. If one took a mouthful of water or put his feet in the contaminated water, the worms would have got into his body and stayed there all the time. Buddhist practitioners should regard the Mind that clings to externals like a parasitic blood-sucking worm. What should we do when we come to a place full of such worms? Weâd better not drink the water, not even a mouthful. Suppose we could treat "sorrow and joy, grief and happiness, others and oneself, and right and wrong" in the same way, or "never drop our guard" as the present people say, we would then eventually achieve success. If we could act in such a way as we progress along the Path, our self-training would be full of hope and our Mind would be as peaceful as a wall. That is "free from all attachments".
Inwardly, we should "breathe deeply and rhythmically". From the perspective of actual practice, this entails two aspects: firstly, how to practice sitting wholeheartedly, and how to make the Mind become quieter and quieter. For instance, we may take up the way of counting the breaths. "There are all together four phases or types of breath: namely the wind, gasp, gas and breath." At the time of practice, weâd better not work on the first three of wind, gasp, and gas, because these are inharmonious. We have to work on the fourth, the "breaths", thereby we will breathe rhythmically and the incoming and outgoing breaths will proceed deeply and continuously. Then, we will feel as if one moment the breath is there and next moment it is not. This is the practical aspect of "breathing deeply and rhythmically". Secondly, we must continuously maintain a state of mindfulness or awareness, never letting it go. That is, we have to be mindful of what is going on right at the very moment, and keep this awareness going continuously. This is also what "breathing deeply and rhythmically" means.
As long as we are "free from all attachments and breathe deeply and rhythmically", our Mind will be as peaceful as a wall. If we can bring our Minds to be like this we would be able to see through attachments and interference both internally and externally. How to do it then? We have to come to a clear understanding as to the true nature and Absolute Existence of Dharma. This truth is that "as all phenomena are strictly dependent, conditioned, and relative, they are therefore impermanent." This is the Absolute Existence of Dharma. If we have such a penetrative understanding of the nature of phenomena, of the notion of emptiness, we will enter the gateway of Chan, or align ourselves with the Tao. This is what Bodhidharmaâs first formula, "facing a wall is the way to pacify the Mind", teaches us.
Is "facing a wallâ, however, the ultimate goal of practice? No, I do not think so. "Facing a wall", means to connect with the Tao, it is only the starting point. I remember that the late Premier Zhou Enlai wrote a poem, in which one line relates this Gongan (公案) about Bodhidharma: "Sitting facing a wall for nine years one aims to see through the wall." The real objective, therefore, is not "facing a wall" but "seeing through the wall". The verse is profound and meaningful. As for the present people, it means a great leap forward, a breakthrough. Regarding Buddhist training, it means enlightenment. As long as we make the Mind like a wall and then break up that wall, whilst continuously holding on to that condition, we will become truly free beings, doing whatever we do in accordance with conditions. In this way we would achieve success and come to the very end of our practice.
四句口诀的第二句叫 "如是发行者四行" 。实际上这个 "四行" 是内在心态的一种保持。所 谓 "报冤行" 的中心就是逢苦不忧。冤就是冤家对头嘛,在冤家对头面前,我们如何对待?报不 是报复的意思,这个报是对待的意思。菩提达摩告诉我们,对待冤家,我们要秉持佛教忍辱的精 神、忍让的精神、包容的精神、化解的精神,不要针锋相对。在这里,我也顺便说一下,佛教的思想学说,是以人为本,从人出发,从个人出发,它是对个人身心性命的修养。严格来说,它不 是社会学说,所以它没有详讲到这个群体对待那个群体应该怎么样,而更多地是讲我们个人应该 怎么样。假设我们把 "报冤行" 这样的思想运用于社会生活,那人家会抓辫子,说我们敌我不分。但是,我要申明,佛教是告诉我们每一个人应该怎么做,每一个人把自己个人之间的矛盾化解了,大事化小,小事化了,社会自然就会安定团结,人际关系自然就会和谐,社会风气也会逐步地有所改善。所谓净化人心、祥和社会是要从每一个人做起,然后形成一种风气。所以佛教的一切精 神是重在从我做起、从现在做起、从当下做起,所以说报冤行看似消极、实际上最为积极,可以 用它来化解一切人我是非矛盾。
The second formula is: "The four acts are ways to behave oneself." "The four acts" actually refer to the state of Mind that we have to get hold of. The key point of the first act: "knowing how to requite hatred", is to submit our whole being willingly and patiently to all our sufferings. Here, "hatred" refers to our feelings towards somebody or something hateful to us. How should we deal with something hateful when it comes around? The word "requite" means " to repay"; it need not imply retaliation. Bodhidharma taught us that, in dealing with what is hateful, we must bear in mind the Buddhist spirit of patience, forbearance, loving-kindness and compassion, making the best use of hatred whilst not behaving in a tit for tat manner. At this point, I think it is important to be clear that Buddhism places its primary emphasis upon the direct religious experience of each individual person. It puts human existence in the first place and emphasizes the direct first-hand experience of the individual. It is, therefore, a practice of self-training or self-cultivation. Strictly speaking, Buddhism is not involved in Sociology, it rarely analyzes things from a Sociological perspective - what this or that group of people should or should not do when dealing with another group. More often, it expounds upon what we should or should not do as individuals. Had we applied the idea of "requiting hatred" to our social life, people would have thought us unable to draw a clear distinction between right and wrong. I want to stress that Buddhist teachings emphasize what we, as individuals, should do, and how we, as individuals, ought to behave. Following the practical path of moral and mental training, so long as everybody tackles his or her own problems - no matter whether big or small, and reaches a compromise with others, our society will be naturally stabilized and naturally consolidated. People will, in turn, live harmoniously together and social morality will be improved. In terms of "purifying our Mind and harmonizing our society", everybody has to do his or her bit as well as possible, making it the standard of conduct. The Buddhist emphasis is on finding out for oneself, right now at this very moment. The "way to requite hatred", therefore, seems passive but is actually a very active method. It can be used both to tackle the conflict between oneself and others, and between right and wrong.
受有三受,苦受、乐受、不苦不乐受。如果说从三受的角度来看, "报冤行" 重点指的是如何对待苦的感受。
In the Buddhist teachings, there are three states of Vadanah (sensation) (三受), those experienced as painful, as pleasurable, and those experienced as neither - free off both. According to this classification, the "way to requite hatred" mainly teaches us how to deal with the painful aspect.
"随缘行" 的重点是指如何对待乐受。好事面临了你怎么办?你会不会很高兴?达摩祖师是 怎样教我们的呢?教我们不要为喜风所动。高兴的事,也是因缘所生法,缘聚则生,缘散则灭,何喜之有?好事来了,你也要保持一种非常平静的心态,不要有一点好事就忘乎所以,趾高气昂,目空一切,那样做会起到相反的作用。这对于我们做人做事具有深刻的教育意义。
The second act, "being obedient to karma", however, mainly teaches us how to deal with the pleasurable aspect. At the time when something happens in accordance with our desires what should we do? We are happy arenât we? But what did Bodhidharma teach us in this regard? He taught us not to be carried away by such feelings. It is due to the Law of Dependent Origination that pleasurable events occur. They come into being, or cease to be, according to whether the karmic conditions are right or not. What then is the point of being joyful about it? When something happens according to our desire, we should maintain a very peaceful state of Mind. Suppose we are carried away by it and behave in a proud and superior manner, it will transform the good thing into a bad one. Therefore, what Bodhidharma taught has profound meaning for guiding our behavior â how to act properly and how to do our work correctly.
第三是 "无所求行" 。就是说苦受也好,乐受也好,不苦不乐受也好,一切随缘,不要去着意地追求个什么。因为世间一切事情都是有求皆苦,知足常乐,对于修道的人应是如此。修道的人要了解到一切法随缘,随遇而安,不可执意地想达到一个什么目的。因为,因缘不具足,你有那种想法也不能够实现,与其想达到一个什么目的,还不如老老实实地创造条件。一切东西都是 条件的组合,条件不成熟缘没有到,你所追求的目标也就不能够实现。
The third act is, "not to crave anything". Regarding the three states of Vadanah, no matter whether painful sensations, pleasurable sensations, or those that are free from both, weâd better not seek after them intently, but let them come and go as they are. In this world, whenever and wherever there is craving there is also pain. Being Buddhist practitioners we have to cease from craving and become peaceful. In other words, understanding that whatever dharmas are produced and caused by the interplay of karmic conditions, we are able to remain unperturbed with respect to whatever happens, and never become attached to any desire. The reason is that, without karmic conditions such desires would not come into being. It is, therefore, more sensible to create the condition â this awareness or understanding, bit by bit, rather than misguidedly looking too far ahead in anticipation of the ending or final outcome. At the time when all the necessary aggregates come together the fertile ground will exist for the arising of that dharma. When the condition is immature how can we arrive at what we seek?
我们修德、积福,实际上都是在创造培育各种善的因缘。培植善缘的时候,恶缘就停止了,善缘成熟了,恶因就会推迟现报;如果我们不去培植善因善缘,那么恶因恶缘就会提前兑现。这是一个规律,是一个不以人的意志为转移的东西。因果定律是铁的定律,所以我们要做到在直接 的目标上不要强求,努力地把自己应该做的一切善事、一切好事都做到位,不求有功,这就叫做 "只问耕耘,莫问收获" 。有的人恰恰与此相反,他不去耕耘只望收获。不耕耘只望收获就是一 种强求,只问耕耘不问收获就是一种无所求。修道的人能够做到无所求,那我们离道就会很近很近,也可以说本身就在道中行。
Buddhism invites practitioners to practice virtuous and meritorious deeds, which in fact prepares the groundwork for the necessary conditions. At the time when the seed of virtue is sowed, the bad ending is stopped; when the virtue is mature, the bad ending is delayed. On the contrary, if we do not willingly practice virtue and the performance of good deeds, bad endings will come before their time. This occurs in light of the Law of Cause and Effect, which we cannot turn aside according to our own will. The Law is an iron one: specific in its causes and exacting in its effects. We thus have to exert ourselves, making every effort to do only good things, striving to be as perfect as possible whilst never merely acting out of self-interest, for instance, to gain merit or to achieve some immediate and superficial goal. This is called, " caring about what we sow, but not what we reap." It is the way to be free from all attachments. Some people find it easier and more convenient to act the opposite way: they are keen on reaping yet do not care about the sowing. Eventually they will get nothing out of it. If we could really live up to what the phrase "not craving anything" implies or expects of us, we would be much closer to the Tao, or we could say, the act itself would go together with the Tao.
第四就叫 "称法行" 。法指的是什么呢?就是指 "性净之理" ,也可以说指的就是缘起法,一切按照缘起法的规律去做,就是 "称法行" 。菩提达摩大师在这里讲到了六度。在这四行当中, 前三行重在止恶, "称法行" 是重在修善。也可以说前面的三行重在破, "称法行" 重在立。立什么呢?立一切善行,立六度万行。修行六度的时候,达摩大师又说,你不要执著,你不要有修的这种相。他以布施度为比喻说,你布施的时候要做到 "三轮体空" ,就是施者、受者、中间物 这三者都是缘起性空的,你不要执为实有。你执为实有、执为实在,认为我是能施,你是所施,我给了多少东西给你,这是著相布施。著相布施功德有限,无相布施功德无边。上面讲的这些内容就是四句口诀的第二句,叫 "如是发行者四行" 。
The fourth act is, "to be in accord with the Dharma". What is Dharma? It is the "source of our original pure Mind". It also refers to the Law of Dependent Arising. Suppose we do whatever we do according to the Law, we are "in accord with the Dharma". Concerning this point, Bodhidharma taught the Six Paramitas (六度). Regarding the four acts as a whole, the aim of first three acts is to prevent us from wrongdoing, whilst this last one, "being in accord with the Dharma", emphasizes the practice of virtue. In other words, the first three, though of course vital, stress the avoidance of laying weak foundations â generating negative conditions, whereas the fourth stresses action firmly grounded in benevolence, virtue and other noble qualities, in terms of the Six Paramitas (六度). Bodhidharma also taught us that, in practicing the Six Paramitas (六度), we have to be above partiality and attachment, and not cling to the form, that is, the mental construct or idea, that we are engaged in any kind of meritorious deed. In his teaching of the Paramitas (度), Bodhidharma used the metaphor of giving to express this idea that: at the time of giving we have to understand the "threefold nature of emptiness", understanding that the one who gives, the one who is given, and the intermediary, are all based on dependent arising. Weâd better not take them as the Absolute Reality. If we do it the other way round and think that we are the one that gives, you are the one that is given, and that we have given you a lot, then we then cling to the form while giving. Doing so can only bring about limited results. If while giving we do not cling to the form, an infinite result will take place. So much for the second formula that "The four acts are ways to behave oneself."
第三句口诀叫 "如是顺物者防护讥嫌" 。这是菩提达摩对弘法的人、传道的人提出的一个要 求。什么要求呢?就像十大愿王里所说的要 "恒顺众生" 。怎样才算顺物呢?就是要 "防护讥 嫌" 。做任何事情,不要让众生有怀疑,不要做有损我们形象的事情。做事的时候,一定要令众生 "未信者令信,已信者令增长" 。我们做出一件事情来,千万不要产生没有信的人不会信、已 经信了的人不信了这样的负效应。唉,你这个和尚、你这个佛教,不就是这么回事嘛!如果是那 样,那我们起了相反的作用,就有了讥嫌了。由于讥嫌所致,我们弘法的目的就达不到,教化的 目标就不能落实。所以这一点,我觉得对我们现在的佛教界,或者说对于我们的僧团,非常具有 针对性,要 "防护讥嫌" 。我记得弘一大师有两句话——在座的比丘尼师父们和女居士请不要介意,因为这都是彼此的——叫 "远离女众,慎护讥嫌" 。我觉得我们女众也要记住这句话,女众 也要 "远离男众" ,我们也要 "慎护讥嫌" 。 这样,我们佛教就是一种良性循环,否则的话就是一种恶性循环。恶性循环就引起社会的讥 嫌,佛教的形象就没有了。佛教形象没有了,未信者不信,已信者退失信心。所以这句话我们很 有必要反复地咀嚼领会祖师的苦口婆心。这口诀,我们要记住。
The third formula is, "not to cause others to doubt is the way to be congenial to them"; this is what Bodhidharma admonished masters and preachers to do. What does this admonishment entail? It is just the same as that vowed by Bodhisattva Samantabhadra (十大愿王), that is: to "be congenial to all sentient beings". How then can we put it into action? We should live what we are taught, by "not causing others to doubt". Whatever we do, we must not make sentient beings feel doubt as to their faith, and we must not do anything harmful to the spirit of the Buddhaâs teachings. In the practice, we ought to "advise those who do not have faith in Buddhism to try it out, and admonish those who are already on the Path to penetrate more deeply." Suppose we do it the other way round, make the former doubtful and the latter give up their faith, this will bring about negative effects. People would think: "Oh, so much for monks and Buddhism, they are nothing special!" If this were to happen, we would be doing something negative, causing and allowing others to feel doubtful about Buddhism. This, in turn, would act counter to our aim, let alone the very objective of Buddhist teachings. The message of "being congenial to others", I think, is both of real practical importance and of deep meaning to present Buddhist circles and to the Sangha. I remember that ❀ Master Hong Yi (弘一, 1880-1942) once said: "Keep away from female practitioners and do not make others doubt." I hope those Bhikkhunis and female lay Buddhists who are attending this lecture are not bothered about the exact words for, of course, it works both ways. That is, Bhikkhunis and female followers also have to "keep away from Bhikkhus and male followers and do not make others doubt." If we are congenial in this way, Buddhism will be able to grow in the manner of a virtuous circle. On the contrary, if we do not abide by the message, a vicious circle will be created, making the public doubtful about Buddhism, which would, in turn, destroy its image. The next stage would not be one of simple doubt; no, instead the public would actively think ill of Buddhism, those who had doubts would go away, and those who were already Buddhists would lose their faith. Regarding this formula, we have to consider it deeply, again and again, and come to a full understanding of what Bodhidharma truly meant. We must bear it in mind at all times.
第四句口诀 "如是方便者遣其不著" 。我们要常行二利而不执著,二利就是自利利他,但是 又不要执著,一执著就有片面性,就有主观性。执著本身就是一种主观性,有主观性就产生了片面性,有片面性又加深了这个执著。执著无非是 "人执、法执" ,或者叫 "我执、法执" 。我们众生都把五蕴所组合的身体看得非常的重要,看得非常的宝贵,而且在几十年的生活当中形成了一个观念,这个观念就是中国佛教文化研究所所长吴立民先生所说的: "这是我的,那是我的,我的、我的,一切都是我的" ,我放在第一位。从哇哇坠地的那一刻开始,一直到一口气不来,这个 "我" 都放不下。
The fourth formula is, "advising practitioners to remain free from all attachments is the way to act naturally." It teaches us how to benefit others and ourselves in whatever we do, but without ever clinging. Once we cling to something, we will look at it one-sidedly with a subjective point of view. Why? Because any attachment itself represents thinking in terms of personal desire; with such thinking comes a one-sided perspective that, in turn, deepens the will of attachment. There are just two categories of attachment; the first, "clinging to the sense of âIâ, and the second, clinging to the Dharma" or "clinging to the ego and the Dharma". As sentient beings we have paid a great deal of attention to the physical body which, itself, is made up of five Panca-Skandhas (aggregates, 五蕴). We think it is very dear to us. We erect or create the idea of "I", a concept that seems to work in terms of the common-sense conventions of the everyday world, as we live our life from decade to decade. Commenting on the notion of "I", it is as Mr. Wu Limin, Director of the State Institute of Buddhist Culture, once said: we often say "this is mine; that is mine, mine, mine, all is mine". We always put "I" in the first place and never let it go, beginning from the moment we are born till the moment we breathe our last breath.
有人说了个笑话——是笑话还是真话就不知道了。有一个人要去世了,他的眼睛始终不合上, 而且手总在比划。人家都搞不懂是什么意思,因为打手势好像禅机一样,家里人也猜不透,外边 的人也猜不透。后来忽然有个人猜透了,说他的意思是,他现在还是十三级,他希望能够给他涨 一级,涨到十二级。那样就是高干待遇,一切就都不同了。领导马上承诺下来,一定给他涨到十 二级,他逝世以后按照高干待遇来办理后事,他马上脚一伸、手一伸走了。
Once someone told a joke, although, actually, we do not know whether it was a joke or a real story. It goes as follows: a man was on deathâs door, yet unwilling to close his eyes. Instead, he flung his hands about wildly; however, nobody in the family nor any of his colleagues could understand what he was trying to say. After a while someone suddenly realized what he meant. It was that, now he was an official of the 13th rank, but that he wanted to be promoted to the 12th. He knew that if he were of the 12th rank, as a high-ranking official, he would be treated differently. The news was reported to the director of his department, who agreed to promote him one rank higher. When the dying man knew he would be treated as a high-ranking official after his death, he at once closed his eyes and died.
这个我执啊! "我、法;我、我的" 。 "我" 就是我执, "我的" 就是法执。这种执著是从 什么地方来的呢?就是不了解诸法缘生性空的实相。既然一切法都是有条件的存在,你执著也枉然,一切条件并不由于你的执意追求而有所改变。
所以我们在行方便、行救度的时候,一定不能有执著。这里所说的方便,大家不要误会,不 要误会 "方便" 这两个字就可以有随意性。方便者智慧也,方便就是智慧,你在运用智慧的时候 又不能有执著。为什么说方便就是智慧呢?有几句话大家可能都记得,叫 "菩提心为因,大悲为 根本,方便为究竟" 。方便是究竟,你有方便才有究竟,没有方便你这个法门不可能究竟,所以说方便者大智慧也。这个大智慧有个前提,就是不能执著,执著就是片面性,就不是智慧的表现,就是愚痴的表现。所以我跟大家讲一讲达摩祖师的四句口诀,这四句口诀既是入禅之门的要领,也是我们修一切法门的入门要领: "如是安心,如是发行,如是顺物,如是方便。"
This is "clinging to âIâ, to the ego and the Dharma, and to âIâ and mine". "I" refers to "clinging to the ego", while "mine" refers to "clinging to the Dharma". What makes us have such attachments? The reason is, we do not fully understand the Absolute Existence (实相) of dependent arising and emptiness (缘起性空). Everything in the phenomenal world exists on the basis of certain conditions. It is useless to cling to this or that because the conditions do not change according to our wishful desires. Therefore, at the time when we do something natural and beneficial to others, we must not cling to what we have done. But, please do not misunderstand the word "naturalness" that we talk about here. It does not mean we can do whatever we do randomly. Naturalness is wisdom, and when we apply it to practice we must not cling to it. Why do I say, "Naturalness is wisdom"? I think that all of us might still remember the words: "Bodhi Mind is the source; great compassion (karuna) the essence; and naturalness the ultimate truth." Naturalness is thus what we seek after. If we do everything naturally we come to the ultimate truth, if not there is no way to it. That is, naturalness is profound wisdom, but only on the condition and prerequisite that we do not cling to anything. Attachment results in one-sidedness that reveals ignorance but not wisdom. The reason why I talk about Bodhidharmaâs four formulae is that, they are the essence of what is involved in taking part in Chan training, as well as in other Buddhist trainings. That is, "In such a way as to pacify the Mind; in such a way as to behave oneself; in such a way as to be congenial to others; and, in such a way as to act naturally."
下面我们再回到菩提达摩关于禅修的这篇文章的整体部分来看一看。菩提达摩的这篇论文连 题目在内,叫《略辨大乘入道四行》,大概是五百一十个字。那时禅不像我们现在有一个稳定的 称呼,现在由于禅法流行一千多年,禅宗成立一千多年,一切的称谓都定型化了。在当时来说,禅有时候叫做 "道" ,又叫做 "心" ,又叫做 "佛法大意" ,又叫做 "西来意" ,或者叫做 "祖 师西来意" ,有多种称呼。但是当时以 "道" 作称呼的比较普遍。道,在印度梵语中就是菩提, 当然后来菩提译也为觉、觉悟。
Now, let us consider the article written by Bodhidharma as a whole. It consists of about five hundred and ten Chinese characters, including the title "General Discourse on the Twofold Entrance to the Tao and Four Acts of Mahayana." In ancient times, there was no fixed term for Chan such as we have today. At present, as Chan training proceeds a thousand and more years after the setup of Chan School, all terms are fixed. In ancient times however Chan was also called "Tao", or "Mind", or the "general meaning of Dharma", or the "meaning of coming to China", or the "meaning of Bodhidharmaâs coming to China", and so forth. But the term "Tao", which means Bodhi in Sanskrit, was more popular at the time. Bodhi was therefore translated into "Tao", and then also "enlighten" or "enlightenment".
菩提译为道是从什么意思来说的呢?是从能修、能证、能行,从指引我们走一条通达目标之 路这样一个角度,把菩提翻译成为道,是道路的意思。当时把禅也当作入佛大海的一条路,所以禅也是道,故云 "大乘入道四行" 。这个四行实际上只是行入的内容,但是菩提达摩认为进入禅 的途径有很多,归纳起来不外乎理入和行入二种。菩提达摩在这篇文章中就讲: "夫入道多途,要而言之不出二种:一是理入,二是行入。" 我们是不是可以这样来看,理入是进入禅门的正行, 行入可以看作进入禅的助行。有正有助、有正有辅、有主有次,但两者又是不可或缺的,两者不可偏废。当然理入是根本。
Why was Bodhi translated into "Tao"? It was from the point of view that Bodhi could be practiced, confirmed, and put into action, and could lead us on the Path to success. Bodhi was thus translated into "Tao", meaning "the Path". Chan training is also a path, a path leading to the great ocean of Buddhist training. Therefore, Chan is also Tao. Hence, the article was entitled the "Twofold Entrance to the Tao and Four Acts of Mahayana". The four acts are actually included in the "Entrance by Conduct". Though there were many ways to begin Chan training, Bodhidharma taught that there were, on the whole, no more than two: "Entrance by Reason" and "Entrance by Conduct". He said in the article that: "There are many ways to enter the Tao. To sum up, however, there are no more than two: entrance by reason and entrance by conduct." Perhaps we can appreciate this more if we consider that: "Entrance by Reason" is the main act to start with, whilst "Entrance by conduct" can be considered as the assisting acts. Both the former and latter are interdependent. Although the "Entrance by Reason" goes first while the "Entrance by Conduct" comes second, we are not to stress one to the neglect or exclusion of the other â whilst remembering, of course, that "Entrance by Reason" is the essence.
什么叫做理入呢?菩提达摩给我们提供了一个非常重要的、规定性的前提,这个前提就是叫我们要 "藉教悟宗" ,理入者 "藉教悟宗" 。从这里可以看出,禅宗的创始人没有说要排除经教文字,而是说 "宗不离教" ,而且要以教作为前提、作为指导、作为方便来进入禅宗。
What does "Entrance by Reason" mean? Bodhidharma made it very clear what we should do first; we should come to a "realization of the essence of Buddhism by the aid of scriptural teachings". This is what "Entrance by Reason" means. In this respect we can see that Bodhidharma himself also stressed the study of scriptural teachings. He said: "The Chan School never departs from the scriptural teachings." He put the scriptural teachings in the first place, making it a guide and gate for those taking up the training. The scriptural teachings refer to what the Buddha taught in ancient times. What Bodhidharma emphasized was that through study of the scriptural teachings we would come to grasp the True Nature (真性) of the external world. This is the ultimate goal of the Chan School.
那时讲的教就是言教。宗就是他最终的目的和归宿,就是能够把握事情的本质,这就是宗。 所以,从菩提达摩那时起就把 "宗" 、 "教" 两字的位置摆得非常明确,两者是不可偏废的。因 为教毕竟都是一些符号,就好像说天上有月亮,我们用手一指,聪明的人去看月亮,不聪明的人 老看手指。假设通过手指直接看到月亮,这就叫 "藉教悟宗" 了。如果说手一指,你老看指头不看月亮,那就是 "因教而迷宗" 。所以一切言教如标月指,它不是事物的本身。比如说我们要吃饭了,要吃饭仅仅是给你一个信号,让你知道有这件事。如果你不实际地去操作,不接触食物,拿到食物不往口里送这叫说食数宝,肚子里面却是空空的,越说越饿。所以我们要用这样的一种方法,这样的一种立场来看待言教——既不可以排斥它,又不可以死死地执著不放。
所以菩提达摩说,我们要 "舍妄归真,凝住壁观,无自无他,无凡无圣,凡圣等一,坚住不 移,更不随于言教" 。先是说要藉教悟宗,但是你不要把那个教就当成是实在的东西。教上面说 "心佛众生三无差别" ,你就不要去执著这个东西。你以为当真的是三无差别,你以为当真的你 现在就是佛,你执著这个东西,你就错了。虽然是 "心佛众生三无差别" ,但是我们的心还被客 尘烦恼所盖覆着,现在还不是主人在当家,而是客人在当家。所以我们还要有一个修为的过程, 有一个修行的过程,有一个把无明烦恼逐步排除的过程。我们能够这样做了,自然就 "与理冥符,无有分别,寂然无为" 。这就叫理入。
He emphasized both the "realization of ultimate truth" and the "study of scriptural teachings"â and that they are equally important. The scriptural teachings are no more than a collective symbol; they can be taken as a finger pointing towards the moon. The quick-witted sees the moon, whilst the slow-witted sees only the finger. Directly seeing the moon through use of the pointing finger, is what we call the "realization of the essence of Buddhism by the aid of scriptural teachings". On the contrary, if one sees only the finger but not the moon, then "he becomes confused about the ultimate truth by the scriptural teachings." That is why we call the scriptural teachings the finger that points to the moon, yet not the real thing, not the moon itself. For instance, someone is going to eat a meal; "going to eat" is just a symbol that allows him to know what is going on. If he does not actually do it, that is, gets food and eats it, his stomach is always empty. The more he keeps talking about food, the more he feels a desire for food. Regarding the scriptural teachings, weâd better not reject them or cling to them tightly. This is the correct stand to take in the study of scriptural teachings. All the conflicts and problems in the world are dealt with according to an endless circle of concepts and reasoning and, hence, words. What kind of serious effects would oneâs words bring about in this case? What else could this or that mean? What effects would this or that have on me? Is it harmful to me, and so forth? From the worldly point of view, what one says can really bring about different effects because of his attachment to it. With attachment he is tossed back and forth amongst symbols, and his own self-nature disappears or is covered up.
Bodhidharma said: "If a man, abandoning the false and embracing the true, in singleness of thought, practices sitting facing a wall, he will find that there is neither self nor others, neither ordinary mortals nor sages, that the masses and the worthies are of one essence, and he will hold firmly on to this belief, never departing from it. He will not then be a slave to the scriptural teachings." Regarding the "realization of the essence of Buddhism by the aid of scriptural teachings", then, weâd better not take the teachings as the Absolute Existence. Although according to the teachings, "the Mind, the Buddha, and a living being are actually one", weâd better not cling to this. Suppose we really cling to it and think that we are equivalent to a Buddha, we are actually incorrect. Though "the Mind, the Buddha, and a living being are actually one", our Mind is always carried away or covered up by delusions and ignorance. Now, we are still unable to control our own Mind, instead submitting to the external world. We must therefore commit ourselves to the practice, which is a gradual process of getting rid of delusions and ignorance. If we can do accordingly, we will naturally "be in silent communion with the reason itself, free from conceptual discrimination, serene and not-acting." This is called "Entrance by Reason".
The "Entrance by Reason" we talk about here, in fact refers to what we must uphold as the critical point, the crucial undertaking in our practice from the perspective of Chanâs right intention and right action. This is the case both concerning the actual intention to practice in the first place, and to the aspects of right action concerning that practice once begun. In training, the critical point is to get hold of, and hold onto the core, the Absolute Existence, the source and the essence of that training. If we forget the central aim of our training and approach it in a roundabout way through a preoccupation with the accompanying acts, then we attend to trifles at the expense of the source or essence, which, indeed, is essential; that is, we would be putting the cart before the horse. When we practice Chan training, therefore, we have to look for the essence first, doing so, we will enter the Tao. Otherwise, without the essence, we would by no means find the gateway to enter.
I have previously talked about the "Entrance by Conduct" and the four acts, so there is no need to repeat this again here. Now that we have a certain understanding of Bodhidharmaâs thought, we can see how the training methods and beliefs of the Chan School are rooted in such thought; that is, their very source can be traced back to the teachings of Bodhidharma. Perhaps it may seem that in his short article: "On the Twofold Entrance and the Four Acts", he does not refer to Chan training in a literal manner, yet it is intimately related to the training itself. The article, therefore, can be used as a valuable entrance to the methods of training. Considered as such, it can be seen as a fundamental piece of training literature within the Chan School.
Just now, I mentioned that what we have to pay attention to in regard to the "Entrance by Reason", is the "realization of the essence of Buddhism by the aid of scriptural teachings. By doing so we will develop a deep faith in the True Nature of reality â a Nature that is the same in and for all sentient beings". The reason why this fact does not reveal itself to us is because it is "covered up by worldly dust". To see it we have to "free ourselves from delusions and realize our own self-nature". The only way to attain this goal is through "wall-gazing", a method that makes our Mind like a wall, preventing us from being affected by the dust. The dust that casts its shadow over everything is no more than the concept of "I" and "others", of "right" and "wrong" etc. How do we practice "wall-gazing"? The basic requirement is that we find out for ourselves that "there is neither self nor others, neither ordinary mortals nor sages, that the masses and the worthies are of one essence. We hold firmly on to this belief and never depart from it, never be a slave to the scriptural teachings." This is what "wall-gazing" means.
Regarding the "Entrance by Conduct", it is required practice in Chan training and in all other Buddhist trainings. It may seem that they are assisting acts playing a secondary function, nevertheless, we must pay attention to them. We may put it this way: the four acts in the "Entrance by Conduct" are involved in all Buddhist trainings; they may seem very simple, but do in fact have profound meaning, as can be seen once we have a deep understanding of them, once we discern their all-embracing vision.
佛教讲的一切修行法门,包括禅修在内,都是一个调整心态的过程。我们的心态之所以不能平衡,不能安静,不能潇洒自在,其根本原因就是我们有分别之心、好丑之别、取舍之念。就禅 修而言,这些都是我们心理上的障碍。这些东西原本不属于我们心地所固有的,都是附着在我们 心地上的尘垢烦恼,所以称之为客尘。如果把我们每个人本自具足的清静心比喻为主人的话,那 么这些尘垢烦恼就是客人。对于修道的人来说,或者是对所有追求真理、希望开发智慧的人来说, 如果不去除我们心地上的种种尘垢烦恼,不对我们的心尘来一番彻底的大扫除、大扫荡,修道就 无从入门,智慧也就无从开发,真理也无从认识,佛性也无从彰显了。
All Buddhist trainings, including Chan training, are aimed at adjusting the state of our Mind. The reason why we do not have our Mind balanced, why we are not peaceful and unable to act freely, is because we have a discriminating, separated Mind, we draw a clear distinction between right and wrong, and we care about what we gain and what we lose. All these things are a massive psychological hindrance to successful Chan training. In fact, they have nothing at all to do with our true nature, but represent the worldly dust or anxieties that adhere to our Mind; hence referred to as "worldly dust". If we consider our natural serene state of Mind as the host, then the dust and anxieties would be the guests. For practitioners or those who seek after truth or hope to acquire wisdom, it is essential to get rid of all this dust and anxiety, clearing it thoroughly and permanently away; without first doing so, it is virtually impossible to find a way to begin the practice, to acquire wisdom, to seek for truth, or to reveal our own Buddha-nature.
我们心地上的尘垢可以说是无量无边的,但总体来说不出达摩大师在这篇教材当中所列举的 前面那三条:苦啊、乐啊、物利的追求,这就是我们毛病的总根子。我们用来对治心地尘垢烦恼 的法门也同样是无量无边的,所谓众生有八万四千烦恼,佛有八万四千法门,而八万四千法门都 可以包括在六度当中。六度又称为六波罗蜜,波罗蜜的意思是 "彼岸到" 、 "到彼岸" ,或者就 是 "圆满" 。六度法门就是使我们从此岸到彼岸的六条船,度嘛,就是从此岸渡到彼岸,一定要 通过这六种方式。六度,大家都知道: "布施、持戒、忍辱、精进、禅定、智慧" ,这六个方法 就是六条船,六条船都可以把我们从烦恼的此岸渡到清凉的彼岸。在这里我要请各位居士们注意,不要误会,不要以为此岸和彼岸真正有一个遥远的距离。此岸和彼岸在一个空间、同一个点上。 我们的法师们可能都知道这个意思,希望居士们也能够知道。
The dust and anxieties adhering to our Mind are endless yet, on the whole, no more than the three listed in the Bodhidharmaâs article: bitterness, joyfulness, and the desire for material comforts, all of which are the very roots of our faults and defects. The ways by which we can deal with such dust and anxieties, however, are also endless. We say that of all the various anxieties that sentient beings have there are, in total, eighty four thousand. In Buddhism there are also the same number of ways or gates to receive and guide them; these are encompassed within the Six Paramitas (六度). Taken together, the "Six Paramitas (六度)" means great wisdom to "reach the opposite shore" or "the opposite shore is reached", or simply "perfections". They are six boats that take us across or that we need to reach the other shore from this shore. The "Six Paramitas (六度)", we all know, are: "giving, keeping precepts, patience, effort, meditation, and wisdom." The six ways, like six boats, can carry us from this shore of anxieties to the other shore of purity. Now, I hope that no lay Buddhist will mistakenly believe that these shores are separated by a great distance, for, actually, they are both in fact in the same space, at the same point. All masters understand what I am talking about; hopefully all lay Buddhists will be able to do the same.
从此岸到彼岸有一条河、有一个苦海,我们要渡过去。这个苦海是什么呢?就是你的无明烦 恼执著。这些东西要对治,要说难也很难,要说容易也很容易。六祖大师讲, "一念迷就是众生,一念悟众生就是佛" ,多么容易啊。在一念之间,翻掌覆掌之下就完成了。所以希望大家一定要 掌握到这个法门的究竟。彼岸就在此岸,极乐世界就在娑婆世界,天堂就在人间,佛与众生不隔纤毫,一点距离也没有。因为我们一心具足十法界,一念能够自觉觉他、觉行圆满。我们若能有片刻做到这样,那一片刻就是佛的境界了。如果我们有一片刻产生了自利利他的心态,虽然我们 没有去做,或者说没有做很多,那时你就是菩萨的境界。你一念能够自觉,把一切的烦恼我执都去掉,你当下就是声闻缘觉的境界。反之贪心重、瞋心重、痴心重,你就是地狱、饿鬼、畜生。一切都在一念之间,所以叫 "一心具足十法界" 。
There exists a sea of sufferings stretching from this shore to the other that we need to cross. What is this sea of sufferings? It is our ignorance, anxieties and attachments. In dealing with those sufferings, whether it is difficult or not depends on what we think about it. The Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng (638-713) said: "A foolish passing thought makes one an ordinary man, while an enlightened second thought makes him a Buddha." How easy it is! Simply done in a moment, in a move of turning the palm up and down. I hope we may come to the ultimate truth of this path, which is that the other shore is actually at this shore, the blissful world is in this world, paradise is on the Earth, and that there is not the slightest distance between the Buddha and a sentient being. As our Mind in its original nature naturally contains the tenfold Dharma (十法界), we could become enlightened in an instant, then enlighten others, and finally reach the state of perfection. If we could do this in an instant we would come directly to the state of Buddhahood. If we have a thought that brings about self-benefit and also benefits others, even though we have not put it into action or executed it to the best of our ability, we nevertheless directly come to the state of Bodhisattva. If we could be mindful and get rid of all anxieties and attachments in a moment, we would directly come to the state of Sravaka (声闻) or Pratyeka-Buddha (缘觉). On the contrary, being unable to step back from the flames of greed, hatred and delusion we would be led to the state of hell, hungry ghosts, or animals. All of these exist in a moment, hence this is called the "Mind naturally contains the tenfold Dharma."
今天就简单地把菩提达摩教导我们进入禅门的口诀向大家介绍了一下。再重复一次: "如是 安心者壁观,如是发行者四行,如是顺物者防护讥嫌,如是方便者遣其不著。"
Today, I have only given a brief account of the four formulae Bodhidharma taught in order to guide us to the Tao. Let me repeat them once more: "Facing a wall is the way to pacify the Mind; the four acts are ways to behave oneself; not to cause doubt in the mind of others is the way to be congenial to them; and to advise practitioners to be free from all attachments is the way to act naturally."
Now, if you have any comments or questions, please write them on a piece of paper and pass it on to me. It is my hope that I will not be able to satisfy you with my answers, which will show that you have reached a higher level than I have. In that case, the future of Buddhism is promising.
有位居士说,他在一篇文章上看到这样的话: "理性太强者往往难以产生气感与喜乐觉受, 修法上难以深入,难以形成机用;念力强大者往往形成偏执紧张,内心不得喜乐自在;感觉灵异 者往往缺乏自我把持,难有身心的安宁,甚至误入魔境;安祥和乐者通常难有作为,无法利于帮 助他人。" 确实是如此,这四种情况,都是在执著当中。修行佛法就是要去掉执著,不可以有执 著,一有执著就有偏差,一有执著就背离了真实。当然他看的这篇文章不一定完全是学佛的人或 者引导学佛的人写的文章,从气功的角度来写来讲,他也可能是这样。修行在于破执,修行的整 个过程就是一个破执的过程。先破我执,后破法执,最后把能破所破全部都破掉,所以叫三空。我空法空,最后把能破的这种智慧的力量也要破掉。破是什么呢?就是说不执著。
One lay Buddhist recalls that he once read the following statement in an article: "Those who are rational often find it difficult to feel the internal energy and have a happy and blissful experience, they can barely endure the practice, let alone see it to successful fruition. Those who are willful often get bigoted and nervous so it is very difficult for them to feel joyful and free. Those who are very sensitive usually lack self-control, it is very difficult for them to feel at peace; instead, they may come to manifest harmful states of Mind. Those who feel peaceful and blissful usually achieve a little of success, yet they hardly get anything done in the interests of others." It is true that the four mentioned cases all have something to do with attachments. In Buddhist teachings, it is essential to get rid of attachments. If one clings to anything he will get bigoted, or even depart from the Absolute Reality (实有). Well, the article he read was probably not written by a Buddhist practitioner or a master proclaiming the teachings. From the perspective of Qi Gong (the Chinese way of cultivating the bodyâs internal energy), one might encounter the same problems. The objective of self-training is to free oneself from attachments. The entire process covers a series of actions performed in order to break up such attachments. Firstly, there is the attachment to "I", then the attachment to the "Dharma", and finally the attachment to the breaking up of attachments, to all that one can detach from and all that one could or has detached from. This is called the threefold emptiness. Were we to train accordingly, we would eventually free ourselves from the ego and the Dharma, and lastly from the wisdom that makes such freedom possible. What does all this mean? It means do not cling to anything.
另有一位居士说,他在参禅打坐的时候,在寺院的禅堂里容易入定,回到自己家里坐的时候,因为环境不同,不容易入定。寺院叫做道场,道场这个词和现在的科学是吻合的,道之场。现在不是说有磁场吗?那是磁之场,这个寺院就是道之场。所有来这里的人都是抱着一颗善良的心、求道的心,所有人的意念都集中在这个地方。这个意念是什么呢?这个意念叫无表色,是一种能量,它也是色法的一种,但是看不见。这个意念和我们的戒体是一样的意思,戒体这种力量也是 无表色。一个人真正得到了戒体,他就能够坚持不犯,他有持戒的毅力在支持他。这个道场就是 道之场,修道、成道、证道都在这个寺院里。寺院中最年轻的恐怕就是我们的玉佛寺了,120岁,从人的年龄来讲,也算不得了。还有的寺院1200岁,它的场的力量就更大。当然我们这120岁的道场,大家都来修持,这个磁场的力量、道场的力量就会增强,这是肯定的。佛陀时代提倡要修 八关斋戒,而八关斋戒那一天信众一定要到寺院来过,那是什么道理?当然,过一天出家人的生活是一个方面,另外,在寺院里面过,你会非常清静,非常洒脱自在,无忧无虑,所以在寺院里 你修行一天会比你平常修一年更有进步。
Another lay Buddhist said that, when he practices sitting meditation, it is easier to make him peaceful in a temple, but difficult at home because of the change of environment. "Temple" in Chinese is also called "Bodhimandala", a word somewhat coincidentally similar to the present scientific term, the field of Dharma. Nowadays, there is a term "the magnetic field", isnât there? That is, the field of magnetism. This temple, a place where people come with a compassionate Mind, a Mind that seeks for the ultimate truth, and a place where such consciousness is likely to be concentrated, is a field of Dharma. What is consciousness? It is called Avijnapti-rupa (无表色), the "non-revealing". Consciousness is a kind of invisible energy in the sphere of Rupadharma (色法) (the phenomenal world). It is this same consciousness that animates our faith and resolution to keep the precepts (戒体 ). It is also a non-revealing energy. If one truly has such faith and resolution, he will then hold on to it, never departing from the precepts because he is always charged by a powerful will. The Temple, or Bodhimandala, we say, is the field of the Dharma where the Sangha and practitioners carry on self-training, become enlightened, and affirm the truth. Among temples, the Yufo (Jade Buddha) temple â built some one hundred and twenty years ago, is perhaps the most recent. But if a man were to live that length of time, it would be quite something. Suppose a temple was one thousand two hundred years old, the power of its field would be enormous. Suppose more and more practitioners came to practice at the Yufo temple, though not as old, the power of the field in the temple would definitely increase and strengthen. At the time of Shakyamuni (释迦牟尼), the Astanga Samanvagatopavasa (八关斋戒) (the eightfold precept observed by lay Buddhists) was made. On fixed days lay Buddhists should come to the temple. Why? On the one hand, staying in a temple for the period of one day and one night a person can experience what temple life is really like; on the other, he will find himself serene and peaceful, open and free, fearless and without anxiety. By practicing in a temple for one day, therefore, it is possible to get much more done than one would practicing at home for a whole year.
净慧法师 Jinghui Fashi
The Third Lecture - Fourth Patriarch's (Dao Xin) Gate 四祖禅法
今天的题目是 "道信大师之禅法" 。大家知道,道信是中国禅宗的第四祖,他生活的时代大约是公元580年到651年期间。道信禅师在中国禅宗史上是一位非常重要的人物、关键性的人物。为什么这么说呢?因为道信禅师继承了他以前的各种禅观思想和修行方法,他的思想很丰富很重要,是禅宗史上一位承前启后、继往开来的人物。道信禅师继承了自达摩以来用《楞伽经》印心的传统方式,同时又开启了以《文殊说般若经》中所讲的 "一行三昧" 为修持法门的新绪,直接 影响了五祖弘忍 "东山法门" 的肇启和六祖慧能 "曹溪顿教" 的崛兴。道信禅法的内容很有特点。
Today, I am going to talk about the "Gate of Great Master Dao Xin". We all know that Master Dao Xin, who lived from approximately 580 to 651, was the Fourth Patriarch of the Chan School (八关斋戒 ) in China. He played a very important role, a key role, in the history of the Chan tradition. Why do I say this? Itâs because having received the traditional legacy and various ways of Chan training, he then skillfully, pragmatically and insightfully sought to marry these to the conditions prevailing at that time. He was, then, a leading figure who inherited the past and ushered in the future. On the one hand, he inherited the traditional way of affirming the enlightened Mind by a master as described in the "Lankavatara Sutra" (楞伽经) â a method that had been used since the time of Bodhidharma (达摩). On the other hand, he opened up a new way of training, "Ekavyuda-Samadhi" (一行三昧) - Samadhi of Specific Mode, (The term Samadhi is used instead hereafter), as described in the "Discourse on the Prajnaparamita Sutra by Bodhisattva Manjusri" (文殊说般若经). What he did had a direct impact on the later development of the Fifth Patriarch Hong Renâs (602 - 675) "Dongshan School", and the Sixth Patriarch Hui Nengâs (638 - 713) "Caoxi Sudden School". Today, the unique characteristics of his training are still very much in evidence.
可以说,在整个的修行过程当中,我们始终是围绕三个问题在展开:第一是见地问题,第二 是功夫问题,第三是方法问题。不管修哪个法门首先要解决的或者说主要要解决的是这三个问题:见地、功夫和方法。见地不明,你可能就是盲修瞎练;功夫不到家,你见地再好,永远到不了目 标;有功夫、有见地但方法不对头,也会出偏差。所以这三个问题是我们所有的修行人必须密切注意、必须非常重视的问题,不能够有一丝的疏忽。
During the whole process of self-training we have always to bear in mind the crucial importance of three things: insight (见地), ability (功夫) (the ability one obtains though dedicated practice), and the way of practice. Whatever training techniques we adopt in practice, these three things are what we have to deal with first, or what we truly have to work on. If we do not have clear insight (见地), we will probably practice blindly. If we do not really maintain and develop ability, we will never reach our goal, even though our insight (见地) is as bright as it is. If we have both insight (见地) and ability (功夫) yet train incorrectly, we will never achieve success. These three points, therefore, are what we as practitioners must pay close attention to. They are to be thought highly of and always to be borne in mind.
刚才我说到四祖禅的思想很丰富,如果逐条拿来讲必然会抓不到重点,没有特色。四祖所讲 的禅法,大家一听可能会感觉到很亲切,或者感觉到有一点惊奇。四祖所提倡的是 "念佛禅" ,就是《文殊说般若经》里讲的 "一行三昧" 。 "一行三昧" 实际上是 "念佛禅" 。
Yesterday, I gave a brief account of Bodhidharmaâs Gate, the "Twofold Entrance to the Tao and the Four Acts". The "Entrance by Reason" (理入) refers to insight while the "Entrance by Conduct" (行入) to ability (功夫). The "four acts" are basically involved with ability (功夫). The "Entrance by Reason" or "insight", in terms of the contemporary Chinese language, is more or less the same as a strategic plan. The "Entrance by Conduct" or "ability" then, is the tactical plan, the concrete outline or procedure. They could also be taken as theory and practice: the "Entrance by Reason" or "insight", as the theory, the world outlook, while the "Entrance by Conduct" or "ability", as the practice. Today, I am going to talk about what Master Dao Xin taught in light of the following three points: what is ability? What is insight? And, what is the way of practice?
As I mentioned just now, Dao Xin was a learned master. If I come to discuss his achievements and insights one by one, I risk departing from the essence of his thought, and making todayâs talk somewhat insipid. Regarding Master Dao Xinâs way of training, all of you are perhaps familiar with it or you may feel a little surprised when you hear what he advocated. Why? Because what Master Dao Xin proclaimed was the "Nian Fo (念佛禅) (chanting the name of Buddha) Chan", or "Samadhi" as mentioned in the "Discourse on the Prajnaparamita Sutra by Bodhisattva Manjusri". "Samadhi" is in fact the "Nian Fo Chan".
四祖提倡的念佛禅与我们现在所说的修净土宗的念佛有所区别。净土宗的念佛是已经选定了一佛,而且在念这一佛的时候有一个明确的目标:就是念佛忆佛,现前当来,必定见佛。见佛以 后要往生西方极乐世界、往生净土。这就是我们现在修净土宗的一个根本目标。四祖道信禅师的 念佛禅,是要我们自己来确定究竟是念哪一佛。你念释迦佛也行,念阿弥陀佛也行,念药师佛也行,念阿閦佛、成就佛都可以。 四祖的念佛禅其根据是从哪里来的呢?首先是《楞伽经》第一品 "一切佛语心品" 。 "一切 佛语心品" ,禅宗人的去理解和我们现在的人去理解有所不同。本来 "一切佛语心品" 是第一品, 禅宗的人把它理解成了诸佛心第一,第一品就是把佛心——诸佛的心看做是第一位。所以根据《楞伽经》来确定了念佛禅的一个理念:诸佛的心是第一位的。诸佛的心也就是众生的心,众生的心也就是诸佛的心。
The "Nian Fo Chan" Master Dao Xin advocated differs from that currently applied in the training of the Pure-Land School. It differs in that the Pure-Land School has made a definite choice to chant the name of Amitabha. During practice, practitioners have a clear objective in mind: chant the name of Amitabha and bring him back into the Mind in case attention is diverted. Then, conditions being right, practitioners would surely see him and, hence, be transported to the western blissful Pure Land. This is the very objective the Pure-Land training aims at nowadays. Regarding Master Dao Xinâs "Nian Fo Chan", it was up to practitioners to make their own choice as to whether they chanted the name of Shakyamuni (释迦佛), Amitabha (阿弥陀佛), Bhaisajyaguru (药师佛), Aksobhya (阿众佛), or Susiddhikara (成就佛) - each considered equally beneficial. On what basis did Master Dao Xin set up the "Nian Fo Chan"? In the firstly place, it derived from the "Lankavatara Sutra". This sutra begins with a chapter entitled "All Buddhaâs words are related to the Mind." The understanding of those words by Chan practitioners in the past differed from the way we understand them today. Originally, "All Buddhaâs words are related to the Mind" was the title of the first chapter; but Chan practitioners interpreted those words this way: "The Mind of all Buddhas comes first." The first chapter then suggested that the Buddhaâs Mind or the Mind of all Buddhas comes first. This is the principle of Nian Fo Chan set up by the "Lankavatara Sutra", that the Mind of all Buddhas comes first. The Mind of all Buddhas is the Mind of all sentient beings and vice versa.
第二个根据就是文殊师利菩萨所说《摩诃般若波罗蜜经》,一般的就叫《文殊说般若经》。这部经主要是讲 "一行三昧" ,三昧是什么意思呢?三昧或者叫做定、正定、等持。等持的意思,就是要使定和慧平等地保持。因为三昧不完全是定的问题,一定还有慧做基础,有慧做先导,那 么定和慧之间基本上要保持一种平衡的状态。我们平常致赞某个人做某件事情真正恰到好处,就说他深得此中三昧。这是三昧的引伸意思,但是由此也可以说明三昧的重要性。《文殊说般若经》上面讲的一行三昧是什么呢?就是说 "即念佛心是佛" 。念佛的这个心当下就是佛,当下就与佛一体,与佛成为一个完整的统一体。而我们的妄念就是凡夫。为什么说念佛心就是佛呢?念佛的心就是觉悟的心,妄念就是凡夫的心。
Secondly, it derives from of the "Pancavimsati Sahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra" (大品般若经) as explained by Bodhisattva Manjusri (文殊师利) - generally called the "Discourse on the Prajnaparamita Sutra by Bodhisattva Manjusri". This sutra mainly expounds the idea of Samadhi. What does Samadhi mean? Samadhi is also called meditation, or right mindfulness, or maintenance (等持). Maintenance means keeping meditation and wisdom alive and in parallel, that is, simultaneously. Samadhi, therefore, is not simply meditation itself, it should be based on wisdom or guided by wisdom. There should be a balanced state between meditation and wisdom. Generally, when we speak highly of somebody for having done something perfectly, we say that he or she has truly got the Samadhi of it. This is an extended meaning of the term Samadhi which, nevertheless, suggests the vital importance it plays. What did Bodhisattva Manjusri say about Samadhi in his discourse? He said: "The Mind that thinks of a Buddha is a Buddha." The moment the Mind chants the name of a Buddha is the moment the Mind is one with the Buddha or, expressed another way, the moment the Mind chants the name of a Buddha is the moment this Mind becomes fully a part of the Buddha. When we are carried away by delusions, we are ordinary people. Why do we say that the Mind that chants the name of a Buddha is a Buddha? Because it is an enlightened Mind that always thinks of the Buddha. Delusions, on the contrary, come out of an ordinary Mind.
一行三昧的基本要求就是,我们要明白和相信念佛的心就是佛,在此前提下 "系念一佛,专 称名号" 。这与净土宗持名念佛有相同的地方,所不同的是一行三昧没有指定念哪一佛,而修净 土宗则专念阿弥陀佛。在 "系念一佛,专称名号" 的时候,要 "随佛方所,端身正向,能于一佛,念念相续" 。这跟《大势至菩萨念佛圆通章》上面讲的道理基本上是一致的: "都摄六根,净念相继。" 我们选择一尊佛,并知道这尊佛是在哪一个世界,他的世界是在什么方向。比如说我们 念西方极乐世界的阿弥陀佛,你就选择面向西,端身正坐,并且能够专心致志、一心一意地来称 佛名号。在这个过程当中,你就可以见过去、未来、现在三世诸佛。这就是一行三昧称一佛名、 念念相续的基本要求。
The basic requirement of "Samadhi" is that we should understand and believe that the Mind that chants the name of a Buddha is a Buddha. Under such a condition the "Mind chants only the name of a Buddha and keeps going without intermission." This is similar to the training method or technique used in the Pure-Land School - the only difference being that Samadhi training has no fixed Buddha, whilst the Pure-Land School specifically chooses to chant Amitabha. In practice, we have to sit erect "facing towards or in the direction of the Buddha, thinking only of the Buddha whilst continuously chanting the name of the Buddha in silence." We do this in accordance with what is written in the work "Maha-Sthama-Praptaâs Attainment of Buddhahood through Chanting the Name of a Buddha" (大势至菩萨念佛圆通章). It says: "Let the six sense organs quiet down, and bring concentration to continuously bear upon a single Buddha." When we choose a Buddha, we also know where that Buddha lives or in which direction that Buddhaâs world is. For instance, we silently chant the name of Amitabha, the Buddha of the blissful western Pure Land. We have to sit erect, face the west, and bring all our concentration to bear on Amitabha, repeating the name of Amitabha to the exclusion of all else. During this process we will see all Buddhas in the past, present, and future. This is what Samadhi basically requires in practice.
在这当中,念佛禅也有一些必须做到的步骤。比如说我们要修一行三昧、修念佛禅,首先要 "端坐念实相" 。什么叫端坐念实相呢?就是通过忏悔我们以往身心的过失、罪过,使我们的身 心获得清净,然后进入佛的世界。四祖用《普贤观经》的四句话教导我们 "端坐念实相" ,将我们的身心来一次彻底的洗刷,使我们真正能够以清净的身心进入到佛的世界。《普贤观经》中的四句话是: "一切业障海,皆从妄想生,若欲忏悔者,端坐念实相。" 念实相就是要观一切法空, "观一切法,缘生而性空" 。能够观一切法缘生性空,就可以从根本上使我们的身心净化,因为观到缘生性空、观到诸法实相,我们所有的执著都能够破除。执著破除了,我们就不会继续起惑造业。
At the time of practicing the Nian Fo Chan, there are also steps we have to follow. For instance, if we want to practice Samadhi or the Nian Fo Chan, the first point is that we should "sit erect and think only of the Absolute Existence" (实相). What does this entail? It means that we have to begin by purifying our body and Mind. This is achieved through repenting of our past transgressions and defective behaviors â including those of our past lives, so as to strive and commit ourselves to the attainment of Buddhahood. This instruction comes from the "Samantabhadra Sutra" (普贤观经). The Fourth Patriarch Dao Xin, used this message to instruct us as to the fundamental importance of such prior cleanliness, for one can only reach the state of the Buddha with a truly purified body and Mind. The exact words of the sutra are as follows: "The karmic hindrances produced by various states of delusion, are endless. Those who really want to repent have to sit erect and think only of the Absolute Existence." "To think only of the Absolute Existence" refers to the insight of emptiness in relation to all dharmas, that is, "penetrating all dharmas, we see that they are subject to the law of dependent origination and are thus empty in nature." If we could really have such a deep insight, we would be able to purify our body and Mind right down to the very core. As long as we see through the dependent origination and emptiness of the phenomenal world we can understand what Absolute Existence is. We can destroy our attachments once and for all, never again becoming confused or acting inappropriately.
在这里,我想跟大家谈一谈缘生性空的 "空" 字。一切法都明明白白清清楚楚地在这里,为什么佛教却说一切法是空的呢?这个很容易引起世人的误解。佛教讲一切法空的前提是什么呢?一切法是缘生,是因缘所生。因缘用我们现在的话来说,就是条件,缘生就是说一切法的存在都是有条件的。根据这样的思路,我们可以想一想,有没有一件事情不需要任何条件就能够存在、能够发生、发展?我们从小到大、从天上到人间找不到这样一个事物——它不需要任何条件而能 够存在。一切万法都是互为条件的,它们都才能够各各安住在自己的位置上而又不会错乱,这就叫 "世法住法位,世间相常住" 。既然一切诸法都是有条件的存在,那么它的基本状态就是因条 件可聚可散而具有不稳定性和暂时性。从这个意义上来说,一切诸法都是条件的组合。既是条件的组合,所以其性本空,故名性空。不是说这个物质没有了,而是说这个东西没有一个实在性可 得。那么,相有没有呢?相还是有,只是没有一个实体的体性。所以我们在学习佛法的时候,要突破空与有、性与相、有与无这样的一些基本观念,这往往要花很长的时间。如果我们真正明白了一切事物都是有条件的存在,没有一个无条件存在的事物,那么,我们对佛教所说的我执法执、 我空法空、缘生性空这些道理就可以依稀仿佛地慢慢地加以把握了。不把握佛教的空义而想把握佛教的精神、精髓是不可能的。
Now, I want to say a few words about the "emptiness" of all dharmas. All dharmas are right here exactly as they are. Why then does Buddhism use the term "emptiness" to describe them? This is a point that people easily misunderstand. On what basis does Buddhism assert the "emptiness of all dharmas"? Simply, all dharmas are created by causes and exist interdependently. These causes are conditions under which all dharmas come into being. Based on this point of view, let us imagine whether there is anything that could exist, come about, and grow without conditions? No matter how big or small something may be, there is nothing in the universe that exists without conditions. As all dharmas are conditioned by one another, they are thus at their own place and never get disordered. This is called "As the dharmas are in their own place, the world is always as it is." Since all dharmas exist interdependently, they are just transitory and insubstantial because of ever changing conditions. From this viewpoint, all dharmas are conditioned entities, existing when necessary conditions come together. They are therefore empty in nature, hence the notion of emptiness. It does not mean the sheer nothingness of a substance, but the emptiness of an actual entity. Well then, does substance have form? Yes, it does, but this is just the temporary condition; an actual entity does not have some kind of mysterious and separate something extra. When we study the Buddhist teachings, we have to thoroughly understand such fundamental principles as these â emptiness and matter, Ultimate Reality and form (性与相) (for instance: water is the Ultimate Reality while wave is the form), existence and non-existence. It takes both a very long time, and continuous effort, to truly grasp the insight that everything exists conditionally or without conditions nothing exists. Having grasped this we would then gradually come to understand what Buddhism really means when it talks about the principles of "clinging to the Ego and the Dharma", "emptiness of oneself and the Dharma", and "dependent origination and emptiness in nature". It is impossible to grasp the spirit and quintessence of Buddhism if we do not make clear what the notion of emptiness really means.
佛教之所以为佛教,就是它能够透过并超越一切万事万物的假相看到它的实相。超越就是出世,没有超越就是世间。昨天我们不是讲嘛,彼岸世界和此岸世界并不是两个世界,而是同在一 点上。能够看到事物的实相了,你就出世,看不到事物的实相你就是在世间。看不到事物的实相 就是烦恼,看到事物的实相就是菩提。这就叫做 "即世而出世" ——在这个世间就能够出世,此岸就是彼岸。
Buddhism is a highly meaningful religion, because it transcends the false appearance of the phenomenal world and sees through to Absolute Existence or Ultimate Reality. With such transcendence we are "beyond this world", while without it we are "in this world". I mentioned yesterday that the world on this shore and that on the opposite shore are not two, but at the same point. If we see through to the Absolute Existence of a certain thing, we are beyond this world; if not we are in this world. If we do not see through to the Absolute Existence of a certain thing we are under delusions; if we do we are in Bodhi. This is called "We might be beyond this world while we are still in this world." Yes, we could do this because this shore and that shore are one.
端坐念实相者,就是要彻底地明白一切业障都是妄想所生。妄想也是依条件而产生的,是缘生法。如果我们能够一眼识破妄想的缘生空性,不再执著,那么业障就像烈日下的冰山一样,即刻就融化了。所以说 "罪从心起将心忏,心若灭时罪亦亡,心亡罪灭两俱空,是则名为真忏悔" 。
The words, "sitting erect and thinking only of Absolute Existence", ask us to understand that all karmic hindrances are produced by delusions, while delusions are also submitted to various conditions, and to the Law of Dependent Origination. If we see through the dependent arising and emptiness of delusions and break up attachments, all karmic hindrances will melt away at once like an ice mountain under the scorching sun. This is why we say: "We repent of our Mind because it is where a sin is committed. At the time when the Mind does not exist the sin does not exist. They are thereby both in the state of emptiness. This is true repentance."
我们进入一行三昧之前,先要端坐念实相,这是进入一行三昧的第一个条件。第二个条件就 是根据《大品般若经》提出的 "无所念者是名念佛" ,也就是说 "就此念佛之心,名为无所念" 。这就更高一层了。要做到念而又无所念,那就不能以平常的得失之心来念佛,而要以一种无所得 的心来念佛。这就是我昨天说的在念佛的时候不要有所希求,要 "只问耕耘莫问收获" ,这就是 念无所念。在念佛的时候不要觉得有能念、有所念,这就是念而无念、无念而念。因为我们念佛 的时候,我们此心当下即佛,不要别有追求。若别有追求,那就是在头上安头。所以经典上讲: "离心别无有佛,离佛别无有心;念佛即是念心,求心即是求佛。" 我们能够这样念佛,自自然然就能够进入禅定。
When we practice meditation (Samadhi), we have to sit erect and think only of Absolute Existence. This is the first requirement. The second point is based on the words of the "Pancavimsati Sahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra" (摩诃般若波罗密经). Here we are told that: "Being unconcerned about anything in practice means truly praying to a Buddha." That is, "The Mind that chants the name of a Buddha thinks of nothing." This is a higher-level practice. To do exactly according to this message, we have to get beyond our personal gains or losses, or think of nothing when we chant the name of a Buddha. This is just as I mentioned yesterday, that when we pray we "Do care about what we sow, but not what we reap." This is, "Being unconcerned about anything in practice means truly praying to a Buddha." When we chant the name of a Buddha, we have to rid ourselves of thoughts as to what we may or may not gain. This is what the message really means. The moment we chant the name of a Buddha, our Mind directly comes to the state of the Buddha. What else need we seek for then? Nothing else. The Buddhist classics say: "There is no Buddha away from the Mind. There is no Mind away from the Buddha. To chant the name of a Buddha is to chant the Mind. To pray to the Mind is to pray to the Buddha." If we do accordingly in our practice, we will naturally reach the state of Samadhi.
第三点就是我们在念佛的时候不要起攀缘心。攀缘心指什么呢?比如念佛时希望见到佛,希 望得神通得感应,这些都是攀缘心。有这种攀缘心,也可能会见到佛,也可能会有感应,但那是靠不住的。因为感应可能是正常的,也可能是不正常的。因为有许多外在的事物,虽然我们看不见,但是它们时时刻刻都有一种能量,也会左右我们。这种能量可能是积极的,也可能是消极的;可能是正的,也可能是邪的,既有佛也有魔。如果我们自己把握不好,一旦为魔所乘,魔进入到我们的身心,这就是我们平常所说的修行出了偏差,这就是攀缘心所致。我们不要有攀缘心,一切都要任其自然,时时刻刻把握念佛即是念心、求心即是求佛。能够把握这样一些基本要领,我 们就不会被一些消极的、邪的东西所干扰。所以我们对于一切外在的东西不要起攀缘,对待一切事物要用平等心、无二心去看待,这样就可以少走许多弯路,甚至于不走弯路。
The third point is that we must not cling to anything when practicing the Nian Fo Chan. What is the Mind that clings and that has certain attachments? It is the Mind that in meditating on and in praying to a Buddha hopes, for instance, to encounter that Buddha, or acquire paranormal powers. With such a Mind, we may indeed come to encounter the Buddha or develop paranormal powers, but only in an unreliable and unpredictable way. This is because such abilities might be either normal or abnormal. With such a Mind we leave ourselves vulnerable to manipulation, to an adverse encounter with certain external and invisible energies or forces. This kind of energy might be positive or negative, might be right or wrong, might be a Buddha or a devil. If we get out of control we give the devil a chance to come into our Mind. Hence the general thought that: In our practice we are misled by attachments. Weâd better not cling to anything, instead let things go as they are, and always make it clear that, "to chant the name of a Buddha is to chant the Mind. To pray to the Mind is to pray to the Buddha." If we can fully understand these basic principles, we will stay away from negative or vicious things. This is the reason why we should not cling to external things, but treat them with an impartial Mind, not a separated or discriminating Mind. By doing so, we can avoid detours, or make such detours completely unnecessary.
第四点就是我们在修一行三昧、修念佛禅的时候,要排除有能观之心和所观之佛,要把能和所这样一个界限逐步消除。在开始的时候还是要有能有所,开始的时候我们不可能一步到位,是 做不到能所双亡的,这要逐步地来。只有逐步做到能所双亡了,一切外缘,包括积极的、消极的,都不能够干扰我们,我们自己才能真正做一个与佛同在的人 这就是四祖讲的进入一行三昧、修念佛禅所应该把握的几点要求。
The fourth point is that, at the time when we practice Samadhi, or the Nian Fo Chan, we should gradually put aside all notions concerning what the Mind may or may not be able to penetrate, or which Buddha the Mind ought to pray to and focus upon. That is, we should get rid of all ideas and preconceptions as to what we can do and to whom. At the beginning, however, it is not possible to reach such a state directly. Therefore, at such times as our attention slips and the Mind wanders away on beguiling trains of thought and fantasy, it is necessary for us to concentrate the Mind by chanting the name of a Buddha. This whole process then, before we reach the stage of forgetting both self and Buddha, is a long and gradual one. It is only at such a time as we are able to put aside both the Mind that prays and the Buddha that the Mind prays to, whilst also putting aside all external conditions - including both positive and negative ones, that we will finally be free from all attachments and become one with the Buddha. The four points mentioned above, are what Master Dao Xin taught us to do in relation to the practice of Samadhi or Nian Fo Chan.
道信禅师根据《观无量寿经》的教诲阐述了心与佛的关系,直接了当,完全把中介物都排除了,使我们的心当下就能够超越,超越到与佛平等,所谓 "是心是佛,是心作佛" 。如果我们能 够体会到这一点,知道 "心是心作" 的道理,那么诸佛的法身就能够进入到我们一切心想当中。我们就能够真正达到心佛众生三无差别的境界,念佛禅到此可以说就达到了炉火纯青、进入三昧 的境界了。那时我们马上就能够知道,佛就是心,心外更无别佛,心佛同体,自己就能够圆满地体会到与佛无二无别的境界。
要达到这种 "心作心是" 的境界,必须具备五个条件。这五个条件是什么呢?
Based on the teachings of the "Sutra on the Sixteen Contemplations" 《观无量寿经》, Master Dao Xin expounded the relation between the Mind and a Buddha in a direct way; a way that breaks down all barriers of separation and allows us to reach a transcendental state equal to a Buddha. It is called: "The Mind is a Buddha; it is this Mind that functions as a Buddha." If we were to be fully aware of this point and have a clear understanding of the message that, "Mind is the source from which all thoughts flow", our Mind would become enlightened by innumerable dharmas. We would truly reach the state described as: "The Mind, the Buddha, and a living being are one" - the state of Samadhi. This is the highest degree of attainment in the Nian Fo Chan practice. Only at that time can we directly know that the Buddha is the
Mind, that there is no other Buddha apart from the Mind, and that both the Mind and Buddha are one. At such a time we would experience exactly the same state as that reached and attained by the Buddha.
There are five conditions required in order to reach the state mentioned above. What are these five? First, we have to be aware what the Mind is. To see into our own Mind is a matter of insight. Our Mind is originally pure in nature and contains everything we need; the essence and seed of Buddhahood is already present. This is the inherent nature of the Mind. If we were to look for another Buddha, away from this inherent nature of the Mind, we would never achieve success.
第二要知心用,知道我们的心由体起用。心体的作用是什么呢?它的作用就是在起作用的时 候又寂然不动,这就是心体的作用。如果说在起作用的时候,心动起来了,不是寂而常照,而是 心地起波澜,那样一切妄念就会浮出来。只有在起作用的时候又能够保持寂静,这样一切惑业才能够变成真如佛性,一切烦恼才能够转化成菩提。
Second, we have to know how the Mind functions, how it functions through our body. What is the Mindâs function? It is a special kind of function that operates whilst remaining quiet and still. If the Mind were to become excited when it functions, it would be carried away by delusion, and would never be peaceful and mindful. It is only when the Mind remains quiet and still in its functioning that it can transform delusion into true Buddha-nature, and turn anxiety into Bodhi.
Third, we have to be mindful all the time, that is, to keep an enlightened and mindful state of Mind without intermission. What is the Dharma-dhatu (法界) taught by the Buddha? It is the Absolute Existence of the phenomenal world. If we make clear what the Absolute Existence is, our Mind will be in accord with it. We will thereby be able to maintain the state of mindfulness at all times.
Fourth, we should not attach ourselves to anything, that is, we should free ourselves from the idea of "a self, an entity, a living being, or a person". This implies the inherent emptiness of existence and of our own being. Only then can we hold on to the state of peacefulness, free from all attachment and delusion.
Fifth, we must be single-minded. This is an issue concerning training method and technique. That is, our concentration ought to be brought to bear on a single object to the exclusion of all else. Once attention slips it is impossible to reach the state of Samadhi, the state of single-mindedness. On the contrary, once we lay all personal problems and preoccupations aside, whether in action or stillness, we are more easily brought to see our own Buddha-nature, or into the state of Samadhi. Regarding this point, I am going to talk about it in a bit more detail when I come to the way of training later on. For now, that is all I have to say about the ability Master Dao Xin proclaimed in relation to the Nian Fo Chan. Essentially, it guides practitioners in the single-minded chanting of a Buddhaâs name so as to reach the state of Samadhi.
下面讲第二个问题就是道信禅师念佛禅所持的见地是什么。道信禅师念佛禅的观点,大体上 可以用这样一句话来概括叫 "万法不离方寸" 。他是把我们这个心用一个形象化的比喻来加以说 明我们的心并不是指这个肉团心,当然也不离肉团心。不即肉团心、不离肉团心,不在外、不在 内、不在中间,这就是我们心的状态。但是道信大师说不离方寸有什么好处呢?它能够使我们在 观想的时候能够集中到一点上来看问题,这样我们就很容易进入一行三昧,进入到禅定的境界。
Now, let us come to another issue. What is the insight that Master Dao Xin proclaimed in respect to the Nian Fo Chan? The major principle of Nian Fo Chan that Master Dao Xin laid down can be explained in one phrase: "All dharmas come out of the Mind". Master Dao Xin described the Mind using a metaphor: the Mind does not refer to the heart yet it never breaks away from or separates itself from the heart. This is the state of our Mind. It is not the heart but does not leave the heart. It is neither something inside nor outside, nor something in between. For what purpose, however, did Master Dao Xin stress this message that "all dharmas come out of the Mind"? The reason is that it allows us to concentrate on a single point in our practice, so that we can easily reach the state of Samadhi, the state of Chan meditation.
道信禅师在接引牛头法融禅师的时候有一段非常精彩的话。道信的弟子除了五祖弘忍以外, 还有一位大弟子就是牛头法融。道信实际上传出了两个宗:一个是禅宗本身,一个叫做牛头宗。 牛头宗也传了好几代,也出了几位大禅师。他对牛头法融禅师说: "百千法门,同归方寸。河沙 妙德,总在心源。一切戒门、定门、慧门,神通变化,悉自具足,不离汝心。" 这就是见地问题。
一切东西我们都本自具足,只是它被妄想覆盖住了,一点也显现不出来。我们一定要有这样的见地,不然,我们的努力就等于白废功夫。比如说我们要挖掘宝藏,首先要了解清楚这里确实是有 宝藏,我们才能进行挖掘。挖了半天什么也没有,那不是白费劲吗?所以我们一定明白,百千法 门同归方寸,百千法门不离自心,离心无别佛,离佛别无心。所以是心是佛,是心作佛。河沙妙 德——三十二相、八十种好、十力、四无畏,一切胜妙功德,总在心源,不离自心。学佛法要从 "戒定慧" 三学起修,一切戒门、定门、慧门、神通变化,像这样的一些功德智慧,我们本自具 足,也不离我们每个人的方寸。
At the time when Master Dao Xin was guiding Niutou Farong (594 â 657), he expressed an insight that was both deep and extremely precious. Niutou Farong was another chief disciple of Master Dao Xin besides the Fifth Patriarch Hong Ren (602 - 675). That is, Master Dao Xin had actually transmitted down both the Chan School and the Niutou School. The Niutou School was handed down over many generations, and the school produced several historically renowned masters. The insightful statement Master Dao Xin delivered to Niutou Farong is as follows: " The hundreds of gates to the Tao all come from the Mind. Excellent merits, as many as the countless grains of sand, all derive from the Mind. The gates of precept, meditation, and wisdom, varied as they are, are all to be found occurring naturally in our Mind; they are never separate or apart from our Mind." This is a matter of insight. We should be capable of such an insight, that we have everything we need as part of our nature, yet being covered up by delusions it does not reveal itself. Without such an insight all our efforts in self-training are wasted. This is just like unearthing buried treasure. First though, we have to make clear where it is buried, only then can we start the digging. Otherwise, digging in the wrong place, we would find nothing. It would be a waste of time wouldnât it? We must, therefore, fully understand the massage that "the hundreds of gates to the Tao all come from the Mind". The hundreds of gates are not apart or separate from the Mind; there is no Buddha away from, apart or separate from the Mind or, again, there is no Mind away or distinct from the Buddha. That is, the Mind is a Buddha; it is this Mind that functions as a Buddha. Excellent merits, including the thirty-two phases (三十二相), eighty good deeds (八十种好), ten powers (十力), and four fearlessnesses (四无畏), all derive from the Mind, never being away from or other than the Mind. In our self-training we begin by practicing the precepts, meditation, and wisdom, which are all various gates to the Tao. We were born with all those merits and all that wisdom as part of our Mind; it is our natural and inherent state.
虽然我们具足一切河沙妙德,但是我们每天所面对的却是无奈、挣扎、痛苦。我想,不论是出家人还是在家人,在没有真正开悟之前,都要面对这一切。我们所面对的这个世界,除了无奈 还是无奈,除了挣扎还是挣扎,因为我们做不了主。所以要真正从无奈中走出,从挣扎下得到解脱,那得真修行不可,不修行是永无解脱之期的。道信大师教导我们: "对一切境缘,但莫分别即自如如。" 河沙妙德总在心源,我们面对挣扎与无奈怎么办呢?在这一切境缘上面,你不要去分别它,而要用一实相来印定它。这样一切都是如如,一切都是真如。
Though we are naturally endowed with all these excellences, yet still we live our everyday lives full of frustration, conflict, and suffering. We have to address all these problems before we can become truly enlightened, no matter whether we are a Bhikkhu (monk), Bhikkhuni (nun) (出家人) or a lay Buddhist. Because in such a ceaselessly shifting phenomenal world of appearances we have so little say, we cannot but help continuing to live according to the dictates of this surface play of phenomena. In order to break free from all this frustration, conflict, and suffering, we must practice self-training. Otherwise, we will never achieve release. Master Dao Xin taught us to "not look at the phenomenal world with a separated Mind; then suchness will reveal itself". As all thoughts issue from the Mind, what should we do when faced with conflicts and frustrations? We must break down all sense of separation and come to see through to the Absolute Existence of the phenomenal world. This is how the phenomenal world is before conceptual thoughts begin to reify and organize it. This is what Tathagata (真如) (suchness) is. Frustrations and anxieties, thereby, derive from nowhere other than our separated, discriminating Mind.
Now, let us come to an account of what the phenomenal world really is. It is not what we think it is as a concrete event. Our perception of the world as constituted by our collection of thoughts and memories is distorted. Those thoughts and memories are just transitory and insubstantial. We feel anxious everyday, however, it is not the external world but, rather, our Mind that makes us think like this. For instance, if the fact is that everybody is friendly towards you, it is you yourself that confusedly and mistakenly think that someone is ignoring or turning aside from you, because, so it seems, he thinks ill of you. All those thoughts come out of your own Mind, the separated Mind. Each of us, no matter whether young or old, has to think it over. It is our Mind that makes us unhappy.
道信禅师讲,外在世界叫境缘,境缘无好丑,这个境这个缘没有好也没有丑。什么是好、什么是丑?好丑起于心,好和丑都是我们心在分别。我们第一天讲到受用的时候曾经讲了两个小故事,那都是我们的心在作怪。 "心若不强名,妄情从何起?" 我们的心总在给外在世界安立各种 各样的假名,好的、丑的、黄的、白的、胖的、瘦的、张三、李四。有了这些假名,接着就有了妄情。我们不去安立、不去架构、不去虚设,妄情从何而起呢?所以我们都是在自己跟自己过不去。
Master Dao Xin said that the external things are "environmental conditions", they are neither good nor bad. What is the good or bad? Something good or bad comes out of our Mind, the separated Mind. In my first lecture I told you two stories, one about Master Zi Bai (1543 â 1603) reading in the evening, and the other about Master Yuan Xiao and his followers traveling to a lonely place. Those characters reacted quite differently due to having or not having a separated Mind. "If the Mind does not willfully name external things, where could delusions come from?" In fact, our Mind always does name external things: good or bad, yellow or white, fat or thin, this person or that person. Amongst all these false names, we are swept away by delusions. Suppose we do not name them, constitute them, or make them nominal, where then would delusions come from? We are, therefore, doing something harmful to ourselves.
这个语言的世界、符号的世界、概念的世界,把我们每个人都弄得晕头转向。佛教把语言的 世界叫名言世间。名言者,概念也。我们每个人每天并没有真正生活在一个实实在在的世界里,而是生活在概念世界里面。有一首流行歌曲叫《跟着感觉走》,我们做不到跟着感觉走,而是跟 着概念走。感觉是比较直接的东西,我们往往是跟着间接的东西在走;并非跟着事物本身走,而是跟着我们给那个事物所安立的名相和概念走。佛教讲, "见缘起者见法,见法者见佛。" 见缘 起是什么呢?就是见到那个事物了,真正跟那个事物接触了。好比说我现在眼睛不看,我的手摸着一个什么东西,心没有分别,只是一个直接的接触。当我睁眼一看,发现是一个话筒,于是心 里就起分别:这个话筒值多少钱,没有人的时候,我是不是可以把它拿回去。世界上的一切事情 都是这样而来的,我们就是生活在一个概念的世界当中,生活在一个名言的世界当中,没有真正 生活在一个实实在在的物质世界里。
The phenomenal world, comprised of words, signs, and concepts, makes us confused. Buddhism calls it a world of name and form. Name and form are no more than concepts. Therefore we do not live our everyday lives in a real world, but in a world of concepts. Within the last few years there was a popular song called "Keep going by personal feeling". However, we canât. Instead we are propelled along by a series of concepts and are unable, therefore, to keep going according to our feeling. Feeling is direct first-hand experience, yet we often keep going by something indirect. That is, we are not led by the true nature of things but by the name and form we have given to them, by concepts we have kept in mind about them. In the Buddhist teachings, we are invited to perceive the Law of Dependent Origination (缘起法). "Those who have truly understood the Law of Dependent Origination see the Dharma; those who have seen the Dharma see the Buddha." What does it mean? It means that when we awake to the Law we see the true nature of a certain thing and truly encounter that thing. For instance, now I close my eyes and touch something by hand. Without separation, it is just direct first-hand experience. Opening my eyes and finding a microphone in hand, my mind becomes carried away by discrimination: how much does it cost? Can I take it back home when there is nobody around? This is the way we so frequently are, the way we so often relate to the world. We live in a world full of concepts, and subscribe blindly to the consensus view and never give it so much as a second thought. With such a distorted perception of the world how can we truly live our lives?
心如果不给这个真实的世界安立种种的差别名相,我们就不会有妄情。 "妄情既不起,真心 任遍之" ,那样我们的真心就会现前,就像镜子照一切物一样,用智慧观照,而不是用识去分别。当我们用智慧观照世界的时候,一切都是那么美好、那么圆满。当我们用识分别——就是一切从 我出发的时候,一切都充满了烦恼。这个人对我好、那个人对我不好;这件事对我好、那件事对 我不好。这都是从一个很小的圈子、从自我出发,并没有真正地从一切事物的本来面目出发。所 以不是 "真心任遍之" ,而是用妄心在片面地看客观世界。
刚才讲的是道信大师关于念佛禅的见地,根本一点就是 "百千法门,同归方寸,河沙妙德,总在心源" ,这是他的根本要点所在。
Suppose our Mind does not give the external things various names and forms, delusions would never bother us. "If delusions did not bother us the true nature of Mind would be there as it is." The true nature of Mind then, like a mirror, would show us the true nature of things. This is mindfulness guided by wisdom, but not separation by conceptual thought. When we look at the world with such mindfulness, everything is marvelous and perfect. When we look at the world with a separated Mind or a self-centered Mind, everything is full of distress. One would think that someone is friendly to me while another is not; this thing is to my advantage whilst that thing is not. Thinking in this manner, living in this manner, he would be trapped in a very small self-centered circle. Not seeing through to the true nature of things, such a person looks at the world with a delusive Mind, not with "the true nature of Mind" being always there as it is. Regarding the insight of Nian Fo Chan as taught by Master Dao Xin, the fundamental point is reflected in his saying: "The hundreds of gates to the Tao all come from the Mind. Excellent merits, as many as countless grains of sand, all derive from the Mind." This is the key point emphasized by Master Dao Xin.
下面我想讲第三个问题,就是念佛禅的方法,或者是说进入一行三昧的方法。道信禅师的禅 修方法就是 "守一不移" 。我想,这一点不但是修行的诀窍,也是我们做一切事业的诀窍。做一 切事业、成就一切事业的根本方法就是认准一个目标不动摇。这个方法是从哪里来的呢?是道信 禅师继承了南北朝时代傅大士的方法。道信大师说,诸经禅观之法有多种多样,但是傅大士所说只是单独地举了一个 "守一不移" 。傅大士是梁武帝时代的一个了不起的人物,他是弥勒菩萨转 世。弥勒菩萨的应化,在梁武帝时候应化的就是傅大士,在五代时候应化的就是布袋和尚。
Next, I am going to talk about the third aspect, the practical way of Nian Fo Chan, or the way to reach the state of Samadhi. The way of training Master Dao Xin proclaimed is "to be always single-minded". This, I think, is not only the secret of self-training, but also the secret of running any business. Aiming at a certain target unswervingly and striving hard, is the only way to get business done or to bring projects to successful fruition. Where did this way of training originate? It was initiated by Master Shanhui Fuxi (傅大士, 497â569) in the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420 â 589) and inherited by Master Dao Xin. Master Dao Xin said that the training methods listed in the sutras were varied, but what Master Fuxi proclaimed was simply "being always single-minded" in the training. Master Fuxi was the finest talent during the reign of Emperor Wu of Liang. It is said he was the incarnation of Bodhisattva Maitreya. The Nirmanakaya (incarnation) of Bodhisattva Maitreya was Master Fuxi in the reign of Emperor Wu of Liang during the Northern and Southern Dynasties; and was Master Qici (布袋和尚 , ?â916) in the Five Dynasty period (684-705).
傅大士说: "守一不移者,以此空净眼,任意看一物。无间昼夜时,专精常不动。其心欲弛 散,急手还摄来。如绳系鸟足,欲飞还掣取。终日看不已,泯然心自定。" "空净眼" ,空就是 一切法空,一切法空的眼就是法眼,就是清净眼。 "一切法有 ",就不是空眼,就不是清净眼, 就是有瞖之眼。 "以此空净眼,任意看一物" ,以我们的法眼能够集中注意力看一件东西,就是守一。五祖的禅法依据《十六观经》里边讲的看太阳、观太阳,平视太阳或远或近。你去观想一 个假想的太阳,慢慢地你的注意力就能够集中。这是从有相来修,从有相修到无相。专心致志地 念一佛号也是注意看一物,称其名字、念念相续。 "无间昼夜时,专精常不动" ,不管是白天还 是晚上,都不要间断。专心致志,精进不懈,精而不杂,不要动摇,不要转移。这是一个总的要 求。万一心动了怎么办? "其心欲驰散,急手还摄来" ,如果说我们的心起了妄念怎么办?他讲 得很形象,马上伸手把它拽过来,意思是在妄念起来时不要跟着走就行了,你跟着走就错了,你 不跟着走当下就收回来。他打了个比喻, "如绳系鸟足,欲飞还掣取" 。拿绳子把鸟的脚系住了,鸟要飞怎么办呢?你马上又把它拽回来,不让它飞掉。鸟比喻的我们这个心,绳子就比喻我们念 佛的这一念。我们的心要分散精力了,你就以佛号把分散的心拉回来,集中注意力在佛名上面。 像这样 "终日看不已,泯然心自定" 。用这种方法每天这么去做,专精不移,终日不要转移目标,我们的心自然就泯然。泯然就是停止一切妄念,泯就是消亡的意思。一切妄念停止了,我们的心 就自然安定。当然守一不移在这个时候还是有心在用,而不是无心在用,故有能有所。我们初用 功夫的人一定要从有心用功、有能有所开始。从有心用到无心用,从有能所到无能所,到能所双亡,那就是得三昧的境界了。
Master Fuxi said, "being always single-minded refers to looking at everything with a peaceful and purified Mind, wholeheartedly and unswervingly throughout both night and day. If the Mind is carried away by delusions, bring it back at once âby handâ. This is just like tying a piece of string or cord to a birdâs leg so as to prevent it from flying away whenever it wants. If we go on practicing in such a way day and night, our Mind naturally reaches the state of Samadhi" "A peaceful and purified Mind" refers to the purified eyes (also called dharma-eyes) that can see and penetrate the emptiness of all dharmas. On the contrary, if we fail to see the essential emptiness of all dharmas, then we do not have a peaceful and purified Mind or purified eyes. "Looking at everything with a peaceful and purified Mind" refers to gazing at a certain thing with dharma-eyes one-pointedly. That is "being always single-minded". There is a way of contemplation described in the "Sutra on the Sixteen Contemplations" that instructs us to imagine looking at the sun, contemplating the sun, and in our practice observing it from different angles both near and far. Based on this method, Master Dao Xin taught us to contemplate a hypothetical sun; in this way our Mind would gradually come to a single point. This training method begins with an external thing and ends without it; it begins from the point or perspective of something external and ends or leads to the state of one-pointedness. Chanting the name of a Buddha, wholeheartedly without intermission, is the same as gazing at a certain thing with the Mind. "Keep going wholeheartedly and unswervingly day and night" means we have to go on practicing day and night without intermission, be single-minded and unshakeable, and make every conscious effort to achieve success. This is the basic requirement. What should we do if the Mind becomes disturbed? "If the Mind is carried away, get it back at once âby handâ." At such a time as our Mind becomes carried away by delusions, what should we do? Master Fuxi said, in a figurative way, that we should stretch out immediately to get it back. If a delusive thought comes to Mind, it is okay so long as we are not carried away by that thought. However, if we are, we must immediately get the Mind back. Here, Master Fuxi used a metaphor: "This is just like tying a piece of string or cord to a birdâs leg so as to prevent it from flying away whenever it wants." Being tied to the spot with string, how could the bird fly away? As soon as the bird wants to fly away, the string will stop it. The bird metaphorically expresses the Mind, the string the very thought and process of chanting the name of a Buddha. As our attention slips we get it back by chanting, by actively concentrating on that chanting. "If we go on practicing in such a way day and night, our Mind naturally reaches the state of Samadhi." By continuously practicing in this way everyday, wholeheartedly and unswervingly, we would be able to cut through all delusions and discover the land of clarity and peace. When delusions are stopped, our Mind is naturally in the state of meditation. At this stage of "single-mindedness", of course, the Mind still works consciously, not unconsciously. The perspectives of subjective and objective still exist for us. At the beginning of our practice, we have to setout with an awareness of what we can do and what can be done in our Mind. By and by, we forget both these dualistic perspectives. At this final stage we truly reach the state of Samadhi. "To be always single-minded", I think, has been applied to various ways of training up until now. It is a continuance of the Chan training taught by Master Fuxi and is, in fact, the fundamental approach of all trainings. Generally speaking then, this way of training is called "single-mindedness" in Chan practice. When we practice, concentration is brought to bear on a single object to the exclusion of all else. This way of training is the defining aspect of traditional Chan practice.
可以说,一直到今天,守一不移这种方法还为各种法门所沿用。这个方法是继承了傅大士所 传的禅修方法,也可以说是修一切法门的一个基本方法。一般讲禅修时,这种方法被叫做 "心一境性" ,心专注在一个对象上,境就是对象。守一不移这个方法是我们传统禅法里边的精髓所在。
So far I have talked about ability, insight, and the way of training pertaining to Master Dao Xinâs gate with respect to three main points: "the Ekavyuda-Samadhi", "All dharmas come out of the Mind", and "to be always single-minded". Now, I want to make a brief account of Master Dao Xin.
四祖7岁出家,12岁就跟随三祖僧璨。他跟随三祖僧璨有12年时间,到24岁的时候,已经完全继承了三祖的心地法门。三祖僧璨那时就到广东罗浮山去隐居。四祖得了法还没有受戒,六祖也 是得了法还没出家,先隐居了15年才来落发受戒。所以法是平等的,不论是在家人还是出家人都 可以得到,这就体现了佛法的伟大和平等精神——要得道见性,不见得就非是出家人不可,在家 人一样能够修到究竟。两位祖师就是一个很明显的例子。当然作为传法还是要现僧相、现比丘相,这样他才有摄受力和教化力,因为释迦牟尼佛也是现出家相来教化众生的。
Master Dao Xin became a novice at the age of seven, and was guided by the Third Patriarch Seng Can (? â 606) from the age of twelve to twenty four. During those twelve years, he devotedly carried out the way of training his master taught him. After that time his master went to live in seclusion on Luofu Mountain, Guangdong Province. Master Dao Xin then inherited the Dharma, but had not yet taken the final vows to be a Bhikkhu. This was similar to the situation of the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng. Hui Neng, being a Dharma heir, lived in seclusion for fifteen years and then took the precepts of a Bhikkhu. In relation to ourselves the Dharma is inherently equal, pertaining to everybody, no matter whether a lay Buddhist or a Bhikkhu. If a lay Buddhist sees into his own Buddha-nature, he attains Buddhahood. The two cases above clearly express the great and equal spirit of Buddhadharma. Regarding the Dharma preaching, one should be a monk or Bhikkhu first and then he can preach the Buddhist teachings, because Shakyamuni (释迦牟尼) himself proclaimed the Dharma as a Bhikkhu.
四祖三十多岁才定居在现在的黄梅西山双峰山。四祖除了提出具体的禅法以外,他还对禅宗 的形成和发展作出了重要的贡献,这主要体现在他改变了历代禅师传法的方式。四祖之前的历代 禅师都是在一座山里边、一个石崖边,搭一个茅棚住在那里。而四祖改变了这个状况,他在双峰山底下修了一个大庙,有几百徒众聚在那里。这样一来聚徒教学,使禅宗从没有根据地到有一个根据地,从分散修行到集中修行,这样做有利于一个教团或者教派的成立和发展。假设人员总是分散的,既不利于管理,也不利于形成一种合力。这是第一点。
Master Dao Xin, in his thirties, finally settled down, residing on the Mount Shuangfeng in Huangmei. Master Dao Xin, on the one hand, established a way of training, on the other hand, he also made a fundamental contribution towards the formation and development of the Chan School. He had actually first changed the traditional method of Dharma dissemination. Previously, masters often built a thatched cottage by a hillside or under a cliff and lived there. Master Dao Xin opened up a new way by building a large temple at the foot of Mount Shuangfeng. There, several hundred practitioners lived together in the temple for the purpose of Dharma dissemination. With the temple as a base, they practiced together for the first time. This brought about a favorable condition for the formation and development of a Sangha or a religious school. If practitioners lived separately, it was not easy to disseminate the Dharma, nor could they easily work together in any sort or joint effort or endeavor. This is the first point.
The second is that in the old days Huangmei was an economically very backward place. Even now it is not particularly prosperous. At that time, when several hundred people lived together, the problem of how to feed them became a critical issue. Ever since Buddhism moved from India to China, there had been a conflict between Confucianism and Buddhism concerning how best to feed the Sangha. Confucians felt strongly about this issue and often argued with Buddhists about the fact that monks neither produced what they ate nor what they wore. Those who have studied Buddhist history know that the critical debate revolved around the issue of self-sufficiency. In order to solve this problem, Master Dao Xin promoted the way of supporting themselves by their own hands. They ploughed the fields and sowed seeds, maintaining the principle of "no work no food". Thus, being able to live a self-sufficient life, they could continue with their practice.
他就用这种方法解决了基本的生活需要,这在中国佛教史上可以说是一大革命。中国佛教如 果没有走这条路的话,就没有今天。为什么这么说呢?如果不这样,在唐武宗灭法的时候,佛教 就会被彻底地被消灭了,就再也起不来了。佛教之所以没有被消灭,就是因为只有禅宗不化缘, 在水边林下开一块地就能够生活,解决了吃饭这个经济问题。百丈禅师提出 "一日不作,一日不食" ,他解决了这个问题。在经济上没有问题了,教团的发展就消除了基本的障碍。这些东西到现在还值得我们很好地去回味。如果不总结历史教训,我们也可能随时随地会遇到新的困难。这 不是危言耸听啊,这是我经常思考的一个问题。所以禅宗提出 "一日不作,一日不食" ,这是我 们中国佛教的优良传统之一,特别在解放后,我们重点地发扬了这一项优良传统。解放后佛教能 够延续、能够生存下来,也就是靠这把锄头——这把锄头能够种地,能够弄点饭吃,这样,我们这一件衣服保存下来了,我们这一本经书保存下来了,我们这个形象保存下来了,所以才有今天 的佛教。这是一个很严肃、很重要的教训和经验。有了四祖的 "不作不食" ,才有百丈禅师完整地把这种精神体现出来;有了四祖 "建庙聚僧" 这样一些举措,才有马祖建丛林。 "马祖建丛林,百丈立清规" ,在中国佛教史上,在中国禅宗史上,这可以说是一个翻天覆地的改革活动。假如 没有这样一些重大改革的话,中国佛教就没有今天。当时,为什么要改革呢?就是为了适应中国 的国情。中国是一个重农的国家,是一个对托钵化饭吃的人不恭敬的国家。托钵化饭吃是乞丐, 谁会恭敬一个乞丐呢? "四体不勤,五谷不分" 的人才托钵化饭,这跟印度的风土人情完全不同。印度托钵化饭吃受到恭敬,认为这是修道的人;而中国认为这种人是懒惰的人——你年纪轻轻的,为什么来托钵化饭吃啊?你不晓得去干活啊?改革就是为了适应中国的文化背景、社会制度,改革是佛教中国化的必由之路。
By means of physical labor, Master Dao Xin found a solution to the basic living requirements of the Sangha. This was a revolutionary idea in Chinese Buddhist history, without which probably no Buddhism would exist today. Why do I say this? I think that without the innovative introduction of self-sufficient methods Buddhism would have completely come to an end. Certainly, it would not have stood up against the Huichang setback that occurred in the period of Emperor Wuzong (841 â 846), during the later Tang Dynasty (618 - 907). Buddhism survived only because Chan masters â wherever they resided, by the waters or in the forest. - did not rely on offerings but supported themselves by their own labor. It was Master Baizhang Huaihai (720 â 814) who solved this issue of basic livelihood by laying down the principle of: "A day without work is a day without food." With the problem of basic needs solved, the number one hindrance to the growth of the Sangha had been removed. This issue is worthy of reconsideration at the present time. If we do not learn from the past, we may find ourselves confronted by difficulties. This is not an exaggerated statement, but a matter I my self often consider. Chan Buddhism in China still upholds that: "A day without work is a day without food" â this is one of the finest Buddhist traditions. The upholding of this principle became increasingly important and relevant after the founding of the New China in 1949. Through consistently putting this traditional idea into action, Buddhism has managed to survive, and indeed grow day by day. It was by performing manual labor with hoes to plough the fields that the Sangha became self-supporting. In direct consequence the Buddhist robe, scriptures, and traditions were kept very much alive, and are thus reflected in todayâs Buddhism. Hence we clearly learned an important and serious lesson and gained valuable experience. It was only because of Master Dao Xinâs principle of "no work no food" that Master Baizhang was later able to compile the rules and regulations that manifested the spirit of Buddhism; it was down to Master Dao Xinâs example of "setting up of a temple and housing monks together" that Master Mazu Daoyi (709 â 788) later began building temples. In the history of Buddhism and that of the Chan School in China, these events: the building of temples by Master Mazu and the laying down of the rules and regulations by Master Baizhang, were extraordinarily great innovations. Without them, Buddhism would not be as it is today. What then allowed for those innovations to be realized at that time? They occurred in accordance with the changing conditions in China. China was an agricultural country that emphasized manual labor, a place where people seldom showed respect for those who begged for food. Those begging alms from door to door were considered no better or different from ordinary beggars; how could people show respect for such persons? People generally thought that it was only those who "could not perform manual labor and could not tell the five cereals one from the other" who begged for food. The local conditions and customs here in China were quite different from that in India. People in India respected those who begged alms as truth-seekers, however, people in China would think such people unwilling to work, thinking: "As young as they are, why donât they do any work, instead relying on begging for support?" It is very interesting. These innovations were made according to the cultural background and social system in China at that time. In retrospect we can see that it was the only way to innovate in order to firmly establish Buddhism in China.
That is why we say that Master Dao Xinâs work has contributed enormously to the setup and growth of the Chan School in China. The set of principles or ideals he put forward and laid-down, and the way of self-sufficiency he upheld, laid solid ideological, structural, and economic foundations for the further development of Buddhism thereafter. What he bequeathed then, can be seen as a vital inheritance to both the Fifth Patriarch Hong Ren and, later, to the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng.
Yesterday, someone handed in a note asking the difference between the Chan School and the Pure-Land School.
什么是禅?什么是净?念佛不见得就是净, "念佛禅" 嘛,念佛本身是禅的一种。关于什么是禅,前天已经讲过了。《法华经》上面佛有四句话,我想提供给大家思考: "佛自住大乘,如其所得法。定慧力庄严,以此度众生。" 佛所得的法就是 "定慧力庄严" 。定慧等持者名为禅。 六祖大师讲得很清楚,什么是禅呢? "即定之时慧在定,即慧之时定在慧" ,这就叫做禅。佛所 住的大乘,不是别的,就是 "定慧力庄严" ,这就是禅,这就是佛法的究竟。佛法的究竟是什么,就是禅。定慧等持、定慧庄严就是禅。 What is the Chan School? What is the Pure-Land School? The way of chanting the name of a Buddha is not necessarily connected only with the Pure-Land School. Regarding the "Nian Fo Chan", chanting the name of a Buddha itself is a way of Chan training. As to what Chan is, I talked a lot about it in my first lecture the day before yesterday. The Buddha said in the "Saddharma Pundarika Sutra" (法华经, The Lotus Sutra) that: "The Buddhaâs teachings spread all over Mahayana; they are what the Buddha himself has attained in person. To work hard on Samadhi (meditation) and Prajna (wisdom) at the same time is the way by which the Buddha delivers all sentient beings." I hope you will think these words over. What the Buddha attained in person was "working hard on Samadhi and Prajna at the same time", which is, simultaneously the essence of Chan. The Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng made it very clear in the "Tan Sutra" (坛经) what Chan is. It is that, "at the very moment we attain Samadhi, Prajna is therein; at the very moment we attain Prajna, Samadhi is therein." This is called Chan. Regarding Mahayana, the Buddhaâs basic teachings are focused on "working hard on Samadhi and Prajna simultaneously". This is Chan, the ultimate truth of Dharma. In other words, Chan is the ultimate truth of Dharma. Samadhi and Prajna at one time; work hard on them; this is Chan.
什么是净土呢?希望大家要记住:以所修集的一切善法、禅定智慧等等,回向求生佛国净土者,以此为宗旨而修行,这就叫做净或者净土宗。一定要回向往生净土才叫净。不是说念佛就是 净,坐在那里修定就是禅,以是否求生净土作为标准来衡量是禅是净。实际上修净土、求往生也 离不开禅,修净要往生的时候,要如入禅定,要入禅定以后才能够得以往生。希望各位不要以为净土宗很便宜、很直接。到西方极乐世界的车票也很贵,要付出我们毕生的精力来换得这张车票,不付出毕生的精力要得到这张车票不可能。车票是一个比喻,车票就是资粮,往生净土要有资粮,车票就是资粮的集中表现。我们不要以为念佛号就是修净土宗,或者以为坐禅就是禅宗,有人坐禅也是要回向西方,那他还是在修净土。要用这样的一个方法来衡量禅和净。
What is the Pure-Land School? I hope all of you remember that the aim and objective of training in the Pure-Land School, or the Pure-Land sect, is to use all one has attained (such as Samadhi and wisdom etc.) for the purpose of repaying all sentient beings, so as to achieve rebirth in the Pure-Land of ultimate bliss. That is to say the faithful of the Pure-Land School are asked to serve all beings and finally to be reborn in the Pure-Land. If we think that chanting the name of Amitabha alone defines the Pure-Land School, whilst the Chan School is solely defined by the practice of meditation, then that is not correct. Whether or not the faithful wish to be reborn in the Pure-Land is the criterion to tell the Pure-Land School from the Chan School. In fact, in Pure-Land training meditation is also a must. At the time of going to the Pure-Land one has, firstly, to be in deep Samadhi, otherwise he will not be reborn there. I hope that none of you mistakenly believe that the training of the Pure-Land School is very easy and direct. The ticket to the western blissful world comes at a high price; it requires a person to devote all his time and energy to the training in this lifetime. Without such effort he would not be able to get it. âTicketâ is just a metaphor, referring to what one has attained in training. Without such a ticket the Pure-Land forever remains a distant land. Please do not think that chanting the name of Amitabha only belongs to the Pure-Land School, while sitting meditation belongs only to the Chan School. If someone practices sitting meditation and also vows to be reborn in the western Pure-Land, he is training according to the Pure-Land School. This is the way to tell the difference between the two schools.
禅和净是否可以同时修,或者叫做 "禅净双修" 呢?现在持这种提法的人很多,特别是误传了永明延寿的《四料简》。永明延寿是五代时候的人,而《四料简》是元朝才出现,应该说《四料简》和永明延寿没有什么关系。《四料简》上面说到: "有禅有净土,犹如带角虎。" 所以有一些人误传禅净双修,我想是这样的。
Is it possible for a person to practice the two schools at the same time, as we say, "practicing the Chan and Pure-Land simultaneously"? Nowadays, quite a lot of people have such an idea. This idea is generally based on a mistake concerning the "Si Liao Jian" ("Four Criteria") by Yongmin Yanshou (904 â 975), which has been continuously perpetuated ever since. Master Yongmin Yanshou lived in the Five Dynasties period (684 â 960), yet the "Si Liao Jian" came later during the Yuan Dynasty (1206 â 1368). We can see then that there is no temporal relation between the master and the book. In the book, it is said that: if one practices "both the Chan and Pure-Land Schools at the same time, one would be as bold and powerful as a tiger with horns." I think this is why people mistakenly carry on the idea of "practicing the Chan and Pure-Land simultaneously".
禅净能否双修呢?从方法上来讲是可以的。比如说四祖提倡的念佛禅所讲的 "守一不移" ,甚至于他的见地 "万法不离方寸" ,你再加一个 "回向西方" ,这就是禅变成净土了。从归宿上 来讲各有旨趣、不必强同,禅有禅的旨趣,净有净的旨趣,在归宿上是有所不同的。禅宗认为,我到最后不一定到极乐世界,十方世界随愿往生。禅宗的人也有发愿到异类中行的——异类就是 非人类了,是人类之外的另一类了。大家知道沩山祖师——沩仰宗中的开宗祖师,他有句话: "老僧百年之后,到山下做一头水牯牛。" 大家一听很害怕,你为什么不到西方极乐世界去,去变一头牛干什么呢?但是你要知道我们在赞叹释迦牟尼佛的时候,称他 "三界导师,四生慈父,三类化身,人天教主" 。 "三类化身" ,哪一个地方都去。千百亿化身,他有愿力在那里支持, 不会迷失。如果没有愿力的支持,你也不要随便发愿我去变一头牛。你必须有那个把握才说这个话,没有把握你不要说这个话。因为你说了这个话,等于发了这个愿。发了这个愿就要还这个债,不还这个债又不行。
Can the two trainings be put together in practice? Methodologically, they could be. For instance, someone practices "being always single-minded", as taught by the Fourth Patriarch Dao Xin in his "Nian Fo Chan", thereby gaining a greater understanding as to the insight of "all dharmas come out of the Mind" and, also, takes a vow to be reborn in the western Pure-Land. Such a person would then have changed Chan training into Pure-Land training. This is all right from a methodological perspective. However, the ultimate goals are not necessarily the same. The Chan and Pure-Land Schools aim at quite different endings, and these canât be combined. The Chan School upholds that one has not necessarily to go to the western blissful world. In fact one can go wherever in the ten dimensional world he wishes. In the Chan School there was a master who took a vow to be reborn as another type of being, not a human being. We all know Master Yangshan Huiji (807 â 883) who initiated the Weiyang sect. He said once: "After I die I will go to the foot of the mountain and become a buffalo." On hearing these words all those present where quite shocked. Why had Master Yangshan taken such a vow not to go to the western blissful world but, instead, wished to become a buffalo? I think you all know that when we speak highly of Shakyamuni (释迦牟尼), we praise him as: the "guide master of the three realms (三界), the loving father of the four types of birth (四生), the incarnation of the three species of beings (三类), and the lord teacher of all human and heavenly beings." The "incarnation of the three species of beings" means one can go wherever he wishes. If one had the power to hold on to Samadhi, then even being reborn as hundreds of billions of different life forms, he would not get lost. If one does not have such power, then heâd better not carelessly make such a vow as to become a buffalo. Before one says such words, he has to be sure of himself. If not, better not say so. This is because of the fact that when one says such words, it means he takes a vow. When he is under a vow he has to live it, he must not break it.
从禅的角度来看,心和土是不二的,心净则佛土净。所以不必求东求西,当处就是净土,这 是从禅的角度来看。一般修净土的,还是坚持心外有土,须要求往生。因为《阿弥陀经》上明明 讲,从是西方过多远的路有一个极乐世界。虽然如是,也可以说,十万亿佛土不离当下,这是禅 的观点,不是净的观点。禅净二宗各有优势,都是佛的方法、都是成佛的方法,都是渡世慈航、迷津宝法,只可相互称扬赞叹,不可彼此水火。我想这就是禅宗行者一贯的态度,也应该是一切 修行者所应该具有的一种心量。
From the viewpoint of Chan, the Mind and the Pure-Land are not two. If one could purify his own Mind, the Buddha-Land would also be purified (庄严国土利乐有情). Therefore, there is no need to vow to go to the eastern or the western world. The Pure-Land is right here as it is. This is the viewpoint the Chan School takes. Generally, the faithful amongst the Pure-Land practitioners uphold that besides the Mind there is the Pure-Land, so they vow to go there. That is because they believe in the "Amitabha Sutra" (阿弥陀经) which says clearly that there is a blissful world far to the west. Even though it is so, we could also think that the Buddha-Land â a land of billion upon billions of Buddhas, is not far away. Indeed, that it is right here and now as it is. This is what the Chan School upholds, but not the Pure-Land School. The two schools have advantages, respectively. They are equally reflective of the Buddhaâs teachings, and both are legitimate ways to help practitioners attain Buddhahood. They are both superbly crafted rafts able to deliver all sentient beings from this shore to the other shore. Therefore, one school has to speak highly, but not ill, of the other. I think this is the correct attitude for Chan practitioners to maintain. It also should be the inclusive way of thinking to which all Buddhists practitioners subscribe.
净慧法师 Jinghui Fashi
The Fourth Lecture - Sixth Patriarchâs (Hui Neng) Gate 六祖禅法
今天讲的题目是 "六祖慧能之禅法"。各位都知道,六祖大师是我国禅宗的实际创立者。在中国禅宗史乃至于中国佛教史上,六祖大师可以说是一位举足轻重的人物。如果没有他,中 国佛教史将会是另外一个面貌。正因为有了六祖慧能这样一位大师级的人物,中国佛教的慧命、佛法的慧命,经过两千年才真正延续到今天。
Today, I am going to talk about the "Sixth Patriarch Hui Nengâs Gate". Each of us knows the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng (638 â 713) is a seminal figure in the history of the Chan (Zen) School in China. He played a decisive role in the history of the Chan School, indeed, in the history of Chinese Buddhism as a whole. Without him Buddhist history would have developed along a different path. It was only because of him - a highly accomplished master - that the wisdom of Buddhism and of Buddhadharma, here in China, continued for the two thousand years up until the present day.
Before I come to Hui Nengâs gate, I want to say a few words about two important points.
第一个问题是,在中国佛教史上有三位里程碑式的人物。任何一个宗教或者文化,从一个地区传到另外一个地区必然有一个本土化的过程。佛教从印度传到中国,并没有一切照搬到中 国来,如果说是一切照搬到中国来的话,佛教就不可能在中国生存发展下来。正是因为中国佛 教史上出了很多高僧大德,他们审时度势,很巧妙地对佛教进行本土化改革,佛教才得以在中国的土壤上生根开花结果。举世公认,中国是佛教的第二故乡。相反在印度,佛教在一千年以 前就不存在了,这是一件很奇怪的事情。虽然印度近几年来也听说有佛教,但是并不占重要的 位置。也有几所寺院,但那都是其它国家的人在印度主持修复。印度的一些佛教团体只有在受 到其它国家佛教界的支持的情况下才得以生存发展,这也是一件很有趣的事情。相反地,佛教 在印度以外的地区却得到了蓬勃发展。
First there were three great masters in history who made tremendous contributions to Buddhismâs growth in China. For the development and transmission of a particular religion or culture from one locality to another, there must be a process of acclimatization and accommodation, that is, a period of integration. When Buddhism was introduced from India to China, Chinese Buddhists did not just simply copy or imitate all aspects of the Indian tradition. Had they done so Buddhism would not have taken root and grown in China. Instead, Buddhism came to root, blossom, and fruit in China only due to the innovative work of many great and talented masters who, with both great pragmatism and insight, foresaw the need to renovate the new inheritance so as to be in harmony with the actual prevailing conditions. All over the world it is now known that China is the second homeland of Buddhism. On the contrary, Buddhism came to an end a thousand years ago in India, its relative absence is a surprising historical development. Although it is said that there is a current resurgence of Buddhism in India, it no longer plays an important role there. There are several Buddhist temples in India now, yet were rebuilt by Buddhists from other countries. In fact, many of the Buddhist communities in India today depend for their growth and continued existence upon support from outside the country. This is also somewhat interesting. Buddhism is, on the contrary, flourishing in other countries.
佛教传到中国来,一开始是非常艰难的。在座的法师们上佛学院时都学过中国佛教史。中国佛教开始的时候发展是很缓慢的,有一个人讲经,有一个人翻译了一本薄薄的经典,这人就 在历史上被大书特书地记载下来了。可见开始的时候,一切事情都是很困难的,与我们今天的 形势相比简直不可同日而语。为什么这样说呢?佛教初传时,还不能被中国本土的人完全认同。用现在学者的话来说,佛教传到中国来是作为一个异质文化。这个异质文化要为中国的老百姓 乃至士大夫所接受,是一件很困难的事,因为佛教的观念和中国的观念完全不是一码事。要使 佛教在中国发扬光大,或者说,要让佛教能在中国站住脚,必须有一个艰难的本土化过程。用 现在的话来说,佛教是印度的,要在中国生存下去,就必须要有中国特色才行。没有中国特色, 中国的老百姓见了以后也不高兴。所以佛教在中国弘传的经验,也被其它外来文化所吸收和接 受,包括其它宗教,像天主教、基督教,也在尽量地研究,以便天主教、基督教也能在中国进 一步本土化,并得以发展。
At the beginning when Buddhism was first introduced into China it encountered considerable difficulties. All the masters here today, having studied Chinese Buddhist history whilst attending the Buddhist Institute, will know that at first, Buddhism only grew very slowly. If someone delivered a sermon on any sutra or translated a thin scripture, his name would be written down in the historical records with capitalized letters. This suggests that things were not easy at first. This situation is simply not comparable to that of the present day. Why do I say so? At that time, Buddhism had just been introduced into China and, consequently, was very difficult for the Chinese people to accept. In todayâs scholarly words, Buddhism had been introduced into China as an alien culture, a culture at stark variance to the basic outlook of the Chinese people. As such, it was not readily accepted by officialdom, the literati, or by the common people. In order to firmly transplant, successfully root and facilitate the growth of Buddhism in this alien soil, there needed to be a rigorous process of cultural acclimatization and assimilation. In other words, Buddhism originated in India; hence, in order for it to grow in China it needed to be given Chinese characteristics, otherwise the common people would not willingly accept it. The hard lessons learnt by Buddhism were well noted by other alien traditions, including such religions as Catholicism and Christianity. In consequence, these traditions subsequently sought to assimilate themselves and grow in China according to the dictates of her cultural environment.
佛教传入中国以后,大概在最初的三四百年间是最艰难的。道安法师是一个在中国文化方 面造诣高深的大德法师,同时又是一位对佛教了解比较全面、研究比较深入的法师。到了道安 法师的时候,佛教传入中国将近有四、五百年的时间,佛教的发展也取得了许多经验,在这方 面道安法师和他的弟子们作出了很大的贡献。
佛教中国化首先要从理论上为适应中国的儒道文化作某些调整,如果不调整的话,中国人不能接受。比如说戒律方面有一条,儿子出了家,不再来拜祭父母。离开了家庭以后,对家的 关系、义务也就没有了,对于祖宗也不拜。就是说,出了家以后或者说信了佛以后,对于孝道 的观念淡漠了,以佛菩萨为主,不局限于今生今世的父母,而是要去孝多生多世的一切众生 —— "一切男子是我父,一切女子是我母" ——是这样的一种泛孝观念。具体的孝道观念比较 淡漠了,这一点我们中国人接受不了。所以在这方面,后来翻译的佛经,乃至中国人对佛教的 发扬,就在这一点上有了很多的改变。《梵网经》就强调,孝就是戒, "孝名为戒" 。这样中 国儒家就能够接受这种观念,这种观念至少不犯上作难,一个不孝的人肯定会犯上作难嘛。中 国人的观念是选忠臣于孝子之门,你要是一个忠臣,必须是一个孝子。你不是孝子就不可能做忠臣,一个国家没有忠臣就不能稳定。在这一点上,佛教教义作出了很大调整。
After Buddhismâs initial introduction to China, the following three to four hundred years proved to be its most difficult period. Dao An (312 or 314 â 385) was not only a master of great accomplishments in Chinese literature, but also a master who acquired a thorough understanding of Buddhist teachings through an all round study of them. Master Dao An lived in the period when Buddhism had been introduced into China for four or five hundred years and had accumulated rich experience. As such he and his followers made a valuable and lasting contribution to that experience. In order for Buddhism to be successfully assimilated and integrated into Chinese culture it needed to be modified so as to be theoretically in tune with the dominant Confucian culture of the time. Otherwise it would not have been accepted. For instance there was a precept in relation to filial piety in Buddhism. It states that if a son entered the Buddhist monastic order he would no longer pay formal visits to his parents. In leaving home to serve the Buddha, he had effectively annulled that relationship, including its commitments and obligations. Even ancestor worship was no longer required of him. That is to say, being a monk, his service would be to the Buddhist teachings; his filial duty would, therefore, be limited to his âparentsâ in this life. Indeed, he would devote himself to and respect all sentient beings. That is: "All men are my fathers and all women my mothers" - an outlook of all-inclusive rather than limited piety. That filial piety to oneâs parents might fade out was unacceptable to most Chinese people. Hence, in this respect, a lot of modifications were made to the Buddhist scriptures at the time of their translation from the original Sanskrit, and also later on in line with Buddhismâs continuing growth and development in China. In the "Brahamajala Sutra" the words "filial piety is the precept" were emphasized. As a result the words were acceptable to Confucians who thought that, stated in this manner, people would not defy their superiors or initiate a rebellion â for those who were not in accord with filial piety would surely do so. A conception the Chinese people had was that, in choosing an official for any high position that person had to be loyal to the sovereign. In other words, a loyal official had to be a true son. If one was not a true son he would not be a loyal official; and, without loyal officials the State would become unstable. Hence, in this respect, modifications were made to Buddhist doctrines in accordance with local traditions.
还有在生活上,佛教也作出了相应的调整。佛教初传到中国来,开始也是化饭吃,化饭吃 没有人给;也是打赤脚,打赤脚天气太冷;也想在树下宿,没办法,在树下宿不安全,气候比 较寒冷。像这些都要调整,不调整你就没法生存,所以一定要盖房子,一定要有一点田产,一定要有几间房子住,这样才可以。在生活上也进行了很大的调整,诸如此类。
Regarding the issue of livelihood, modifications were also made. At the beginning, when Buddhism was first introduced into China, monks begged for alms, yet nobody offered them food. They went about barefooted, yet the weather was too cold to do so. They wanted to live under trees, yet it was not safe and, again, the whether was simply too cold. All these points needed to be modify to some extent, otherwise monks could not go on living. Consequently, it was necessary to build houses and own a certain area of land on which to grow crops. These are the kind of practical modifications that the monks had to consider. We can see then that for Buddhism to grow in China modifications concerning livelihood were also necessary.
In respect to Buddhist rites, as these related to Buddhist teachings, rules and means of livelihood, again, Master Dao An innovatively adapted them by means of appropriate modifications. On the whole, Buddhism consists of two parts: doctrine and canon. What Master Dao Anâs innovations fostered in these two domains was a general acceptance of Buddhism by the people according to the Chinese customs of the time. In addition, Master Dao An also set up the initial rules of the Sangha, of Dharma dissemination, and of communal â temple - living. It was due to the vital and foundational work carried out by Master Dao An that Buddhism in China, now firmly rooted, could flourish and grow.
道安法师以后又出了好几位高僧,比如净土宗的初祖庐山慧远大师,他就是道安法师的弟 子,其他还有很多的高僧。道安法师应该说是中国佛教史上承前启后的一个人,他总结了在他 之前佛教在中国传播的经验,也开创了从他之后佛教在中国继续发扬光大的局面。道安法师算 是第一个里程碑——,佛教中国化的第一个里程碑式的人物。
After Master Dao An there were several great masters. For instance, one of these â and a disciple of Master Dao An â was Master Lushan Huiyuan (334 â 416), a seminal figure of the Pure-Land School. In addition there were also other learned masters. It is clear that Master Dao An played a crucial and pivotal role in Chinese Buddhist history. He not only embodied the experience of Chinese Buddhismâs growth in the earlier preceding centuries, but also opened up new horizons for its continual development thereafter. Master Dao An is thus taken as the first milestone in the process of Buddhismâs introduction, development and subsequent adaptive assimilation in China.
第二个里程碑式的人物就是六祖慧能。六祖慧能是在什么样的情况下使佛教进一步中国化的呢?六祖慧能看到当时的佛教,各宗各派基本上都相继成立,义理极其发展,可以说达到相 当繁琐的程度。在修持上,当时南方重义学,北方重定学,各有所侧重。但是在六祖大师看来, 在研究佛学方面、在修行佛法方面,没有真正找到最直接了当、最能够把握人的生命的一个法门。当时有一位永嘉大师,他本来也是一位有很深造诣的天台学者,已经颇有成就,他当时为了要找到一个最终的直接了当的方法以求得开悟,不远万里从浙江去参拜六祖。参拜六祖以后,他自己叹息说: "吾早年来积学问,亦曾讨疏寻经论。分别名相不知休,入海算沙徒自困。却被如来苦呵责,数他珍宝有何益。" 他说他早年来只注重教义上的研究,整天就在名相概念里 边兜圈子,好像到海里数一颗颗沙子一样。你说海里沙子有多少啊?我们根本没办法计算它, 不要说海里面的沙子,你抓一把沙子来数一数,也得数几天。所以遇到六祖以后他自己感觉到, 他早年的学习并没有真正把握佛教里的关键东西,并没有真正找到一种直接了当开悟的法门。正是在这种背景之下,六祖从黄梅得法,就在南方建立了顿教法门。
The second leading figure was, and is, the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng. Under what kind of conditions did Master Hui Neng continue to further integrate Buddhism into Chinese culture? Master Hui Neng lived during a period when several Buddhist schools were set up one after another. Also, at that time the understanding and interpretation of Buddhist teachings and doctrines had developed to a fairly high and complex degree. In practice, education in terms of intellectual knowledge (义学) was emphasized in Southern China, whilst sitting meditation was emphasized in the North. In the eyes of Master Hui Neng, regarding both Buddhist study and practice at the time, there was still not a truly direct path, one that taught practitioners how to see into their own nature. There was another master, a contemporary of Master Hui Neng, named Yongjia Xuanjue (665 â 713). He was already a learned master of the Tiantai School (天台宗), and had achieved much. Nevertheless, in order to seek an ultimately direct path to enlightenment, he journeyed from Zhejiang â a great distance, to seek Master Hui Nengâs guidance. After the meeting Master Yongjia Xuanjue confessed the following: "I have been engaged in learning and studying the Buddhist classics ever since I was young, and have delved deep into the Sutras and Sastras (classical Buddhist scriptures) searching for truth. And, although becoming endlessly ensnared and entangled in name and form, I continued unceasingly. I made myself bewildered; just like diving into the ocean and trying to count all the grains of sand there. This, I know, is not what the Buddha taught, and it is no surprise that I was rebuked, for what was the use of reckoning treasures that were not mine?" We see then, that in his early years of study he emphasized Buddhist doctrine alone, merely finding himself going around in circles, ensnared by concepts, name, and form. This was equivalent to trying to count all the grains of sand in the sea. Do you know how many grains of sand there are in the sea? There is simply no way to count. Even a handful of sand will take you several days to count, not to mention all the sand in the sea. It is impossible. After meeting Master Hui Neng, he felt that what he had previously learnt was not the true essence of Buddhism. He had not discovered a direct path to enlightenment. It was on the basis of such a background that the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng set up the Sudden School in Southern China, after the Dharma transmission down to him by the Fifth Patriarch Hong Ren (602 - 675) at Huangmei.
六祖的顿教法门就是 "直指人心,见性成佛", 而且一切繁琐的教义、繁琐的教规,在他 那里都进行了简化。一切以修行为主,一切以开悟为主,一切以把握我们的生命为主。他留给 我们的就是一本《坛经》,这本《坛经》可以说是一个大宝藏。受到教内外人的重视,受到有 学问的人和我们普通僧人的重视,甚至于受到我们的领袖的重视。像毛主席,他生前走到哪里 都要带很多的书,其中佛教的书就是两本,一本是《金刚经》,一本就是《六祖坛经》。这两 本经就是他经常随身带着的。随身带着做什么呢?他老人家从一个马列主义者的角度来看,认 为这两本书充满着辨证法,充满着哲学的智慧,他是这样来看的。
"A direct pointing at the human Mind and the attainment of Buddhahood" is what the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng taught in his Sudden School. He simplified all complicated doctrine and all over-elaborated canon, laying emphasis fully on self-training, enlightenment, and the understanding of oneâs entire being. The "Tan Sutra" is what he left behind. For Buddhists, it is truly a great treasure. In fact, it holds great appeal for Buddhists, the laity, scholars and ordinary monks alike. Even our late President Mao Zedong held it in high regard. When President Mao was alive, he always brought along a lot of books with him wherever he went. There were only two Buddhist classics among them, the "Diamond Sutra" and the "Tan Sutra". Why did he take them with him? Thinking from a Marxist perspective, he considered that those two scriptures were imbued with dialectical and philosophical wisdom.
中国佛教从六祖以后另外开辟了一条新的宽广的发展道路。禅宗正式产生,禅宗正式建立。禅宗以其简洁明快的修行方法、以其简单朴素的生活方式、以其不作不食的劳动态度、以其潇 洒自在的僧人风范而风行天下,当时几乎所有的寺院都改成了某某禅寺。这一股力量、这一股 清风一下子化腐朽为神奇,使中国佛教当时义学勃兴的风气突然发生了改变。在义学比较繁琐 的情况下吹了一股清新的空气,使得佛教又向前迈了一大步。不仅如此,由于中国佛教经过隋唐时期国家的重视、政府的支持和社会各界很多的捐献,各个寺院当时都拥有很多的田产,僧人的生活逐步地富裕起来。生活富裕起来往往会导致走向两个 方面:一方面可以利用充分的物质条件来发扬佛教,使佛教更加光大,同时也可以利用比较好 的物质条件,来完善自己的修行;但是也有另外一个方面,物质条件太丰富了,可能就忘乎所以,不知道钱从哪里来,不知道应该怎样来洁身自好,就会走向腐败的一面。唐朝时代的佛教,也就是唐武宗以前的佛教,当然好的方面是占主要的,但是腐败一面也是极其严重的,结果就 导致了 "会昌灭法" 。 "会昌灭法" 实际是发生在七天之内。那时候交通不便,信息不灵通, 没有广播电台,也没有报纸,更没有电脑。但是在七天之内,全国的寺院就一扫而光。你看那多厉害。为什么呢?老百姓对寺院、对那些腐败的和尚已经深恶痛绝,巴不得一下子把他消灭光。
In formally establishing the Chan School, a new and broad road was opened up by the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng for the further growth of Buddhism in China. With its simple, direct way of practice and plain living, with its correct attitude towards labor that, "a day without work is a day without food", and with the natural and free manner in which monks conducted themselves, the Chan School flourished all over the country. Nearly all temples were changed into that of the Chan School. Such a tendency, like an invigorating and refreshing breeze, swept away the general inclination to stress merely intellect knowledge that prevailed at the time. With the encumbering weight of man-made complications blown away, doctrine was revitalized and Buddhism took a great stride forward.
Also of great benefit to Buddhism was the fact that, throughout the Sui (581 â 618) and Tang (618 â 907) Dynasties, the State thought highly of it. With support given by the State, and offerings by people from all walks of life, each temple was able to acquire and maintain its own farmland. So, at that time monks lived a better life than before. This period of growth and abundance, as is often the case, produced two opposite and incongruous outcomes. First, full use of this material wealth was made available for the further growth and deep-rooted integration of Buddhism into the Chinese cultural soil. Also, under these favorable conditions practitioners were able to reap the benefits of improved self-training. Secondly and in addition however, this level of material prosperity caused masters and monks alike to forget who they were, and what their mission was. In other words they no longer considered where the money came from, and no longer bore in mind the necessity to be weary of its potentially corrupting and evil influence. Hence they did indeed become corrupt. In the Tang Dynasty, particularly in the period before Emperor Wu Zong (841 â 846), corrupt practices were widespread - even though, of course, there were masters and monks who preserved their purity and integrity. This led to the great calamity to befall Buddhism, an event known historically as the "Huichang Setback". In actual fact it only lasted for seven days; but within that short period of time all the monasteries and temples in the country were destroyed â despite the transportation facilities and, hence, means of communication being extremely poor. In fact, without broadcast stations, newspapers, and computer networks â as we have now, communication was completely out of the question. Nevertheless, in spite of this, all monasteries and temples were gone within a week. You can see then how fierce the event was. Why? With a deep-seated hatred for the corrupted monks and temples the common people had eagerly looked forward to the downfall of Buddhism.
那时做思想工作的就是以韩愈为首的一批士大夫,他主张对佛教要 "人其人、庐其居、火 其书" 。人其人就是当了和尚的就叫他回家;庐其居就是把寺庙改成民居;火其书就是把佛书一起烧掉;菩萨毁了去做枪炮,把所有的铜器都毁掉。当时能够保持中国佛教慧命的就只有禅宗。为什么呢?那时候的和尚不像我们现在这么麻烦。现在和尚的服装跟老百姓的服装有很大 的差别,那时和尚服装和老百姓的服装没有什么差别,只是剃光了头有点差别。当时的和尚为 了保存自己、保存佛法,买一个帽子——叫冠巾——戴在头上就可以了,戴个帽子就可以躲避 官方的检查。他们跑到水边林下,自耕自食,在那里打坐修行,住个茅蓬就可以了。禅宗就采 取这种办法。那些要依据经典文字研究义理的法师们,他的条件没有了,生存的空间没有了,生存的手段没有了,所以只有纷纷地走入社会。
At that time, a group of scholars headed by Han Yu (768 â 824) spoke openly about their point of view. They proposed three measures to deal with Buddhists: by means of "Changing their social status" (to force all monks and nuns to return to lay life); "transforming their houses" (to change all the monasteries and temples into residential quarters for the common people); and "burning their books" (to destroy all Buddhist scriptures and books). The copper Buddha statues and incense burners were also smashed up for the making of guns and cannons. After the setback, the Chan School was the only one that could save Buddhism from dying out in China altogether. Why? Because what monks wore in the old days was not as restrictive as it is these days. Now, a Bhikkhu or Bhikkhuniâs garments differ greatly from the clothing worn by the general public. In former times the common people, as well as monks, wore the same kind of garments. The only identifiable difference was the monkâs shaved head. In order to protect themselves and the Buddhadharma, they bought caps to cover their heads. In this way they could escape from persecution. These monks dispersed to quite and undisturbed dwelling places â by rivers, streams or in the forest, supporting themselves by their own hands, continuing with their self-training in their simple thatched huts. In such a way the Chan School survived. Masters of other schools who had depended solely on the intellectual study of Buddhist classics could not but return to lay life. Because of the changed conditions they had no books to read, nowhere to live, and no means to support themselves.
佛教从那以后一蹶不振,很多宗派就是由于 "会昌灭法" 再没能振兴起来。比如像法相宗、 华严宗、天台宗、三论宗,都是要依据文字的。到了五代以后再逐步逐步地把经典从国外又请 回来,从国外请回经典是古已有之。就像我们文革以后经典也没有了,也从外国把经典慢慢请 回来,实际上是古已有之的事。五代时期从日本、韩国把经典请回来,一直到清朝末年,杨仁 山居士还在从日本不断地把中国流失的经典请回来。法宝的回归延续了将近一千年的时间,可见那时佛教创伤之重,要经过一千年时间恢复,才慢慢把经典请回来。一直到现在还有许多经 典请不回来,比如寺院规矩、制度、文书等一类的书,都还保存在外国。唐宋时期带出去的东 西一直保存在日本,我们中国人没有。中国人要研究很多具体的东西、具体的寺院制度,只能 到日本的一些古庙里、档案馆里去找资料。这就是我们和尚在那个时候不谨慎,在生活富裕、生活好的情况下不谨慎,不知道自爱,造成了佛教这样一个悲惨的局面。
After the "Huichang Setback" Buddhism was unable to recover. According to the historical records, several schools, such as the Dharmalaksana School (法相宗), Avatamsaka School (华严宗), Taintai School (天台宗), and Three-Sastra School (三论宗) that depended on the scriptural study, totally collapsed. It was only later, in the Five Dynasties period (684 â 705), that Buddhist scriptures were gradually brought back to China again from other countries - Japan and Korea, for example. This reintroduction of Buddhist scriptures into China at that time, was again necessary after the Cultural Revolution. During the revolution the Buddhist classics were destroyed; again, we gradually reacquired them from abroad. Up until the later Qing Dynasty (1840 - 1911) a lay Buddhist, Yang Renshan, continued in his efforts to bring the classics back to China from Japan. This process of rebuilding the classics lasted nearly a thousand years. It is obvious that this setback, from which Buddhism took so long a period to recover â about a thousand years, was really a severe and tragic event for Chinese Buddhism. Bit by bit a great many of the scriptures have been returned. Nevertheless, there are still many that are still to be recovered and brought back. These include, in particular, those books concerning temple rules, regulations, and other important documents. Those books taken abroad during the Tang and Song (960 â 1279) Dynasties are now preserved in Japan. We Chinese have none of them. If Chinese scholars want to carry out research in a particular area, say a study of actual monastic canon, they have to obtain the information concerned from archives stored in Japanese libraries, or from some old Japanese temple. Nevertheless, it is true to say that the monks reaped what they sowed. They had not adhered strictly to their own rules and had, instead, putting self-respect aside, succumbed to the corrupting influence of material prosperity and comfortable living.
幸而有六祖大师所传之禅法保存了中国的佛教。 "会昌灭法" 对佛教的禁令一停止,各地 的禅师们就不断地出现。天下的寺院一下子都改变为禅宗的寺院了,所以禅宗从那以后又有五家七派陆续地产生。如果没有六祖慧能这样一面旗帜,没有他这位里程碑式的人物,中国佛教经过 "会昌灭法" 以后就不可能有今天。所以说他是一位对中国佛教历史做出了杰出贡献的大 祖师。
Fortunately, owing to the teachings â the gate â of the Sixth Patriarch Hi Neng, Buddhism was kept alive in China. When the official ban was lifted after the "Huichang Setback", Chan masters from every corner of the country showed up again. Temples all of a sudden made a move toward Chan conversion. Following this, five sects and seven branches were set up one after the other. Therefore we say that Buddhism after the setback would not be as it is today without the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng. He was a pioneer, an outstanding master who made a profound contribution toward the growth of Buddhism in China. That is, he is one of the crucial milestones of Chinese Buddhist history.
第三位就是我们近代的太虚大师。佛教发展到今天,时代在进步,文化在进步,人们的思想潮流在进步。那么佛教是不是也要跟着进步,也要适应我们这个不断进步、不断发展的社会 环境呢?肯定是需要的。从清朝中期开始,一直到清朝末期,这种新文化的潮流就不断地冲击 着中国旧文化的大门,非得让你把门户打开。这个门一旦冲破了以后就势不可挡。所以太虚法 师当时提出来 "三大革命" ——教理革命、教制革命、教产革命,一下就震撼了整个佛教界。少数人响应他,多数人是抗拒他、反对他。
The third great forerunner of recent times was, and is, Master Tai Xu (1889 â 1947). Today, history, culture and the way common people think, progress together with the development of Buddhism with each passing day. Whether or not Buddhism itself should move forward according to this general pattern, so as to be applicable to the ever changing and developing social circumstances is a perennial question. Nevertheless, I think the answer must be that it should. From the mid to late Qing Dynasty such a trend of new culture had a powerful impact on the old one. The new trend, with its irresistibility, smashed the door of old culture open. In Buddhist circles, therefore, there was a great shock in relation to Master Tai Xuâs response, his proposed "Three Great Reforms": a reform of Buddhist teachings, a reform of Buddhist rules and regulations, and a reform of Buddhist properties. At that time, only a few people responded to his call, the majority went against him.
当时太虚法师的这种思想没有多大市场。尽管如此,这种思想还是表现出旺盛的生命力。太虚大师提出了 "人生佛教" ,现在发展成 "人间佛教" 。我们玉佛寺应该说对太虚法师最亲 切,因为这位老人家就是在玉佛寺圆寂的,太虚法师当时有很多活动跟玉佛寺分不开,跟上海分不开。当时在玉佛寺主事的几位法师都是太虚大师的弟子,所以他能在这里弘法、能住在这里。而在别的地方,只要是太虚大师的学生,其它的寺院都抵制,连饭都不给他吃。那时太虚大师在武昌办了个佛学院,不能够办在寺院里面,有一位叫李开先的居士把自己家里的房子布施给太虚法师,办起了武昌佛学院。武昌佛学院的学生要到归元寺去赶个午斋,归元寺的知客 都不同意,说: "你们回去吃饭,我们这里没有饭吃。" 可见那个时候,社会上和佛教界都是 持保守思想,对于进步的东西是排斥的、拒绝的。但是时至今日,我们再来回头看一看太虚大 师的思想,我们今天做的一切可以说都是在踏着太虚法师的足迹,在一点一滴地落实他的思想。 我们远远还没有全部到位,还差得很远。他提出来的目标,我们连百分之一都没有做到。
The "living Buddhism" or "Buddhism in this world" we uphold today, was what Master Tai Xu advocated then. Though most people could not fully understand or accept it at that time, it still grew vigorously. The Yufo (Jade Buddha) temple, I think, was on intimate terms with Master Tai Xu, because he passed away here. A great many of his good works were connected with the Yufo temple and with Shanghai. Several masters in charge of the Yufo temple were Master Tai Xuâs disciples. Hence he was able to preach and live here. Other temples, subscribing to more traditional ways, refused to offer food even to his disciples, let alone to Master Tai Xu himself. During that period, Master Tai Xu opened up a Buddhist Institute in Wuchang. However, it was not in a temple. A lay Buddhist called Li Kaixian offered his own house to Master Tai Xu, and it was in this house that the Institute was set up. Students in the Institute wanted to have lunch in the nearby Guiyuan temple, but were refused by the monks in charge of reception. They said: "Please go back to your Institute and have lunch there. We have no food for you." From this example we can see that, at the time, both Buddhist circles and society at large maintained a very conservative outlook. Such a perspective was resistant to anything new, refusing to accommodate to change or seemingly novel cultural developments. Today, when we review what Master Tai Xu upheld, we have to say that all we have done and are doing now reflects nothing other than a following in his footsteps, a putting of his teachings, bit by bit, into practice. There is still much work to be done in the future. We are still far from achieving the goal he set. Perhaps we have only traveled along one percent of that great path?
在西方文化、西方科技和西方生活方式冲进中国以后,中国原有的各种文化都要想办法来 适应、来生存。儒家有新儒学思想,佛教提出了 "三大革命" 和 "人间佛教" ,这都是为了与 新思潮相适应,寻求生存空间。新中国成立五十年来,也只是在近二十几年才再次提出 "人间佛教" 的思想,在文革前还不敢提,因为提这个思想就会被打成 "美化宗教" 。文革以后思想 比较开放,觉得宗教也要适应我们的社会主义社会。怎么适应呢?就是以 "人间佛教" 这种思 想来与社会主义社会相适应。
During Master Tai Xuâs time the impact of Western culture, science and technology, and life-style, had led to some sort of reform in the various subdivisions of Chinese culture. For instance, Confucians put forward a new ideology and Buddhists upheld the "Three Great Reforms" whilst at the same time laying an emphasis upon "Buddhism in this world". In doing so they hoped to match the trend and to remain alive and relevant. Since the founding of the Peopleâs Republic of China in 1949, it has only been within the last twenty or so years that the idea of "Buddhism in this world" has again been proposed. During the "Cultural Revolution" no one dared to speak openly about such an idea. Suppose somebody did so, he or she would be accused of "trying hard to glorify religion". Since the end of the Revolution, people have become comparatively open-minded, and think that religions are also relevant to a socialist society. How has Buddhism adapted to it? It is by means of the idea of "Buddhism in this world" that Buddhism has been able to suite contemporary society.
During the three periods of history mentioned above there were, respectively, three accomplished pioneers. Today, I am going to talk about the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng, who was and still is the most important master of the Chan School in China. So much then for the first part of my talk.
Now, let us come to the second part: the Sixth Patriarch Hui Nengâs gate. To begin, I must first say a few words about his "Sixth Patriarch's Tan Sutra", because I will mention it on quite a few occasions.
我刚才说到《六祖坛经》这本书受到教内外所有人士的重视。因为它是一本智慧的书,是一本修行的书,是一本指导生命的书,所以这本书普遍地受到欢迎。但是正是由于它的重要性 如此突出,所以它的问题也最多。为什么说问题最多呢?这是因为我们现代人觉得它的问题最多,都来从各种各样的角度来研究。有这样一个版本,有那样一个版本;有详的,有略的;有 古的,有今的。所以大家就纷纷地从学术角度、文化角度和历史角度来对它进行研究。
As I said just now, the "Tan Sutra" is highly regarded by both Buddhists and the laity alike. It is commonly accepted to be a book full of wisdom, a book that teaches how to correctly carry on oneâs self-training, and a book that can guide one towards the understanding of oneâs whole being. Because of its obvious importance, it both covers and generates many issues. Why do I say this? It is because doubts and suspicions are often cast upon it, simply because we, the contemporary people, think highly of it and study it from various perspectives. As a result, there are numerous different editions: a detailed one or a brief, an ancient one or a contemporary. People enthusiastically carry out researches on these various editions from an academic, cultural, and/or historical point of view.
近现代最早提出对《坛经》进行研究的是我国 "五四新文化运动" 的一个急先锋胡适。他 当时自命是 "五四文化" 的旗手(后来由于种种原因,人们是不是真正认为他是 "五四文化" 的旗手,另当别论)。胡适在研究新文化时碰到了各种问题,受到了各种挫折。而且他在写中国哲学史的时候遇到了很多问题,写到隋唐时期就写不下去了。为什么呢?因为他不懂佛教,尤其不懂中国的佛教,于是他又回过头来研究佛教。在研究佛教的时候,他开始接触禅宗。因 为要研究中国佛教、研究中国哲学,不研究禅宗,就根本无从深入,乃至无从下手。特别是到 了中唐、到了宋元时期,一千多年的儒家文化思想和禅文化思想的体系,可以说是千头万绪。 要研究这个时期的儒家或者理学家们的思想,必须懂得禅。不懂得禅,就不知道他的思想源流 在什么地方。所以胡适就开始研究禅宗,由于中国禅宗的实际创立者是六祖慧能,所以他就研 究六祖。研究六祖就从研究《坛经》开始。中国近现代特别是现代,研究中国佛教、研究中国 禅宗的风气或热潮,实际上是由胡适开创的。由于他的研究使得《坛经》一方面受到更多世人 的重视,另一方面又产生了很多的问题。这是第一点。
In recent times, Mr. Hu Shi (1891 â 1962), a daring vanguard in the "May the Fourth New Culture Movement", was the first to carry out a study on the "Tan Sutra". He regarded himself as a leading figure of the "May the Fourth Movement" (Due to various considerations whether or not he can be taken as the leading figure is another question.) He encountered many problems and frustrations in his study of the new culture. Similarly he experienced a series of frustrations in his writings on the "Philosophical History of China". However, when he came to the period of the Sui and Tang Dynasties he could not go on writing. Why? Because he did not know about Buddhism and, in particular, he knew nothing of Chinese Buddhism. Even so, from that point on he endeavored to study it. It was in his study of Buddhism that he came to encounter the Chan Sect. To study Buddhism or philosophy in China one has to study the Chan Sect first, otherwise it is difficult to know where to begin, let alone how to achieve an in-depth and penetrative study. For a thousand years or so, that is, throughout the period from the mid Tang and Song Dynasties through to the Yuan (1271 â 1368) Dynasty, Confucian and Chan cultures coexisted. There were at that time a great variety of ideological systems. Consequently, in order to study the ideology of Confucian or Buddhist scholars of that period, one must know about the Chan sect first. Without such knowledge one would not understand their ideological origins. Therefore, Mr. Hu Shi began to study the Chan Sect. In particular, he began to study the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng, because Hui Neng was the seminal figure of Chinese Chan. In order to understand Hui Neng, he first studied the "Tan Sutra". In actual fact it is true to say that in recent times and, in particular, modern times, Mr. Hu Shiu can be credited with opening a new chapter in the study of Chinese and Chan Buddhism. Because of his study, on the one hand, more and more people have made the "Tan Sutra" the focus of their attention; on the other hand, many questions concerning the sutra have arisen. This is the first point.
第二点就是版本问题。《坛经》除了我们一般在佛经流通处看到的版本以外,还有一本比 较简略的本子藏在敦煌石窟里面。大概在一百年前,敦煌石窟藏经洞被一个道士打开了。这个 道士怎么打开这个藏经洞,也是无意中的事情。这个道士住在藏经洞里面,就叫千佛洞。他天 天拿着一根旱烟斗,在那里抽烟。旱烟斗很长,抽完烟后,他就在墙上磕烟灰,再装第二袋烟。 他天天磕那个墙,有一天磕到一个地方,发现墙里面好像是空的一样,不是实在的,里面作鼓 响。他就觉得墙里头是空的,应该会有什么东西。他就偷偷地打开一块砖,再拿一个小灯照一 下,结果吓了他一大跳,里面全是各种各样的经卷。当时有不少西方国家的人到那里去探险 ——探险就是专门盗窃中国的文物,像法国、英国、日本、意大利、俄罗斯,他们都有很多探 险家到那里去。这些探险家慢慢地跟道士勾结起来,道士就今天卖一卷明天卖一卷。后来有一 个法国人叫斯坦因,他就干脆买通了这个道士,把洞打开,跑到洞里面,把最好的东西全部都 挑走了。据说当时拉了几马车的文物,这是中国文化的一个大劫难。
The second point concerns the matter of the "Tan Sutraâs" various editions. Besides the popular edition generally seen in the Buddhist Scripture Distributing Centers, there was another simplified edition buried in the Dun Huang Grotto. About a hundred years ago a Taoist monk found numerous Buddhist scriptures buried in an inner cave at Dun Huang. He came across them completely by chance. He lived in a cave named the "Cave of a Thousand Buddhas", where he smoked a pipe everyday. The pipe, being long, it was necessary to knock it against the wall in order to empty the residue left after finishing each hold of pipe tobacco, and before loading another. Randomly he knocked it against the wall here and there, day by day, until he happened to knock at a point that sounded differently. He knocked again and discovered that it was not solid but hollow. If it was hollow, he thought, something might be buried within. Secretly, he removed a brick and looked through with the faint light of a small oil lamp. He was greatly thrilled by the variety of scriptures he saw inside. At that time many explorers came to Dun Huang from France, Britain, Japan, Italy, and Russia for the purpose of stealing our historical and cultural relics. These explorers eventually ganged up with the Taoist who sold them volume after volume of precious scripture, day in and day out. Later on, a British explorer named Stein simply handed out bribes to the Taoist, opened up the inner cave, and went inside. Stein then chose the finest collections of scripture, brocade, and paintings, and took them back home. It is said that Steinâs collection comprised of several cartloads. This was indeed a great calamity for Chinese culture.
《坛经》有两个手写的本子藏在藏经洞里面,这两个手写的本子也被外国人拿走了。后来 在清扫残留东西的时候,我们也发现了一个本子,现在这个本子在我们国内。这两三个本子的 内容大致相同,都只有9000字左右。我们现在流行的《坛经》是两万一千万多字,敦煌本的 《坛经》只有9000多字。这个本子的发现引起了学术界对《坛经》的怀疑,认为现在流行的 曹溪古本、曹溪原本和宗宝本都有问题,都是经过后人篡改的,认为在敦煌石窟保存的那个 本子才是《坛经》的原貌。但是敦煌石窟藏经洞是什么时候封闭的呢?大概是九百年以前的事 情。那时新疆是佛教的文化区,西域各国都是佛教文化区。伊斯兰教侵入后,要求信佛的人改 变信仰,不改变信仰就杀掉。当时有一些人为了保存佛教文化,就把所有的经书在慌忙之中藏 在那些洞里面,然后再把它封起来。这大概是900年以前的事情。所以说在敦煌石窟里收藏的 这本《坛经》是不是最古老的,是不是《坛经》的原貌,也是一个大问号。因为才900年,而 《坛经》的产生到现在有1300多年的历史。因此这就引起了很大的争论,从中国到外国,从日本到西方,这个争论直到现在还没有停止。
Inside this inner cave were two hand-written copies of the "Tan Sutra" which were also taken away by foreign explorers. Later on, at the time of cleaning up the remains, another copy was found. This copy was kept in China. The contents of the three copies was more or less the same, each comprised of nine thousand or so Chinese characters. The currently popular edition of the "Tan Sutra" consists of twenty-one thousand or more characters, much longer than the Dun Huang edition. The discovery of the Dun Huang edition has made academics puzzled about the "Tan Sutra". They think that the popular ancient Caoxi edition, the original Caoxi edition, and the Zongbao edition are all questionable, lacking authenticity due to misrepresentation by later generations. They think the Dun Huang edition is the only original "Tan Sutra". Well, when was the Dun Huang grotto sealed up? The event occurred about nine hundred years ago. At that time, people in the region of todayâs Gansu, as well as people in the various kingdoms in Western China, believed in Buddhism. After the Islamic invasion they were forced to change their religious belief, otherwise they would have been killed. In order to protect Buddhist culture some of them hurriedly concealed scriptures in these caves and then sealed them up. This happened around nine hundred years ago. Whether or not the Dun Huang edition is the oldest one or the original one is therefore questionable. The "Tan Sutra", however, came out much earlier, as long as one thousand three hundred years ago. Consequently a debate about these different editions arose in China, Japan, and Western countries. It is still very much a live issue at the present time.
我们佛教界还是相信流传在外面的曹溪原本《坛经》才是真正《坛经》的原貌,敦煌石窟洞里面所收藏的《坛经》是节录本。因为所有一切相当有故事情节的内容都没有,主要是一些 法语。就像《四十二章经》一样,没有情节,《坛经》本来是有一些情节的。所以说,佛教界和学术界在对待《坛经》这个问题上分歧很大。我本人在80年代初期也写过两篇文章,辩证 《六祖坛经》究竟应该以哪个本子为标准。我觉得我们应该相信曹溪原本的真实性。为什么呢?曹溪原本是从六祖真身所在地保存下来的,那里刻了版,这是最真实的。六祖的真身经过1300 年的风风雨雨一直保存到现在,连经历文革这样的大风暴都能够保存下来,那么六祖的法语也 被曹溪人保存下来是情理中事,所以这是不需要怀疑的。我们相信,曹溪原本就是《坛经》的 原貌。纵然里面有一些添加的部分,应该说那也是极少数极少数,应该相信曹溪原本的真实性。曹溪原本的结构很完整,分为十章、十篇,我们河北佛协也多次地校勘印刷流通。现在在外面 流通的本子也很多,金陵刻经处也有刻本。要研究《坛经》、学习《坛经》,我建议各位不要用节略的敦煌本,要用比较完整的、保持原貌的曹溪原本。关于《六祖坛经》,我没有介绍它的内容,只是介绍这本经今天受到重视也艿酵崆庋桓鍪率怠.
We Chinese Buddhists, think that the Caoxi edition that past down from generation to generation is the true, original "Tan Sutra", whilst the Dun Huang edition is only a simplified one. It contains only the Dharma talks and excludes all else, such as the stories. It is similar to the "Sutra of Forty-Two Chapters", in which no details are included. The "Tan Sutra", however, does cover some events. Anyhow, concerning this issue, what Buddhist circles uphold differs greatly from that of academics. I, myself, wrote two articles in the early 80s discussing how to distinguish between the competing editions, and which one might be the original. I think we have to believe in the authenticity of the Caoxi edition. Why? The Caoxi edition, in fact, is preserved at Coaxi. It was carved on printing blocks used for generations at Caoxi, where the Sixth Patriarch Hui Nengâs embalmed body is kept. For the past one thousand three hundred years, through both ups and downs, and particularly throughout the tragic event of "Cultural Revolution", and, indeed, up to the present day, his body has been well kept and looked after. It is both reasonable and entirely understandable that the people of Caoxi have tried hard to preserve the teachings of the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng. We believe the Caoxi edition is the original "Tan Sutra". Even though it might contain a small amount of supplementary material, we think nevertheless that it is still authentic. The Coaxi edition is comprised of ten chapters, making the content complete. The Buddhist Association of Hebei Province has checked the authoritativeness of the text on many occasions before circulating it in print. Now there are many different editions all over the country, including the one printed here by the Nanjing Scripture Distributing Center. For study or research on the "Tan Sutra", I think youâd better use the more complete Caoxi edition and not the simplified Dun Huang edition. Regarding the "Tan Sutra" itself, I have not made any remarks as to its meaning, but have just mentioned the fact that it attracts much public attention, and that it is also often misrepresented somehow.
下面我讲第三个问题,就是六祖禅法的三句口诀。六祖禅都体现在《坛经》里面,《坛经》 的内容极为丰富,怎么去评价《六祖坛经》,我想都不会过份。我们今天不可能全面地来介绍六祖禅法,只能够挑出其中的三句话来介绍,这三句话就是在《六祖坛经》里讲到的: "我此法门,从上以来,先立无念为宗,无相为体,无住为本。" 这个 "三无" 是六祖禅的三句口诀,也是他的核心思想。
Next, let me come to the third point, that is, the three statements made by the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng in the "Tan Sutra". This sutra is extraordinarily meaningful. Whatever fine words we used to praise it, I think, are not enough. Today, because of time constraints I cannot cover all of his teachings, but will instead emphasize the three statements he made in the sutra; they are as follows: "It has been the tradition of our school to take âthoughtlessnessâ (无念) as the objective, ânon-objectivityâ (无相) as the basis, and ânon-attachmentâ (无住) as the fundament principle." Those three statements represent the fundamental essence of his thoughts.
什么叫做 "无念为宗" 呢? 无念是佛教经常用到的一个名词概念。我们昨天介绍四祖禅的时候,提到四祖曾经引用《大品般若经》中的诗 "无所念者,是名念佛。何等名无所念?即念佛心名无所念。" 这个无所念实际上就是无念。在六祖的三句口诀里,无念是相应于认识的主 体而言的。念就是能认识的心,无念就是我们的心在缘境的时候不起分别。无念并不是说像木头石头一样没有任何反应,而是有反应而无分别,这就是无念。知一切法,心不染著,就像 《金刚经》里所说的 "不应住色生心,不应住声香味触法生心,应无所住而生其心" ,或者说 "应生无所住心" ,这就是无念。无念就是我们这个意识再没有世俗异想分别,符合于真如之 念。圭峰大师在《禅源诸诠集都序》里面讲到,如果我们了解外在一切相的空性,那么我们的 内心自然就没有分别,自然就无念。而且 "念起即觉,觉之即无,此即修行之妙法,故虽备修 万行,而以无念为宗" 。这就是说,我们在修一切法门的时候不要有能所分别之心,而要时时 刻刻把握自己无分别的心态。假如我们真正处于与真如冥符这样的一种心态,那么我们时时刻刻就住在禅定中。修一切法时不起法相,不起修相,做到三轮体空,这就是无念。无念不等于 是没有念头,而是没有分别之念。所以说无念橇骒淇诰鞯母尽。
What is âthoughtlessnessâ? The term âthoughtlessnessâ is a well-accepted concept in Buddhism. Yesterday, when I came to the Fourth Patriarch Dao Xinâs gate, I mentioned that he had once cited the words of the "Pancavimsati Sahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra" (大品般若经) that: "Abiding nowhere means truly praying to the Buddha. What does âabiding nowhereâ mean? It means the Mind that prays to the Buddha is âthoughtlessâ." This is actually the state of âthoughtlessnessâ. Among the three statements âthoughtlessnessâ is related to the subjectivity of our thought. Thought is the Mind that thinks, while âthoughtlessnessâ the mind that is indifferent to casual, temporary conditions. âThoughtlessnessâ, then, does not mean making no response like a log or block of stone, but responding to somebody or something without separation. That is, it entails knowing what dharmas represent and keeping the Mind untouched. It is said in the "Diamond Sutra" (金刚经) that: "When one practices charity one should not cherish any idea, that is to say, one is not to cherish the idea of sound, smell, taste, touch, or Dharma. He should thus practice charity without cherishing any idea of form." The message of "practicing charity without cherishing any idea of form" is âthoughtlessnessâ. When we think in a manner free from worldly delusion and separation, and in accord with Tathagata (suchness), that is âthoughtlessâ. Master Guifeng Zongmi (780 â 841), in his "Prelude for the Works on the Five Sects of Chan Buddhism" (禅源诸诠集都序), said that, if we truly understand the emptiness of all external things, our Mind is naturally free from separation or discrimination and is âthoughtlessâ. "Maintaining the state of mindfulness at every arising thought, the thought will disappear at once. This is the true path of self-training. For all ways of training âthoughtlessnessâ is, therefore, the only objective." That is to say, when we practice any kind of training we must always be free from separation and always hold on to that state of Mind. If our Mind could truly be in perfect agreement with Tathagata, then we would always be in the state of meditation. If at the time when we are engaged in any kind of practice, we can remain free from both notions of Dharma and of self, then we would truly be in the state of âthoughtlessnessâ. Or, again, if in practicing charity one remains free and unattached to the notions of "it is I who gives, it is he who receives, and it is this or that that is given", then we are truly in the state of âthoughtlessnessâ. This does not mean we have no thoughts but, rather, we have no thoughts of separation. âThoughtlessnessâ, therefore, is the most important of the Sixth Patriarch Hui Nengâs three statements.
什么叫 "无相为体" 呢? 念是能缘之心,相就是所缘之境。外离一切相,就是说在我们认识事物的时候,不要给事物强加一切外在的东西,而是要还一切事物的本来面目。外离一切相 名为无相,能离于相,则法体清净。因为一切诸法从本以来,离名字相,离心缘相。一切诸法 之所以有种种名相,都是我们主观安立的,并不是它自己本身所具有的。所以要即相而离相,于相而离相。所谓无相,就是不在境上起分别执著之相,能够使法体恒清净。法体就是一切事 物的本来面目。一切诸法,也可以说是一切相,本来就是清净的。众生执迷不悟,即执分别,妄计种种相状。如果我们能够做到于相而离相,在认识事物上远离计执,那我们就可亲见诸法实相。什么是无相呢?无相即实相,诸法以实相为体,所以说以无相为体。
What is "non-objectivity as the basis"? The term âthoughtâ, as discussed above, means the Mind that has a thought, while objectivity (or object) refers to the picture or image that the Mind thinks/creates. "Non-objectivity" means to free oneself from absorption in external objects. That is, at the time when encountering a certain thing we do not add something external to it, but stick to its own nature. To free oneself from an absorption in external things, therefore, is non-objectivity. If we could act in accordance with this principle our Mind would be pure. This is because all dharmas, naturally, as they are, are free from objectification and name, and free from the Mind that has a thought or the image that the Mind thinks/creates. All those named objects are such only subjectively, from our own perspective, but are not in and of themselves. They are not this thing or that thing in their own nature. That is why we have to evade being caught up by the external world. The term "non-objectivity" refers to the complete eradication of all subjective separation so as to make the nature of Dharma pure. The nature of Dharma is as it is for all things. All dharmas, or we could say all objects, are pure in nature. We give all sorts of names to them because of our attachment, ignorance, and separation. If we could get away from objects and names, and attachments as well, we would see with our own eyes the Absolute Existence of all dharmas (实相). What is "non-objectivity"? It is the state of Absolute Existence or, simply, the Absolute Existence. All dharmas are based on the Absolute Existence. Therefore, in relation to the Chan School, we say, "non-objectivity as the basis".
四祖道信禅师在他的《入道安心要方便门》上面曾经说到: "众生根有无量故,所以说法 无量;说法无量故,义亦无量;无量义者,从一法生". 这个无量义并不是以无量法生无量义,而是从一法所生。这一法是什么呢?一法者,则无相也,一法就是无相。无相者,是诸法实相,因为无相无不相,是为实相。在这里,无相是作为一切法的共性。虽然一切法看起来都是孤立 的,但是实际上一切法有其个性,同时也有其共性。如果一切法只有个性没有共性的话,那我 们就无法去把握它。
The Fourth Patriarch Dao Xin, in his "Easy Path of Pacifying the Mind to Enter the Tao" (入道安心要方便门), said that: "As sentient beings grow in endless ways dharmas are endless. As dharmas are endless the meanings of them are endless. As the meanings of dharmas are endless all come out of the Dharma." What is the Dharma? It is non-objectivity. It is the Absolute Existence of all dharmas. As there is no negative counterpart to non-objectivity, it is then the Absolute Existence. Here, non-objectivity is the common feature of all dharmas. Although all dharmas seem to be isolated, in fact they each have a specific and unique feature and, at the same time, a feature common to all. Suppose all dharmas had only their specific feature and not a common one, we would not be able to get hold of them or grasp them.
第三句叫 "无住为本"。《维摩经》上讲: "从无住本,立一切法"。诸法以无住为根本, 无住本者就是诸法之本际,人之本性。为什么这么说呢?因为无住就是真如法性的另外一个称 呼,所以说以无住本,或者说从无住本立一切法。一切法都有法性,都有法相。法相是具体的,法性应该说是抽象的;法相是个别的,法性是共同的;法相是诸法的差别性,法性是诸法的平 等性;法相是具体的事物,法性是规律。因为一切法都有规律可循,这样我们才能把握它,才能够认识它、分析它。如果我们要一个事物一个事物地去分析,那就陷入到入海数沙这样的一种困境。我们一定要把握诸法的共相,把握了诸法的共相,才能够把握诸法的本质。所以《六 祖坛经》讲到 "无住为本" 的时候,他就说 "念念中不思前境" ,过去的事情不要再去思量分别。 "前念今念后念,念念相续不断" ,就是说我们的念头总在转移,总在随境迁流,因此我 们在诸法上就得不到解脱。一切诸法不会凝住于自身固定不变的性质上,人的认识能力也不应以固定的概念作为其固定的本质,所以般若的理论就据此作为诸法性空的重要内容。
The next statement is: "non-attachment as the fundamental principle". The "Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra" (维摩经) says that: "All dharmas come into being from the point of non-attachment." That is, non-attachment is the fundamental aspect of all dharmas. It is the Ultimate Reality of all dharmas, and the natural state of human beings. Why do I say so? It is because non-attachment is another name for the Dharma-Nature of Tathagata. Therefore we say that, non-attachment is as the fundamental principle, or all dharmas come out of non-attachment. All dharmas have Dharma nature and Dharma phase. The Dharma phase is concrete while the Dharma nature abstract. The former is the specific aspect whilst the latter is the common one. The former is the discrepancy among all dharmas whilst the latter the equality of all dharmas. The former is a certain thing while the latter its regular pattern. As all dharmas have their regular patterns to follow, we can thus get a hold on them, understand them, and analyze them. If we tried to analyze things one by one we would face the same dilemma encountered in trying to count all the grains of sand in the sea. We have to hold on to the common feature of all dharmas first, only then can we hope to get hold of their essence. When the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng talked about "non-attachment as the fundamental principle" he said: "isolate each arising thought from the previous one". That is, do not think of the past event with a separated Mind. "Our thoughts - the past, present, and forthcoming, proceed in unending succession." This refers to the fact that our Mind is often carried away by external conditions, so that we are unable to obtain release from all dharmas. Our external conditions consist of constantly changing dharmas, and are thereby impermanent and without a fixed character. When looking at the phenomenal world weâd better not view or understand such externals according to fixed concepts or characteristics. This is what the "emptiness of all dharmas" refers to, and is the basis upon which the Prajna theory (般若理论) was built.
"无住" 在佛学理论上是一个非常重要的问题,是一个非常大的问题。《维摩经》上说 "从无住本,立一切法" 。我们现在流行的《维摩经》是鸠摩罗什翻译的本子。有一位僧肇大 师,他跟鸠摩罗什是同时代的人,而且他是鸠摩罗什的学生。他当时参加了鸠摩罗什的译场, 他所注的《维摩经》应该说保持了当时鸠摩罗什本人对《维摩经》的理解。所以我们现在要学 习《维摩经》,一定要很好地重视僧肇这本《注维摩经》,这是一个很重要的问题。僧肇在注 "从无住本,立一切法" 这句话的时候是怎么说的呢?他说: "法无自性,缘感而起。当其未起,莫知所寄。莫知所寄,故无所住。无所住故,则非有非无,非有无而为有无之本。" 所以,这就是从 "无住本,立一切法"。一切法的本际就是无住,这实际上讲的就是一切法无自性的 道理。一切法如果有自性的话,一切法不会生,一切法就没有办法相容相兼并同时存在于一个空间。正因为一切法没有自性,所以无自性这种规律性就是一切法的本原,这就是法性。
"Non-attachment" is a fundamental and important theoretical issue in Buddhism. The "Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra" says: "All dharmas come into being from the point of non-attachment." This sutra was translated by Kumarajiva (鸠摩罗什, 344â413 or 350â409), and is the edition we now have in circulation. Master Seng Zhao (384 â 414), a contemporary and disciple of Kumarajiva, undertook the translation work together with and under the guidance of Kumarajiva. We have to say that his annotated edition of the "Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra" truly reflects Kumarajivaâs understanding of it at that time. So, if we want to study the sutra now, weâd better familiarize ourselves with Master Seng Zhaoâs edition. This is a very important matter. When Master Seng Zhao came to the words "All dharmas come into being from the point of non-attachment", what did he annotate? He said: "There is no identity for the Dharma. It reveals itself because of dependent origination (缘起性空). At the arising stage it is moving about here and there. Wandering from place to place, as it is, it does not attach to anything. Because of this feature it is neither existent nor non-existent. This feature of âneither existence nor non-existenceâ is the fundamental principle of existence or non-existence." This is what the statement, "All dharmas come into being from the point of non-attachment", really means. All dharmas by their very nature are impermanent. This explains why there is no identity for the Dharma. Suppose the Dharma has identity, then all dharmas could not come into being, or there would be no way for all of them to mutually coexisted in one space. It is only because of this characteristic that the law of non-identity is the origin of all dharmas, and the Nature of Dharma.
"无住" 的思想在大乘佛教有无住涅槃,有无住三昧。无住涅槃是大乘佛教、大乘菩萨最高的果位,因为大乘菩萨以大悲心怜愍有情、广度众生,所以他不住涅槃。菩萨又以大智慧断 除二障,所以他又不住生死,这是学佛的最高的成就。我们一般的人都希望学佛以后能进入涅槃的境界,却忘记了我们也是从苦恼众生而得闻佛法的。我们得闻佛法后通过修行而慢慢得到 一点受用,得了受用以后很可能会慢慢地进入到比较高的层次。随着层次的提高,我们往往会 把以前走过的路给忘记了。忘记了怎么办呢?那时我们就应该想到,我们和所有的苦恼众生一样,都是从苦难中挣扎出来,那么我们自己有了受用、得到了解脱,要不要回来照顾一下其他 还没有得到解脱的人呢?我想那完全是应该的。所以说菩萨能够断除二障又不住生死,有大慈 悲又不住涅槃。不住涅槃、不住生死这就是一种最高尚的菩萨精神。什么叫做菩萨?这就叫做菩萨。什么叫大乘?这就是大乘。如果说大乘菩萨想证涅槃而再不入生死,那他一定是小乘。如果说他只想在生死里面,并不知道有涅槃这回事,那他就不是一个学佛的人,还是一个生死凡夫。既不住涅槃又超越生死,这就是我们学佛的极至,就是学佛的最高成就。昨天讲到沩山祖师发愿百年以后要到山下做一头水牯牛,就是这种精神。就是不住涅槃、不住生死、随愿度 生的大乘佛教最高的思想境界。
In the Mahyana tradition the idea of "non-attachment" is extended to "not attaching oneself to Nirvana" and "not attaching oneself to Samadhi". Not being attached to Nirvana is the highest attainment, or Buddha-fruit, of the Mahayana Bodhisattva. Through loving kindness and compassion a Mahayana Bodhisattva helps all sentient beings, heart and soul, thus he does not attach himself to Nirvana. In addition, by means of great wisdom he obliterates both the internal and external hindrances (二障) so that he no longer attaches himself to life-death. This is the highest attainment for those who study the Buddhaâs teachings. As practitioners we generally wish to attain the state of Nirvana by the end of our self-training; however, we forget the fact that we were previously among those sentient beings who were suffering from pain and delusion. As we come to hear the Truth, and put it into practice, we gradually progress along the path. Bit by bit, we might slowly come to a higher level. As we progress in our attainments we often forget the path we have traversed. What should we do at this stage? We must remember we suffered a great deal before our release from those sufferings. Having attained our goal, should we take care of those who are still suffering? I think we should. Therefore we say that, through great wisdom, a Bhodhisattva can destroy both internal and external hindrances, remain free from life-death, and that through great compassion and loving kindness he does not attach himself to Nirvana. This is the extraordinarily noble spirit of Mahayana Bodhisattva. What is Bodhisattva? This is Bodhisattva. What is Mahayana (大乘)? This is Mahayana. Suppose someone wants to attain Nirvana but does not attach himself to life-death, that is, does not vow to be reborn, he would, then, be a follower of the Hinayana (小乘) but not the Mahayana tradition. Suppose someone only wants to be in the circle of Samsara and does not know what Nirvana is, he or she is an ordinary person, but not a Buddhist. To go beyond Nirvana and life-death is the ultimate goal for Buddhists, the highest achievement for those who live what the Buddha taught. Yesterday, I mentioned Master Yangshan Huiji (807 â 883) who vowed to be a buffalo at the foot of mountain after his death. It is such a spirit of going beyond Nirvana and life-death, and serving all sentient beings under whatever conditions, that reflects the highest state of Mahayana.
六祖禅法的三句口诀—— "无念为宗、无相为体、无住为本" ,希望我们真正能够很好地去把握,并把这种思想运用到禅修和弘法利生当中,运用到我们的做人做事当中。如果一切都能够以 "无念" 、 "无相" 、 "无住" 来指导,那不但我们的人生有希望、我们的佛法有希望、我们的社会有希望,我们一切的事情都有希望。因为远离了偏执,远离了片面性,远离了种种 的人我是非,使我们真正处在一个和乐温馨的大家庭当中,那样就是人间净土的实现。
The three statements: "thoughtlessness as the objective; non-objectivity as the basis; and, non-attachment as the fundamental principle", are what the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng taught in his gate. It is my hope that we can truly get hold of them and thoroughly incorporate them into our self-training, into Dharma dissemination and into the serving of all sentient beings, indeed, into whatever we do and whatever we say. Suppose we really could take those words as our guiding light; our life would then be full of hope and the Buddhadharma, our society, and all we do or intend to do would in turn be full of hope. In so far as we remain free from preconceptions, one-sided views, and separative thinking in respect to self and others, we can truly live together as one peaceful, warm â and very large - family. This is the embodiment of a worldly Pure-Land.
净慧法师 Jinghui Fashi
The Fifth Lecture - Wumenguan 无门关
今天给大家讲的题目叫 "无门关"。我想进入这个关、禅的关,连门都没有,那么说的一切都是多余的。因为 "凡有言说,都是虚妄" ,言说只能是一种描述,它绝对不能真正接触到 禅的实质,所以 "无门关" 很难讲。为了要描述这个禅,为了使我们通过语言符号对 "无门关" 的意思获得些微的了解,我就在无说的基础上、在无说的前提下画蛇添足,来给各位作一点点 介绍。
The topic I am going to talk about today is "Wumenguan" (the Gateless Barrier). Buddhism teaches that our original nature is pure. "Anything said will be illusive." What we say is just a description of the thing, but hardly makes contact with its true nature, the nature of Chan (Zen). It is therefore very difficult to talk about "Wumenguan". In order to describe what Chan is, and to explain the meaning of "Wumenguan", I have to use words and letters by way of giving a brief introduction. I know that to speak or talk about what canât be spoken is just like drawing a snake with feet added on. Here I have no choice but to try.
首先说说这个 "无" 字。"无" 既是佛教哲学、佛教修行的最高境界,也是中国儒道哲学 里的最高境界。中国的儒道哲学所谓 "大道无门",而佛教哲学是把一切万事万物最初的起源 都归纳到 "无" 字上面。"无" 字是梵文里开始的第一个字 "阿",在密宗里面是说 "阿字本 不生" [注1]。因为一切的万法都是因缘所生,每一法都是众缘和合。每一缘又是由众缘和合,众缘又有众缘,众缘还有众缘,一直可以追溯到无始,找不到一个开头。我们就随便拿此一会 来做一个例子。我们为什么有这一次讲经的法会?就从缘来分析,一直可以追溯到释迦牟尼那 灵山一会。再从佛的灵山一会往前追,那就追溯到佛的三大阿僧祇劫[注2]的修持行道度生,可以说叫前前无始。我们又以这个法会作为一个点,再往下去追求,由此而产生各种影响,一个一个地向后推求,也可以说是后后无终。一件事是这样,世界上的万事万物无不如此。每一 件事情都是前前无始——找不到它的开始,后后无终——找不到这件事究竟在什么时候结束,哪里是它的终点。从这样的意义上来说,佛教就说一切法无生,因为追不到它的起点和尽头在 哪里。这是佛教的观点。
Firstly, let me come to the word "Wu". "Wu" not only stands for the ultimate state of Buddhist philosophy and Buddhist training, but also the highest level of Confucian or Taoist philosophy in China. Confucian or Taoist philosophy upholds that the "Tao is gateless", whilst Buddhism attributes the primitive origin of all things as coming from the word "Wu". "Wu" is the very first letter âaâ in Sanskrit. In the Mantra School (密宗) it is said that: "The letter âaâ is No-Birth in nature." As all dharmas come into being interdependently, each arises in accordance with its causal conditions. As each condition derives from all prior dependent conditions, all prior dependent conditions come out of still more dependent conditions. In this way â residing in infinity, no dharma can be traced back to its point of origin or supposed original cause. Let us take this Dharma talk as an example. What has led to us meeting for it here? The various reasons could be traced back all the way to the time when Shakyamuni (释迦牟尼) addressed an assembly of thousands on Mount Grdhrakuta (灵山). It could even be traced from Grdhrakuta back to the Buddhaâs asamkhya period when he himself practiced self-mortification. From this perspective, we could say, this Dharma talk is without a beginning. Suppose we take this Dharma talk as a point and search for its effects from now on, it would have an influence on the coming events one after another, it would thus be endless. Everything in the word is just as it is with neither beginning nor ending. From such a viewpoint, Buddhism upholds the principle of "No-birth for all dharmas", because it is impossible to find out whence in the past they began and where in the future they will end. This is the Buddhist perspective on the world.
其它宗教认为世界上的一切万事万物有一个开始。这个开始是什么呢?印度的婆罗门教就 说是梵天创造,那就是个开始。至于梵天是谁创造的,就不能够再往下追。西方的基督教、 天主教认为一切万事万物也有个开始,是上帝创造的。那上帝又是谁创造的呢?不能够再去追 问。这是个很有意思的事情。我听过一个小故事,说在美国的学校里,孩子们上有关宗教比较 学的课。在学了基督教、天主教和佛教的一些基本道理之后,老师出题问佛教和基督教有什么 不同,这是一个思考题。美国的孩子答得很简单,他们说佛教认为第一个鸡蛋是鸡生的,基督 教和天主教认为第一个鸡蛋不是鸡生的。这个答案很生动很巧妙地把问题解决了,佛教与基督 教、天主教的不同就在于此。因为基督教和天主教认为第一个鸡蛋是上帝生的,不是鸡生的。 而佛教认为第一个鸡蛋还是鸡生的,一直可以追到前前无始、没有一个开始的地方,所以叫 "无始终,无内外,强立名,为法界" 。我们佛学院的学生都读过《佛教三字经》[注4],开头 的几句话就是这样讲的,讲一切事物就是这样。
Other religions uphold that there was a beginning for all things in the world. What was it? Brahmanism (婆罗门教) in India says everything was created by Mahabrahmadeva, but cannot answer the question as to who or what exactly created Mahabrahmadeva (梵天). Christianity and Catholicism in the West also think there was a beginning for all things, with an almighty God as the Creator. Well, who or what created such a God then? We are unable to find the answer. This is a very interesting matter. I once heard a brief anecdote, it went as follows: students in an American school were given a lesson on comparative religion. After they had studied the basic foundations of Christianity, Catholicism, and Buddhism the teacher asked them what the difference between Buddhism and Christianity was. They answered simply that Buddhism thought that the very first egg was laid by a chicken, whilst Christianity and Catholicism, on the other hand, did not. This vivid and clever answer clearly reflects the difference between them. Christianity and Catholicism think the very first egg was laid by God but not by a chicken. Buddhism, however, thinks that the very first egg was laid by a chicken. This process could be traced endlessly far back to an unknown time without a beginning. This is called "Having neither beginning nor end, being located neither inside nor outside, it is hard to give it any name other than the Dharma-dhatu" (法界). Students in the Buddhist Institute have all read the "Buddhist Three-Characters Sutra" which begins with those words. It is applicable to everything in the world.
"阿字本不生" 的 "阿" 字,翻成中国字就是 "无"。无者就是般若的最高境界,就是佛法的最高境界。我们佛教历史上有一位最有名的佛学大师叫僧肇,他写了四篇论文,其中就有 一个《般若无知论》。般若本来是真知,本来是最高的智慧,他说 "般若无知" 就是用 "无" 来概括佛教的最高智慧。
The letter âaâ in the message: " The letter âaâ is No-Birth in nature", is translated into "Wu" in Chinese. "Wu" is the ultimate state of Prajna (wisdom), the highest state of Buddhadharma. In Chinese Buddhist history there was a well-known master, Master Seng Zhao (384 â 414). He wrote four papers, one of which was entitled "On the Unknowable Nature of Prajna" (般若无知论). Prajna, in nature, is the direct first-hand experience of truth, the highest wisdom. When Master Seng Zhao talked about the "unknowable nature of Prajna", he used the term "Wu" to sum up the highest wisdom of Buddhism.
我们不要随便地给 "无" 字来一个定位,不要认为是有无的 "无" ,无就是没有,不是这 个意思。 "无" 在这里就是般若理论所主张的 "空"。大家都知道三论宗的《中论》,里面有 一首偈子写道 "以有空义故,一切法得成" 。正是有 "无",所以一切法才得成。这个 "无" 是指什么呢? "无" 是指一切法无自性。每一个法都无自性,所以它都能够成为另一个法生存 和发展的条件。如果每一个法都有自性的话,它就会你搞你的,我搞我的,互不合作。正因为 它没有自性,可以随意地组合,说这种组合是随意的仅是我们一般的看法,这种组合也体现了 "法尔道理" [注5]。我们人生存在这个环境里面,很巧啊,鼻子都朝下,耳朵就长在两边,眼睛就会看东西,肚子饿了要吃饭。这些问题当然要用科学来说明好像也说得清楚,但实际上 那种说明是很勉强的。究竟它为什么要长出这样一个样子来?法尔如是。佛教认为这都是法尔 的,它就是应该这样,不能够是第二样。像这样的一些东西,这样的一些道理,这样的一些现 象,应该说佛教回答得最有智慧。它把它们都归纳成为缘起而性空这样一个最高的哲学理念,或者是以 "无" 来概括它。
Weâd better not randomly interpret the word "Wu". Do not refer to it as either existence or non-existence, thinking "Wu" is mere nothingness. No, this is not what the word means. Here, "Wu" is the "emptiness" that the Prajna theory puts forward. We all know the "Middle Path" of Three-Sastra School in which there is a stanza (偈子, appreciatory verse) that says: "Because of emptiness all dharmas can be as they are." It is only because of "Wu", because of emptiness, that all dharmas reveal themselves as they are. What does the term "Wu" mean? It means the selflessness of all dharmas. Because all dharmas are without self-identity, they exist simply as conditions in which any dharma can come to live and grow. Suppose each dharma had its own self-identity and, hence, all differed from one another, there would not be any ground of mutual combination. It is only because of their inherent selflessness that all dharmas can come together in accordance with causal conditions. The combination of various dharmas gives visible form to the Buddhist outlook that " The Dharma reveals itself as it is." What a happy coincidence it is that we live with a nose pointing downwards, two ears on both sides, two eyes that can look here and there, and a stomach that digests what we eat. All of them can be explained from a scientific point of view. Such an explanation, however, might be unconvincing. Why do we live with a nose, two ears, two eyes, and a stomach? As the Dharma reveals itself as it is, Buddhism maintains that we should have a nose, two ears, two eyes, and a stomach and should not conform to any secondary pattern. It is as it is. In explaining things, the whys and wherefores, the facts and occurrences like this, it is reasonable to say that Buddhism can provide the most insightful and wise answers. Buddhism has summed them up in terms of the philosophical concept of Dependent Origination and Emptiness of Ultimate Reality (缘起性空), or in one word "Wu".
我们大体上把 "无" 字在佛教中的重要地位和价值,乃至在中国老庄哲学里面的重要地位 这样一个重要内容,给大家作了一番简单介绍。下面就讲 "无门关"。 "无门关" 的来历是什么呢?各位看过禅宗公案的人都知道赵州和尚的一个著名公案。有人来参拜赵州和尚,向他提出一个问题,问道:
So far I have made a brief account of the important role and value the term "Wu" plays in Buddhism; its importance similarly impacts upon the philosophy of both Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi. Next, I am going to talk about "Wumenguan". Where did the term "Wumenguan" come from? Those who have read various Gongan (公案, koan) in the Chan School all know the well-known Gongan (公案) by Master Zhaozhou Congshen (778 â 897). A monk came to meet Master Zhaozhou asking: "狗子还有佛性也无?"
狗子有没有佛性。 赵州和尚就说:"无!" 狗子没有佛性。
那个参拜的人进一步地问: "一切众生都有佛性,为什么狗子就没有佛性呢?" 赵州说: "因为它有业识在"。
"Has a dog Buddha-nature or not?" Master Zhaozhou retorted: "Wu!" A dog does not have Buddha-nature.
The monk asked again: "All sentient beings have Buddha-nature. Why then doesnât a dog?" Master Zhaozhou said: "Because it has delusions (业识)."
This is how the Gongan (公案) goes.
我们有一点佛教常识的人来判断这个公案,肯定说赵州和尚的回答是和佛教常识相违背的。因为佛教常识都讲,一切众生都有佛性嘛,狗子为什么就没有佛性呢?但是大家一定不要忘记,这个 "无" 不是有无的 "无" ,是超越了对立的 "无" ,这个 "无" 是在给你一个思路。按照 通常情况,你的思路会往前继续去想、继续去追这个问题。但是赵州和尚的回答就好像闸门关下来一样,一下子截断了你思路的水流,一下子将你的思路堵塞了。思路堵塞以后,你的前面 就好像壁立万仞,无路可走。也可以说一下子把你推到万丈悬崖的边沿,你再往前走一步就会掉下去。如果那个时候能够掉下去,那就是禅宗讲的 "撒手悬崖" ,就可以真正地超越。禅宗 的功夫就在这个地方,就是在你问答之间真正能够契入,一下子把你的思路堵住了,你不要再 继续往前闪。一下子壁立万仞,你再找一个出路、找一个翻身的地方,你就算无门也能进去。如果你还在知识里面兜圈子的话,那你永远都没有一个入处。
If someone who knows a bit about Buddhist teachings were to judge this Gongan, he would surely think that Master Zhaozhouâs answer is contrary to the commonly held Buddhist outlook. Buddhism teaches us that all sentient beings have Buddha-nature. Why then does a dog not have such a nature? We should not forget that "Wu" is neither existence nor non-existence, it is beyond existence and non-existence, hence you are forced to contemplate the matter. Under normal circumstances you could think about it over and over again. Master Zhaozhouâs answer, however, like a sluice gate damming up water, suddenly cuts off or blocks up the flow of your thoughts. As your thoughts are blocked up, you seem to face an incredibly high wall. There is no way through. In other words, you are driven to the edge of a steep cliff, one step forward and you would fall over the edge. "Letting go oneâs hold on the cliff", is an expression used in the Chan school to describe the situation where, if at the very moment of contemplation you are able to allow yourself to fall in such a way, you truly obtains release. This is how Chan training works. It works by means of such questions and answers, blocking up your thoughts all of a sudden so that you cannot go on thinking. At such a moment as this, faced with an extraordinarily high wall, if you could find some way out or find some way to turnaround, you would be able to pass through even though there is no gate. If, however, you continue to go around in circles of intellectual knowledge and rational thought, you will never find a point of entry.
这里还有一个公案,是五祖法演[注6]禅师讲出来的一个公案。这个公案听起来好像是很 俗,但实际上非常有味道。禅宗是要你从没有门的地方能够进去,你能够得一个转身、能够翻 身,那才是本事,这个公案讲的就是这个意思。
There was another important Gongan spoken by Master Fa Yan (? â 1104), the fifth Dharma holder of Linji Sect. It sounds slightly vulgar, yet its meaning is very instructive nonetheless. This is the way Chan training works. It compels you to enter where there is no gate. It enables you to turnaround and free yourself. This is the capability that Chan training both fosters and facilitates. The following Gongan provides a very good example.
说有一位做盗贼的父亲养了一个儿子,年复一 年、月复一月、日复一日,盗贼老子总是带着儿子一起做盗窃的事。他们那时不像现在撬锁偷 荷包抢银行,古今做小偷的各有各的办法。古代是挖窟窿。你在房子里面,他要偷你东西就先 在墙上挖一个窟窿钻进去,我们这些老年人都知道这种事,年轻人就不知道,年轻人只知道做 小偷要下门下锁。古代在农村里是挖一个窟窿,然后钻进去。盗贼的儿子长到十七八岁了,他 说: "父亲啊,你天天带着我偷东西,我老跟着你做,将来万一你不能动了,那我怎么办啊? 你总要把绝活教我一两招,好让我以后也能独立谋生。" 父亲听到儿子这么说非常高兴:噢,他还想独立地去偷盗呢,那说明他有出息。父亲也不说他哪一天会教儿子,还是照样把儿子带 到外面。有一天他们挖到一个大户人家里去了,父子两个都到了屋里,屋里有一个衣柜。过去的衣柜不像我们现在这样,过去的衣柜很高,放东西要打开了进去。父亲轻轻地把一个衣柜打 开,叫他儿子去看里面有什么东西。儿子朝衣柜里面一走,父亲就把门一关,然后把他锁在里 面。锁了衣柜以后,父亲就从挖的窟窿跑了出去,又弄一捆荆棘把洞口给堵住。他再到外面喊 主人家的门,说他家里有盗贼,让他们赶快起来捉贼。用禅宗的话来说,这是把这个儿子置于 死地,看他在这个时候能不能找到一个翻身的机会。他儿子这一下急了:啊!他今天怎么跟我 来这一招,这不是明明要把我置于死地吗?这个时候,他心里在想怎么样逃脱困境。他先在柜 子里学老鼠叫,这家人听到柜子不停地在响,家里的老太婆就点上灯慢慢地把柜子门打开。一 打开,这个小盗贼就把灯吹熄了,然后拼命地往外跑。他跑到洞口想钻出去,见有一捆刺把洞 堵得死死的。在这个时候,刚好洞旁边有一个马桶,这个儿子就把马桶里的东西倒得干干净净, 朝头上一罩,一下子就钻出去了。钻出去是死里逃生,但是后面的人还是追来了。追到前面不 远有一口水井,水井旁边又有块石头,他看到后面的人追来以后,就把石头丢到水井里面去, 发出很大的声响。晚上模模糊糊的,人家以为这个小盗贼跳到井里淹死了,而他一溜烟就跑掉了。这个儿子跑回家以后,就责问父亲: "你今天怎么这样来整我?你这不是要我的命嘛!" 父亲问他是怎么出来的,他就把经过向他父亲讲了一番,还是满口的抱怨。他父亲说: "好了, 我的绝招已经教给你了,这就是绝招。"
Long, long ago there was a thief who had a son. As the years went by the father would always take his son with him on the job. In the old days what a thief did was quite different from what a thief does nowadays, such as breaking open locks, stealing peoplesâ purses, or robbing banks. In the past a thief would simply have drilled a hole in the wall of a building he wished to enter. Suppose you lived in a house, and suppose a thief wanted to steal something from you, he would drill a hole in the wall first and then steal into your house. Old men like me remember such things, but the youngsters donât. They only know that a thief breaks open locks or even, perhaps, smashes down the door. In the past, especially in rural areas, a thief would simply drill a hole in the wall and get into the house. The son grew up to be seventeen or eighteen years old. One day he said to his father: "Father, everyday when you go out to rob and steal you take me with you. I simply follow what you do. But what can I do by myself if you are in poor health someday? Youâd better teach me one or two important skills so that I can make a living by myself." After hearing these words, the father was very happy. He thought his son intended to do the job alone. This meant, he thought, that in the future his son might become a clever thief. The father did not say a word about when or what he was going to teach, but kept on taking his son out as usual. One day they drilled a hole in the wall of a very rich familyâs house and stole inside. They had entered a room in which there was a large wardrobe. Wardrobes in the old days were not like the ones we have today. They were very tall, and to put something in it one had to go inside. The father quietly opened the wardrobe and asked his son to see what was inside. As soon as the son got inside the father shut it up and locked him in. Immediately, the father left the house through the hole in the wall, blocking it up with a bundle of brambles as he went. He then started banging on the front door, shouting out to the host that there was a thief inside and that heâd better catch him at once. In the words of the Chan School this is called, "Cornering someone to see whether or not he can escape at the critical moment." The son was very anxious indeed. He could not understand how his father did this to him; his father had quite simply doomed him to a certain death. At that moment he thought of how to escape. At first he mimicked the noise of a rat in the wardrobe. On hearing the noise for quite a long time the old grandma of the family lit a lamp and slowly opened the wardrobe. In a flash the little thief blew out the light and ran out as quickly as he could towards the hole. However he could not get through because the hole had been carefully blocked up. Fortunately he found a urine bucket nearby. He poured the urine out, put it on his head, and making a dash towards the brambles, managed to burst through to the other side. He had had a narrow escape from the room, but still the villagers chased him as he fled in the direction of a nearby well. With the villagers gaining ground and hot on his heels he happened to notice a big stone lying on the ground. With no time to spare he grabbed it, lifted it up and threw it into the well. It was a dark night, and on hearing the sound from the well the villagers thought the thief had fallen in and drowned. After making his way home he began to curse his father saying, "How could you do such a thing to me? You virtually condemned me to death!" His father asked him how he had managed to escape. The son, complaining all the while, explained what had happened over again. His father said: "Well then, I have already taught you a valuable skill. That was the valuable skill."
参禅大体上就是这个样子,一定把你推到无路可走的地方,让你自己去找一个翻身的机会,那样你就能开悟了。这个故事虽然很粗很俗,但是我们要逃出生死、要真正得到解脱,故事所 蕴含的道理还是值得我们去认真思考的。所以说 "无" 字的作用就在这里,它不让你有一个思考的余地,禅宗许多公案都是如此。
To practice sitting meditation is, in a sense, somewhat akin to this story. You are driven to a dead-end and forced somehow to extricate yourself from a seemingly impossible situation, yet that very extrication, that positive outcome, is none other than enlightenment itself. Though it is rather a crude and immoral tale the lesson it provides is worthy of our consideration, if we really want to free ourselves from life and death and obtain release. Therefore the Gongan "Wu", as well as many other Gongan, function in such a way as to leave us with no intellectual space in which to move.
赵州和尚还有一个公案叫做 "祖师西来意" 。达摩祖师从印度到中国来究竟传的是什么法, 他的宗旨是什么。这是禅宗千古以来的一个大问题,一直被人们所追问, "如何是祖师西来 意?" 关于这个问题,可能有一千种以上的答案。那么赵州和尚的答案是什么呢?人家问: "如何是祖师西来意?" 赵州和尚说: "庭前柏树子。" 你说庭前柏树子和祖师西来意有什么关系呢?如果我们从知识的层面去理解,简直是答非所问。但是真正懂得禅的人会觉得这种回 答才真正是祖师的苦口婆心,他是让你好好地在无路可走的情况下,自己去找一个入处。
There is another well-known Gongan related to Master Zhaozhou, called "What is the meaning of Bodhidharmaâs coming to China?" Coming from India to China, what did Bodhidharma preach? What was his aim and objective? This has been a key issue in Chan thought throughout the ages; an issue that has caused and generated a great deal of reflection. Regarding this question, there are answers perhaps running into the thousand. What was the answer given by Master Zhaozhou then? Someone asked Master Zhaozhou: "What is the meaning of Bodhidharmaâs coming to China?" He said: "Cypress trees in front of the hall." Can you see how Cypress trees could be related to the meaning of Bodhidharmaâs coming to China? If we take it from the perspective of intellectual knowledge it is simply an irrelevant answer. Those who truly understand what Chan is know clearly the earnest intention Master Zhaozhou had by giving such an answer. His intention was to put the questioner in a hopeless situation, thereby forcing that person to try hard to find his or her own penetrative point of entry into Chan.
还有的祖师问如何是佛。有个祖师就问洞山禅师: "如何是佛?" 他说: "麻三斤,布一匹"。他说这就是佛。你说麻三斤和布一匹怎么和佛联系起来?也是一样的道理,就是让你不 要在知识上去分别,把你的思路一下子给切断。切断了思路以后,在壁立万仞的情况下,你的 思想往往会有一番新的境界出现。我们一些搞文学创作的人、写诗的人往往也能够有这样的一种体验,但这种体验对他们来讲只不过是石火电光一闪而过。不能够持久,不能有真正的思想上的升华与飞跃。
Some other masters asked what the Buddha was. An old master asked Master Dongshan liangjia (807 â 869): "What is the Buddha?" He said: "one and a half kilograms of yarn and a roll of cloth." This was what he said about the Buddha. Can you see how the two could be related to each other? It makes use of the same method we have been talking about; it drives away all aspects of intellectual separation; oneâs thoughts are thus broken off. When oneâs thoughts are cut off, it is like facing an extraordinarily high wall, yet, as we have seen, in such a situation, and as often happens, a brand new state of Mind can be reached. Those who are engaged in literary or poetic writing often have such experiences â in a flash of inspiration. However, they do not usually last very long and, consequently, they do not attain to a higher level or make a cognitive leap of lasting significance.
由赵州和尚 "狗子无佛性" 这个公案直接就引出了 "无门关" , "无门关" 是禅宗最高的一种悟的境界。有人参这个公案,参了之后,这个公案就广为流传,然后它才成为一个案例。 好像是我们审案子一样,审案子不可能每一案都一点点地去分析,他总有一个参照的案例。禅宗的公案也是如此,它也基本上被定型,关于定型的禅宗公案的书有很多。
"Wumenguan", the ultimate state of enlightenment in the Chan School, was brought about by Master Zhaozhouâs "A dog does not have Buddha-nature." Practitioners working on it spread it far and wide. It then became a recognized and accepted Gongan. Like working on a legal case in the court, it is impossible to analyze cases one by one without reference to others. Each individual Gongan of the Chan School is just like this. It is basically fixed or standardized, and there exist a great many books relating to the various Gongan.
公案到了宋朝的时候就叫 "古"。有时候我们乡下的人,特别是我们湖北人,管讲故事叫 "款古",讲一个故事听就叫 "款一个古仔听"。广州人也把故事叫 "古仔",说 "款一古仔 听一听", 公案后来也叫 "古"。
Until the Song Dynasty (960 â 1279) Gongan was called "Gu" (age-old). Sometimes country people, particularly those in Hubei Province, would often refer to "talking Gu" rather than "telling a story". If they wanted someone to tell a story, they would say: "Please tell us a Gu Zai." People in Guangdong also used the term "Gu Zai" to refer to a story, again, often saying, "Please tell us a Gu Zai." Later on Gongan came to be called "Gu".
有很多禅师作诗偈颂古,就是把公案用四句话、八句话来描述一番。北宋时期云门宗有一 个祖师叫雪窦重显 [注7],他选了一百则公案进行赞颂,叫《颂古百则》。随后有个临济宗的 禅师叫圆悟克勤 [注8],他根据《颂古百则》一一加以解释、描述和评论,就叫评唱。然后把书取名为《碧岩录》,或者叫《碧岩集》。这个碧岩就是湖南夹山灵泉禅院墙上的 "碧岩" 二 字,是那时灵泉禅院方丈的名字。这个方丈不是叫方丈,叫碧岩。为什么叫做碧岩呢?灵泉禅 院的开山祖师叫善慧禅师,他有两句诗描述他的悟境: "猿抱子归青嶂后,鸟衔花落碧岩前。" 后来有人觉得他这句诗有 "碧岩" 二字,就把这两个字单单拿出来作为方丈的名字。圆悟克勤 正是在那间屋子里集成这本书,所以把书叫做《碧岩录》。
At the time of writing a stanza in praise of Gu many Chan masters often wrote down four or eight lines to describe a Gongan. Master Xuedou Chongxian (980 â 1052) of the Yunmen Sect in the Northern Song Dynasty (960 â 1127) chose a hundred Gongan, compiled them together with appreciatory verses, and entitled the work "A Hundred Stanzas in Praise of Gu". Later on, Master Yuanwu Keqin (1063 â 1136) of the Linji Sect, added footnotes, explanations and commentary to each Gongan in the book. This was the making of the book the "Blue Cliff Record" or "Blue Cliff Collection". The two Chinese characters "Bi Yan" (blue cliff), which were on the wall of Lingquan Temple at Mount Jia, Hunan Province, actually referred to the name of the templeâs abbot at the time. People called the abbot Bi Yan instead of his Dharma name. Why? The founder of Lingquan Temple, Master Shan Hui, described his enlightenment with the following two lines: "Apes run back to the green mountain with their little ones in their arms. Birds return home in front of the blue cliff holding flowers in their beaks." Consequently, people took the two words "blue cliff" from these two lines and used them to name the abbot. Master Yuanwu Keqin collected many Gongan and worked on them there in the late abbotâs room. He finally named the collection the "Blue Cliff Record".
《碧岩录》这本书在当时的禅门被称作 "禅门第一书" ,所有住禅堂的人、参禅的人都要 人手一册。没有刻印本,抄写也要抄一本。《碧岩录》是非常有名的书,因为雪窦重显是一位 悟境很深、文学修养很高的大禅师,他的文字非常优美,他的《颂古百则》在悟境上是高超的,在文字上也可以说是第一流的,所以受到当时禅人的重视。圆悟克勤也是一位了不起的大禅师,他的评唱文字也非常优美,所以说这书在当时非常流行。这本书一流行以后往往就流入 "文字 禅" ,人们不去参悟,专门书上找四言八句来跟你说一说对一对,这就成了 "文字禅" ,或者 说 "葛藤禅" 。圆悟克勤有个弟子叫大慧宗杲,他看到这种情形会瞎天下人眼目,就一下子把 《碧岩录》的版毁掉了,不准这本书再流通。徒弟对师父下这样的毒手也是不简单的事情,要 是我们现在的人,还不说你大逆不道?!但是他当时就把版给毁掉了。过了若干年以后,这本 书还是重新刻版流通。
The "Blue Cliff Record", at that time, was referred to as "the Chan Schoolâs number one book." Each person, no matter whether those who lived in the temple or those who simply practiced the training, had a copy at hand. If they ran out of printed copies practitioners would make handwritten ones. The "Blue Cliff Record" is such a well-known book because its writer, Master Xuedou Chongxian, was an enlightened master of great accomplishment in both words and literature. His book, "A Hundred Stanzas in Praise of Gu" (颂古百则), with its lucid and graceful style, expounded his views on enlightenment at a transcendent level. Furthermore, his extraordinary way of writing helped rank the book as one of first class in terms of its attention grabbing qualities and, also, in respect to the number of practitioners it attracted. Master Yuanwu Keqin was also an outstanding master. The commentaries he wrote in the "Blue Cliff Record" (碧岩录) were considered excellent, so the book became very popular at the time. As the book won the popularity of readers it became part of "Wen Zi (文字禅 , words and literature) Chan". However, practitioners did not continue practicing sitting meditation as before but, instead, tried hard to find lines in the book to debate back and forth. Hence "Wen Zi Chan" or "Ge Teng (葛藤禅, talk round) Chan" came into being. Master Dahui Zonggao (1089 â 1163), a disciple of Master Yuanwu Keqin, noticed that such a trend tended to lead practitioners blindly. Consequently, and without hesitation, he destroyed the "Blue Cliff Record" printing blocks, such that the book subsequently became out of print. It was certainly an unusual event for a disciple to do such a thing to his master. In the eyes of contemporary people what the disciple did was outrageous. At that time, then, Master Dahui Zonggao destroyed all the printing blocks, nevertheless, years later, people cut new ones and the book came into circulation once again.
《碧岩录》是临济宗一本关于公案的书,有一百则公案。曹洞宗有一本书叫《从容录》, 也是一百则公案。这两个一百则公案,往往有重复的地方,但是它们的思路不同。临济宗叫 "看话禅" [注9],曹洞宗是 "默照禅" [注10],他们两家的思路不同,对同一个公案可能会有不同的解释。这两本书里面都选了赵州和尚 "狗子无佛性" 这一桩公案。
The "Blue Cliff Record" was a key text of the Linji Sect, and consists of a hundred different Gongan. There was, also, another text, this time of the Caodong Sect; it consists of one hundred Gongan as well, and was called "Cong Rong (从容录, in a natural state) Record". The two texts, although with overlapping contents, reflected different ways of thinking, that is, the "Kan Hua (working on words) Chan" of the Linji Sect and the "Mo Zhao (silent mindfulness) Chan" of the Caodong Sect respectively. Because of their different perspectives they explained some Gongan differently. Nevertheless, the two texts both included the Gongan of Master Zhaozhou:"A dog does not have Buddha-nature".
大概过了一百年以后,临济宗又出了一位祖师叫无门慧开,他在这两本书的基础上,重新提炼出四十八则公案,四十八则公案就叫《无门关》。《无门关》的第一则公案就是 "赵州狗 子"。无门慧开在这里有几句非常精彩的话,他说: "参禅需透祖师关,妙悟要穷心路绝。祖 关不透,心路不绝,尽是依草附木精灵。且道如何是祖师关?只这一个 ‘无' 字,乃宗门第一关 也。遂目之日,禅宗无门关也"。 "无门关" 就是由此而来。这段话是说,赵州狗子无佛性公 案里的 "无" 字就是禅宗的一关,参禅开悟就是要以 "无" 为门,无门就是门,一定要有这样 的一种精神来对待参禅这件事。
About a hundred years later, Master Wumen Huikai (1183 â 1260) of the Linji Sect had selected forty-eight Gongan from the two hundred included in the two texts, thus producing the book "Wumenguan". The very first Gongan in the book was "Zhaozhouâs dog". In that book, Master Wumen wrote these pertinent and insightful words: "One has to penetrate through the barrier set up by the old master whilst practicing sitting meditation. Before true enlightenment can be obtained his Mind must first be cornered and driven to a dead-end. If he is unable to penetrate through the barrier, and his Mind is not driven to such a dead-end, then he will never be able to reach the state of enlightenment. Instead, what he gains is a mere and apparent spiritual experience, this is something lesser, something entirely different. What then was this barrier set up by the old master? It is the term âWuâ, the very first barrier of the Chan tradition. That is how âWumenguanâ is entitled as such in the Chan Sect." The term "Wumwnguan" derives from the words of Master Wumen. The term "Wu", in Master Zhaozhouâs Gongan "A dog does not have Buddha-nature", acts as a barrier for the sect. Those who practice sitting meditation and attempt to become enlightened have to take "Wu" as the gate; that is to say the gateless gate is the gate. To practice Chan training one must act with and in such a spirit.
《无门关》这本书写出来以后也受到禅门的重视,特别是它流传到日本以后,可以说一版 再版,一刻再刻,经常有人来研究、提倡这本书,中国的禅门对这本书好像都不知道了。最近 这几年台湾有人在研究这本书,那也是在日本人影响之下才重视起这本书来的。除了日本重视 它以外,现在禅宗传到西方欧美,各国很重视《无门关》这本书。这本书不但有英译本,连匈牙利那么一个小国家都根据英文把它翻译成匈牙利的文字。1997年我到匈牙利去的时候,那里有一个佛教的学校,我在那里看到有一本书全是匈牙利文字。我是一个匈牙利文字都不认得的,但是书上面有一个汉字 "关" 。那个字是日本古代禅师写的一个字,匈牙利人就把它印 在那本书上面,用匈牙利的文字写了 "无门" ,然后用日本人写的一个 "关" 放在那上面,还 是 "无门关" 。我就问他们,这本书是什么,他们就向我介绍说这是《无门关》。唉呀!我心里一想,我们中国人太惭愧!中国人太惭愧!对自己祖宗的东西没有真正地去认识,而这本书 在海外受到如此重视
The book "Wumenguan" attracted the attention of many Chan practitioners after it came out; this was particularly the case when it was introduced into Japan. It came to be carved and printed time and again. Japanese scholars frequently study it and speak very highly of it. In China however, for quite some time now, it has been somewhat neglected. Nevertheless, in recent years, and under the influence of Japanese scholars, people have begun to pay more attention to the book. In Taiwan the book has been the focus of a number of research studies. Besides Japan, the book has provoked a lot of interest in European countries and the United States, since the introduction of Chan Buddhism to those countries. It is then both natural and reasonable for those countries to have an English version of the text. For me it was a wonderful surprise to find a Hungarian version based on the English one in Hungary. In 1997, when I visited a Buddhist college in Hungary, I noticed a book in the native language. Though I could not read the language I immediately spotted the Chinese character "Guan" (barrier) on the cover. The ancient Japanese masterâs beautiful handwriting was printed on the cover of the book, but with "Wumen" in Hungarian and "Guan" in Chinese. Thatâs also "Wumenguan", but comprised of two languages. I asked what the book was. They said it was "Wumenguan". How I felt ashamed of being Chinese at that moment! We have not truly understood the value of this book written by our forefather, yet it is warmly welcomed abroad.
这几年我在柏林禅寺多次主持禅七,不免要牵涉到赵州和尚的很多公案,其中就包括这个 "无" 字公案。晚清以来,真正参 "无" 字公案的人很少。明以前都参 "无" 字公案,明以后 都参 "念佛是谁" 这个公案。因为禅和净土基本上结合起来了,所以祖师们没有办法。你在念 佛、念阿弥陀佛,念佛的是谁呀?你跟我说一句看。这样就有一个 "念佛是谁" 的公案出现。最古老的还不是 "念佛是谁" ,最古老的是 "无" 字公案。
In recent years I have led several intensive meditation practices called "Chan Qi" (禅七, sesshin) at the Bailin temple. It is natural for us to work on various Gongan by Master Zhaozhou, and Gongan "Wu" is included. Since the later Qing Dynasty (1840 â 1911) people have seldom worked on "Wu". Before the Ming Dynasty (1368 â1661) people frequently worked on "Wu", but came, later on, to focus upon the Gongan: "Who is it that prays to the Buddha?" Because of the actual combined training of the Chan School and Pure-Land School, masters adapted their methods of guidance accordingly. Since you pray to Amitabha, could you please let me know who it is that prays to the Buddha? In this way the relevant Gongan came into being. However, the oldest Gongan is not "Who is it that prays to the Buddha" but "Wu".
日本禅宗是没有 "念佛是谁" 这个公案的,他们参的还是 "无" 字公案。1992年,我 们柏林寺普光明殿开光时就请了日本临济宗的一位禅师来参加活动。活动结束后,这位日本禅 师就到赵州和尚塔前去拈香礼拜。拈香礼拜完了,他要说四句偈子,叫香语。我们现在中国人 都叫法语,日本人、韩国人叫香语。他拈香说了四句香语以后就大喝一声,大喝什么呢?就是 那个 "无" 字。那个 "无" 字声音一喊出来呀,惊天动地,他底气非常足。他就是福岛庆道 [注11],可能也到玉佛寺来过,他懂日文、英文,能够用英文讲禅。他那个 "无" 字一喊,好 像屋上的瓦都会被震动下来,就有那样的底气。日本人的禅还是根据 "无门关" 、根据 "狗子 无佛性" 的这个 "无" 在参究。
Nowadays, in Japan, practitioners do not work on "Who is it that prays to the Buddha?" but on "Wu". In 1992 the "Hall of All-Illuminating Light" was dedicated and a ceremony - "opening the eyes of Shakyamuni Buddhaâs statue" was held at the Bailin temple. We invited a Japanese master of the Linji Sect for the ceremony. After the ceremony, he went to burn incense in front of Master Zhaozhouâs Stupa - in praise of the old master and also as a holy offering to him. He then spoke four lines of appreciatory verse, known as "incense words". In China we called them "Dharma words", but people in Japan and Korea call them "incense words". After he had said the verses, he shouted out a word in a very loud voice. What did he shout? It was that very word "Wu". Because he shouted the word with all his might and main, it was really quite a shock to all those on the spot. His Dharma name is Qingdao. He might have been here to the Yufo temple before. His English is very good and he could lecture about Chan in English. When he shouted "Wu" with all his physical strength, it was as if all the tiles on the roofs were shaken and would fall off. So we can see that, now, Japanese practitioners still work on "Wu", "Wu" as based on the "Wumenguan" or "A dog does not have Buddha-nature".
日本人在题字的时候,他会写三个字 "州云无" 。 "州" 就是赵州, "云" 就是说,底下 就是 "无" 字。因为僧问赵州: "狗子还有佛性也无?" 州云: "无。" 他就写这么三个字给 你,前面的话都不要,就是 "州云无" ,这很有禅味。
The three Chinese characters "Zhou Yun Wu" are very much favored by Japanese masters when they write an inscription. "Zhou" means âMaster Zhaozhouâ, while "Yun" means âto sayâ, and then of course "Wu" we know. As everybody knows, this Gongan runs as follows: a monk asked Master Zhaozhou "Has a dog Buddha-nature or not?" Master Zhaozhou retorted: "Wu"; Japanese masters make it shorter - into three characters: "Zhou Yun Wu" which, itself clearly reflects the Chan style.
作为出家人,我想一定要懂一点禅,或者说一定要从禅这个方面打开我们的思想境界,这 样才有灵气,才不会流于肤浅。因为禅是很深沉的东西,是很内向的东西,参到了家,它又是 很开放的东西。不管深沉也好、内向也好、开放也好,它都有那个味道。
Being a Bhikkhu, I think, one must understand what Chan is. In other words, he should maintain an open-mind regarding the Chan tradition. In this way he would be alert and quick-witted; without such a Mind continued growth is not possible and he would simple become a shallow person. The fact is that Chan is deep and meaningful, something both pointing towards the Mind yet also, when it is successfully penetrated, something quite open. No matter whether it is deep, inward, or open, it is always free and natural.
"无门关" 的来历就是如此。下面我讲一下究竟该怎样来修这个 "无门关" ,究竟怎样来 参究这个 "无门关" 。提倡修 "无门关" 最有名的应该是宋朝的大慧宗杲,在他的语录里面有 多处开示怎样修 "无门关" 。关于我们怎样面对这个 "无" 字,他说,我们不能够把 "无" 当作有无来会,不能把 "无" 当作虚无来会,不能从字面上去理解,不能从知识的角度去理解。他一共从八个方面来说明我们在参这个 "无" 字的时候应该怎么样去避免像常识方面的一些理 念。他说,要把 "无" 当作一个生铁铸成的丸子,然后你就去咬它。这个生铁铸成的铁丸一点 滋味也没有,但没有滋味你还要去咬。咬来咬去,最后要把这个铁丸咬破,咬破了这个铁丸就 说明你到家了。这说明参 "无" 字的时候难度是很大的,这是一个比喻。还有一个比喻也是很粗的,他说,就像狗子碰到一块热糍粑,它一口咬过去,咽又咽不下,吐又吐不出。在这样的 情况下,你要找一个办法从困境中解脱出来。第三个比喻就是刚才说的那个小盗贼的故事,人家家里人都起来捉贼了,怎么从堵着荆棘的洞口钻出来,在完全没有出路的情况下找一个出路。 这就是禅的精神,这也就是 "无" 的精神,我想这也是我们修行的精神。我们修一切法门都要 有这种精神才能够真正得受用,才能真正见效果。无门既然是一个关,我们学佛修行也是一关,想突破这一关非要下大力气、大决心不可,非要拼搏一番才有可能大死中求大活。
So far Iâve mentioned the origin of "Wumenguan". Next, I am going to talk about how to work on "Wumenguan", or how to work on "Wu". Master Dahui Zonggao of the Song Dynasty (960 â 1279) was a well-known master who had actively advocated working on "Wumenguan". Amongst his quotations we find many commentaries concerning how to work on "Wumenguan". In regard to "Wu", he said: do not construe it as nothingness nor conceive of it in terms of existence or non-existence, do not interpret or understand it literally or intellectually. In all, he mentioned eight factors that could help guide practitioners in how to become free from separation whilst working on "Wu". He said that "Wu" must be grasped like an iron ball that you then bite down hard on with your teeth. The ball is made of iron and is tasteless, yet still you must bite until, trying harder and harder, you are finally able to break it up. At that very moment you come to know the truth. This is just a metaphor that expresses the seemingly insurmountable difficulties you might encounter when working on "Wu". He also used another similar metaphor, saying: it is like a dog nipping at a hot glutinous-rice cake. Being extremely sticky and too hot the dog can neither swallow it down nor disgorge it. Under such circumstances a way must be found out of the dilemma. The third metaphor Master Dahui Zonggao made use of related to the little thief in the story I recounted earlier. The family members were trying hard to catch him, and yet with the hole in the wall completely blocked up by a bundle of thorny brambles, and with no other means of escape, how could he possible get out? This is the spirit of Chan, the spirit of "Wu", and also, I think, the spirit of self-training. It is only by means of such a spirit in our practice that any kind of self-training we engage in can be meaningful, that is, successfully producing the required fruit. As "Wumenguan" is a barrier, our Buddhist training is also a barrier. In order to break down this barrier we have to maintain an attitude of unceasing effort and unflinching determination. We must strive, to the utmost of our abilities, to force upon truth the possibility that it will burst forth from the point of our Mindâs utter hopelessness - life from death.
下面我们再从 "无" 字的角度来看看它在佛教里面真实的意义。这几天在讲禅的时候都涉及一个问题,就是都涉及到知识的层面和实相的层面,我们究竟应该怎样去理解它们之间的关系呢?比如说我现在在喝茶,诸位也看见我在喝茶,但喝的感受与看的感受是两码事。首先人家会有一个问题,他喝的是什么茶,然后,茶的滋味是什么,茶是凉的还是热的……,就有一连串知性上的问题在脑子里打转。这是从观看的角度来说的。那么喝茶的人有没有这些问题呢? 没有。因为他是直接地接触了茶,他自己完全能够明白茶是什么味道。这就叫 "如人饮水,冷暖自知" 。
Next, I am going to talk about the true meaning of "Wu" in Buddhist teachings. At such times as we discuss Chan, the issue of how to comprehend the relation between intellectual knowledge and Absolute Existence (实相) proves to be a key one. For instance, I am drinking tea now and you see what I am doing. The feeling, however, is quite different. From the perspective of those watching, a lot of conceptual questions may spring to Mind: What kind of tea is he drinking? How does it taste? Is it hot or cold? - and so on and so forth. For me, such questions would be meaningless, because I am the drinker, I simply know its taste, its type and its temperature. This is called "A drinker knows how hot or how cold the water is."
冷也好暖也好,这个 "冷暖自知" 是事物的本质,事物的自相。我们现在在了解事物的时 候都是在事物的共相上面进行了解,共相是知性上的东西,自相才是事物的实质,是事物法尔 上的东西,事物的当体。要了解任何一个事物,就要了解共相的东西,这使我们能够把握一切 事物共同的特点。但是真正要了解每一个具体的事物,那必须要了解它的自相,也就是说要了解事物的个性。不仅仅是要了解事物的共性,而且要了解它的个性,个性是此一事非彼一事。 共相只能掌握一切事物的平等性,自相才能了解一切事物的差别性。这个事物和那个事物之所以不同,是由它们的差别性所决定的。张三和李四各有名称,你笼统地喊 "人" ,张三不会应你,李四也不会应你,因为那个 "人" 是共性。只有把他的自相差别性分辨出来,你喊张三,张三会答应你,你喊李四,李四会答应你。这就是诸法的自相或者差别性,当然两者之间—— 平等性与差别性,自相与共相,个性与共性——也不能完全分离,但是要了解事物,自相非常重要。
No matter hot or cold, this is its true nature, the self-phase (自相) of the water. When we come to a certain thing we often look at it from the common phase. The common phase belongs to intellectual knowledge while the self-phase is the true nature of the thing, the thing as it is, the thing itself. To get to know anything we have to know its common phase (共相) first, so that, from there, we can see through and beyond those common characteristics. To get a true understanding of a certain thing we have to know the self-phase or its specific characters too. The self-phase makes the thing as it is. With the common phase we can only know the equality of all things while with the self-phase we are able to know and distinguish the difference between them. The self-phase of a certain thing makes it different from another. Zhang San (John) and Li Si (Sam) are the names of two persons. When you call one of them using the general term "person", neither Zhang San nor Li Si will respond to you, because "person" is the common phase. As you distinguish their self-phase and, instead, call specifically for Zhang San or Li Si, they will respond to you respectively. This is the self-phase or difference of all things. On the whole, both of them, the equality and difference, self-phase and common phase, specific characters and common characters can never be completely separated. The self-phase is crucial for an understanding of the thing itself.
自相和共相,体现在法尔道理上不可言说的东西都是自相,是我们直接接触的事物,是不 可言说的。这个不可言说的东西只有用 "无" 、用一些代名词才能够表现出来。这种法尔道理 往往连佛也不说,他怎么说呢? "法尔如是" , "有佛出世" , "无佛出世" , "法住法位, 世间相常住" ……。他也只能够用这样的话来表示。因为如果你在每一事物上把它无始无终的 东西一点一点地来推敲,那就要犯一种无尽的过。你说法没有办法说,写书没有办法写,说话 也没有办法说。对每一件事物的了解也是一样,那也会变得非常非常的啰嗦。所以一切是法尔如是。
The self-phase is something as it is, something indescribable, something we directly contact but canât explain in words. Because it is indescribable we cannot but use the term "Wu" or some other terms when attempting to speak about it. Even the Buddha himself could not explain why the world is as it is. What else could the Buddha say? - "The world is just as it is." "Once enlightened one lives oneâs life beyond delusions." "With a delusive Mind one lives oneâs life in the phenomenal world." "As everything is as it is the world is always stable", and so on and so forth. He could not but use such words. If we try to deduce everything from a very first cause all the way to some imagined final ending, we will only entangle ourselves in endless troubles. This is inevitable because there is neither a first beginning point nor an end. Thatâs why we cannot adequately explain, write or talk about the world. To attempt to understand a certain thing is the same. If we move step by step, by inference, eventually we will be ensnared by words. Therefore, everything is as it is.
我们说佛是全知全能,但是佛自己说, "佛有七能三不能" 。有他不能的地方,也可以说是有他无奈的地方。比如说众生界不可穷,众生的业力不可穷。佛陀说要把众生度尽,众生尽 得了尽不了呢?佛面对这样一个现实也是无奈的。为什么呢?众生每个人有自己的业力。因为 业力不同,所以众生的流转生死也不可能在一天都往生极乐世界,不可以在一天同时证得涅槃。 面对这样的事情,佛也感觉到无奈,只得说 "佛不度无缘众生" 。因为这些众生的因缘还没有 成熟,他的业力还要继续流转。这也是一种法尔道理,这种道理也是 "法尔如是" 。每个人只 能自己来解决自己的问题,佛只能告诉你一个方法,你不采纳这个方法,佛也拿你没奈何。就 像你有病医生让你吃药,你拿了药回来又不吃,医生也拿你没办法,医生面对不合作的人也无奈。所以在佛经里对这个法尔道理讲得很多。 We say the Buddha knew everything and could do everything, yet the Buddha himself said: "Buddha knows and can do only seventy per cent of the whole, but he neither knows nor does the other thirty per cent." There was thirty per cent then that the Buddha could not help with. For instance, sentient beings are infinite in number and their good or evil deeds are also infinite in number. The Buddha said he could show the way to deliver all sentient beings from this shore to the other shore. Nevertheless, it was another question as to whether or not all sentient beings could be so delivered. Encountered with this fact, the Buddha had no alternative but to make such a statement. Why? The reason is that each person in his or her lifetime has done certain good or evil deeds. Because of the different karmic effects (业力, the power of karma to produce good or evil fruit) generated by their actions â effects that traverse the flow of life and death, they could not go to the blissful Pure Land at the same time nor attain the bliss of Nirvana the same day. Facing such a fact the Buddha had no choice but said: "The Buddha does not deliver those who are negatively compelled by hetu-pratyaya (因缘, factors of dependent origination)." Because of their immaturity in relation to hetu-pratyaya, what they have done will make them suffer in Samsara. This is why it is termed "The world is as it is". This, then, is also what the message means. Each person has to solve his or her own problems by him or her self. The Buddha could only tell us about the Path and make it known. If a person did not take it the Buddha could do nothing for him or her. This is similar to the case where a doctor asks you to take some medicine, but when you get back home you do not take it. The doctor has shown you the way, the method, but if you do not take it or cooperate he cannot help you any further. The reasons why the world is as it is are mentioned at various places in the Buddhist scriptures.
有一位日本的白隐禅师[注13],是 16到17世纪时候的人。他有一首诗,就是描述法尔道 理,描述这个说不出来的东西,描述物质所包涵的这样的一种境界。 他写道:
A Japanese Master, Baiyin, living at the turn of the sixteenth and seventeenth century, wrote a poem to express this indescribable matter: the world is as it is. He wrote:
"毕波罗窟里, 未结集此经;童寿译无语,阿难岂得听。北风吹窗纸,南雁雪芦汀;山月苦如瘦,寒云冷欲零。 千佛纵出世,不添减一丁。"
"Such sutra about the world being as it is had not been collected in Pippali-guha (毕波罗窟). Kumarajiva could not interpret it, Ananda had never heard of it. The north wind blows window-paper, the southern wild geese make the reeds white. The moonlight on the mountain is cold, serene, and lonely, the drifting clouds in the winter seem to fall down. Even though a thousand Buddhas have attained enlightenment, It is just as it is with neither addition nor subtraction of even the smallest bit."
大家知道,第一次结集是在印度毕波罗窟,由五百阿罗汉结集三 藏。白隐禅师说,这个法尔道理,像这个 "无" 字所包含的这本经,在毕波罗窟里面没有结集 出来,因为它是语言文字所不能表达的。童寿就是鸠摩罗什,鸠摩罗什翻译成中国话就是童寿。 童寿要翻译这本经典也没有语言可以表达,所以 "童寿译无语" 。
We all know that in Pippali-guha, India, five hundred of the Buddhasâs enlightened disciples held the first conference to collect his teachings and preserve them for posterity. Master Baiyin said: The reason why âthe world is as it isâ had not be collected in Pippali-guha, is because it could not be expressed in words. Kumarajiva (童寿（鸠摩罗什）, 344â413 or 350â409), though a great and accomplished translator, could not explain why the world is as it is even with his skillful wording. Hence the line "Kumarajiva could not interpret it."
第四句是说阿难也从来没有 听佛说过这本经,因为这不是语言文字所能表达的,是言外之意, "童寿译无语,阿难岂得 听。" 下面就讲法尔道理的种种现象。比如说 "北风吹窗纸" ,北风起来吹到窗户纸上,一响 一响,阵阵寒风吹过来。这种道理能够描述得出来吗?描述不出来,这种情景就是法尔,当然 我们现在用纸来糊窗户的已经很少了,农村里可能还有一点,城市里都是大玻璃窗。北风起来 吹窗户纸是北方的情景,而南方是 "南雁雪芦汀" 。雁是白色的,它落在芦花一般的河滩上, 就好像是一片白雪一样。这是什么道理?为什么雁就是白的?你要说是说不出来的。 "山月苦 如瘦, 寒云冷欲零" 。山上的月亮出来既冷而且又好像是非常地清静 ,非常地寂寞,那样的一 种情景只有身临其境的人才能够去会体会。天寒地冻的时候,看到天上的云彩在那里飞, 好像 一片片的云彩马上要从天上掉下来一样,就是 "寒云冷欲零" 。这些都是法尔道理,它为什么 像这样?人们怎么样去分析它?即使分析出道理来,你也把它无奈何。你也只能够让它就这样, 你再不能够有第二个方法去改变它。所以接下来白隐禅师用两句话来结束他这首诗: "千佛纵 出世,不添减一丁。" 纵然千佛出世,对法尔的道理也是既不能增加一点,也不能减少一点。 所以说千佛出世也要认同法尔道理、也要认同 "无" 所表现的境界,他们也会印证这个事情,认为这是诸法的实相—— "诸法实相义" 嘛。
Next, "Ananda (阿难) had never heard of it", that is, due to its indescribable nature, Ananda had never heard of such a sutra addressed by the Buddha. The next lines indicate the phenomena of the world as they are. For instance "The north wind blows window-paper" - the north wind noisily blows the paper stuck on window lattices. People then know that the cold wind is blowing. Could you explain why? No, you couldnât do so. This is the world as it is. Such a scene is normal in the north, but in the south it would be "The southern wild geese make the reeds white." Wild geese are white in color. When a flock of wild geese descend upon the waters of a reed-bed, they make the scene as white as snow. What makes it as it is? Why are wild geese white in color? Such questions cannot be answered. "The moonlight on the mountain is cold, serene, and lonely, the drifting clouds in the winter seem to fall down." The moonlight on the mountain makes people feel cold, but also peaceful and lonely. This is just the kind of experience people have in respect to such a scene. During the freezing weather the clouds in the sky seem to drift very quickly as if they would soon fall in flakes. All these phenomena are encompassed within the scope of "The world is as it is." Why are things like this? How can we explain them? Even if we could examine and analyze everything, we have no choice, things will be as they are. We have to let it as it is because there is no second pattern to change it. That is why Master Baiyin ended his poem with the words that "Even though a thousand Buddhas have attained enlightenment, it is just as it is with neither addition nor subtraction of even the smallest bit." Even though a thousand Buddhas have achieved the state of ultimate realization they can do nothing to the world as it is, they cannot add anything nor take anything away. They can do none other than be in accordance with it, with the state revealed by "Wu". They must simply (although the way is seldom simple) confirm such a fact and take it as the Absolute Existence.
今天讲这个 "无门关",实际上是用语言文字描述 "无" 的境界,不是 "无门关" 就是如 此?不见得。因为 "凡有言说,皆是虚妄" ,都是在虚妄分别当中。虚妄分别的东西往往也有 一点点的作用,就是可以像用指头指月亮一样。如果我们能够不止于指,直接见月,由一指指 月还是有作用的。如果有人以指为月,就是害了大家,以为这就是 "无门关" ,非也非也! "无门关" 需要我们来参,需要我们来悟,需要我们从壁立万仞的墙上找到一个可以进去的缝 隙。
Today, in talking about "Wumenguan" I have used words and letters to explain the state of "Wu". Is "Wumenguan" the same as this? It is not exactly the same. Because, "When we put it into words it becomes an illusion", we are then in the state of illusion and separation. Illusion and separation, however, can sometimes function a bit like the finger which points at the moon. Suppose we could not only see the finger but also the moon directly, the finger that pointed at the moon would then have been useful. Suppose someone takes the finger to be the moon, as the explanation of "Wumenguan" in this case, it would be harmful to others. This is by no means a complete account of the meaning of "Wumenguan"! Regarding "Wumenguan" we have to work on it, we have to penetrate it, and we have to find a crevice to enter at the time when we are confronting an extraordinarily high wall.
净慧法师 Jinghui Fashi
The Sixth Lecture - Sheng Huo Chan (Chan in Daily Life) 生活禅
Todayâs lecture is the last in this exchange of views on the Dharma. I have said time and again that Chan needs to be practiced, penetrated, and enlightened on oneâs own, and it does not rely on words or letters. Words and letters cannot explain what Chan is, but we have no alternative other than to use them. To explain why Chan is not dependent on words and letters we cannot but use words and letters.
Historically, there have been a great many different ways and approaches to Chan training. On the occasion that Shakyamuni (释迦牟尼) addressed the assembled thousands on Mount Grdhrakuta (灵山) and held up a flower, Mahakashyapa (迦叶尊者) alone smiled and recognized what was happening. The transmission of the Dharma took place at that very moment. The Buddhaâs holding up of a flower and Mahakashyapaâs (迦叶尊者) reciprocating smile were just the ways, the simplest ways, to show what was going on. After Buddhism was introduced into China, the First Patriarch Bodhidharma (? â 628 or 536) taught the Second Patriarch Hui Ke (487 â 593) how to pacify the Mind at the Shaolin Temple, Mount Song. Having to overcome a great many difficulties, it took them considerable time until all difficulties transcended, the actual transmission was, again, achieved in an instant. That was also one of the ways. The Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng (638 â 713) came from the South to meet the Fifth Patriarch Hone Ren (602 â 675) at Huangmei, Hubei, for his teaching. One day, after eight months as a novice, Hui Neng had the "Diamond Sutra" read to him by the Fifth Patriarch Hone Ren; on hearing it he instantly recognized the profound meaning of Chan. The Dharma was then handed down to him and he went back to the South. That, too, was another way. From then on, numerous ways were included in Chan training â for instance, lifting a finger, shouting out a word, or giving someone several blows with a stick. In all these various ways Chan masters simply helped guide practitioners to be free from all delusion and suffering and, thereby, to reach the state of enlightenment. As time went by, ways of training came to incorporate â we might say somewhat disrespectfully - all kinds of strange things. Yet, of course, considered respectfully â in their true light - we would say that because dharmas are infinite the ways of Chan training are also infinite. As I have mentioned nearly everyday during my stay here, according to statistics, in the Chan School there are altogether one thousand seven hundred different Gongan; they are all gates used in the training. That is to say, there are one thousand seven hundred different ways or approaches by which to enter the Chan tradition.
晚近以来,由于净土宗席卷了整个佛教界,禅师们不得不提出另外一种方法,就是教你参 "念佛是谁" 。这可能是我们近两三百年来用得最多的一个方法,从某种意义来说,这是一个最稳妥的方法。从 "念佛是谁" 提出来以后,参禅的方法好像从表面上趋于稳定了,但从其深刻的意义来看,是不是禅在方法上已经走到了尽头?晚近以来,我们看到,各种法门都发展起 来了,但禅宗一法都一直关在禅堂里面,没有真正走出禅堂、走出山门、走到社会。有鉴于此,一些大德居士提出修禅的一些新的方法、新的观念。大家知道在台湾提得最多的、最有影响的一个,就是李耕云先生的 "安祥禅" 。李先生曾经到大陆来过,安祥禅在居士当中颇有影响, 特别是在文化界,颇受一些文化人、年轻人的重视和学习。另外有一位居士叫李元松,他提出了 "现代禅" 。他也好像是看到禅走到了尽头,禅法还停留在古代,于是他就提出了一个现代禅。
In recent times, because the Pure-Land School has been the predominant one in Buddhist circles, Chan masters have not but been able to guide practitioners to work on the Gongan "Who is it that prays to the Buddha." In the last two or three hundred years this way of training has probably been the most practicable one, and to some extent the most reliable one. Ever since practitioners began to work on "Who is it that prays to the Buddha", it seems that the way of Chan training has become stable. When we consider this issue in depth we might wonder whether or not Chan training has come to an end? Recently though, the fact is that different ways of Buddhist training have been progressing - yet Chan training is still kept inside the meditation hall. In an effort to encourage training to be done outside the hall, and outside the temple â such that it makes relevant contact with everyday life, some accomplished masters and lay Buddhists have proposed new and innovative ways of practice, and developed many new concepts. We all know that "An Xiang (serenity) Chan", as proposed and initiated by Mr. Li Gengyun, has been greatly welcomed, and is currently the most influential one in Taiwan. Lay Buddhists, especially those in cultural circles, eagerly practice his "An Xing Chan", as do many young people. Another lay Buddhist, Mr. Li Yuansong, proposed and introduced "Xian Dai (modern times) Chan". He has also realized that if Chan training is maintained only as it was in the old days, then perhaps someday it will die out. This is the reason why he has put forth the "Xian Dai Chan".
现代禅已经发展了十年左右,在台湾也颇有影响,受到部分教内外人士的重视。但在提倡 现代禅的过程中,由于他的某些主张和理念有点过激,与传统佛教距离拉得比较大,所以也受 到佛教界部分人的质疑。这几年我们只要注意一下就会发现,从台湾的佛教杂志上所发表的一些文章就可以看出,现代禅面临着来自佛教界和一部分学者的挑战。大概是六七年以前,我也 见过这位李元松先生。那时他特意到北京来——这在他的书上也有记载——和我讨论过有关禅 的问题。他对虚云老和尚可以说是五体投地,应该说他是一位有修行的人,每天打坐七八个小 时。他的现代禅团体的成员都有相当层次,思想也比较活跃。同时也有一部分僧人参加到他的 教团里面,影响蛮大。他们也出了很多书,自己有出版社、报纸、杂志和禅堂,并且有一套完 整的现代禅僧团的规矩。他相对地把僧团的意义和概念扩大了——僧团也包括在家修行的人 ——这样就引起我们佛教界的纷纷质疑。关于这个问题现在还在辩论,究竟将来怎样发展,我们不妨拭目以待。
The "Xian Dai Chan", an influential way of training that some Buddhists and laity have both paid considerable attention to, has been developing over the last ten years or so. In the process of its development, however, a few Buddhists have come to have their doubts and certain reservations about it. This is because some of Mr. Li Yuansongâs ideas and his drastic teachings, in certain areas, have departed somewhat from the traditional teachings of Buddhism. Being aware of this, and following the development of this controversy, we can see from the existence of various articles published in Taiwanese Buddhist journals in recent years, that "Xian Dai Chan" is now being challenged from within Buddhist circles, and by a number of scholars. Once, around six or seven years ago, I met Mr. Li Yuansong when he came on a special visit to Beijing. He recorded the occasion of our discussion about Chan in his book. Mr. Li greatly respects Master Xu Yun (1840 â 1959) â more popularly known in the West, according to the Chinese meaning of his Dharma name, as Empty Cloud. And, in fact, Mr. Li himself practices for seven or eight hours a day. Practitioners in his "Xian Dai Chan" community are very dedicated, and have attained a comparatively high degree of accomplishment. At the same time, a number of monks have taken part in the community, making a strong impact on society. The community, with a complete set of rules and regulations for its Sangha, possesses its own meditation hall and also a publishing house that publishes many books, newspapers and journals. Mr. Li has considerably extended the meaning and concept of the Sangha by opening it up to lay Buddhists. This is the point that has raised doubts in Buddhist circles. The debate on this issue is still very much a live one. We will have to wait and see how it develops and where it goes in the future.
我本人从18岁开始亲近虚云老和尚,应该说是一个接受传统禅法的人。但是由于所处的时代,实际来说,没有真正能够很好地在修行上扎实地用功夫。虽然我亲近虚云老和尚前后将近 有十年左右的时间,但是那时我们一天忙于搬柴运水、打地抛砖、种田博饭,大概有五年左右 的时间是忙于这样的生活。我记得十六七岁的时候,像我们在座的这些小师父这么大的年纪,就已经上山去砍柴火。砍了柴火卖了以后再买米回来吃饭,吃完饭有了时间才能在那里看经。那个时候看经要点一个小油灯,晚上看,白天没有时间,白天要去种地、要去打柴火。不种地 不打柴火你就没有饭吃,所以晚上看经。那时生活相当的艰苦,想要系统地学习、系统地修行,条件不允许。后来过了三四年左右的时间,我就到中国佛学院学习,一下子又陷入到各种运动 当中去了。到了1959年老和尚离开了我们,我们就再也没有办法亲近他老人家。在文革前、文 革期间的大约将近二十年,我就是在各种运动当中运动来运动去,做了 "运动员" 。不过毕竟 是从小出家,向道的这一念没有忘记掉。
At the age of eighteen, as one of Master Xu Yunâs disciples, I myself began to be on intimate terms with him. I should then, I suppose, have inherited the traditional way of Chan training. In fact, due to the limited and limiting conditions of the time, I was not able to strive as hard as is necessary in order to achieve further progress in my self-training. Although for ten years or so I was very close to Master Xu Yun, for about five years we were busy with all sorts of labor, such as carrying water and chopping wood, compacting ground and building houses, sowing in the spring and harvesting in autumn, all according to the dictates of earning a livelihood and supporting ourselves. I still remember, at the age of sixteen or seventeen - like those young masters attending this lecture, I climbed a hill to chop wood, sold it all, and then brought back rice for dinner. It was only after dinner that I had any time to read sutras. Because during the daytime I had to do manual labor, I could do such reading only in the evening with the aid of a small oil lamp. Without physical labor I could not support myself, so the evening was the only time available for reading. Because the living conditions were difficult then, to carry out a systematic study or self-training was out of the question. After another three or four years I went to study at the State Buddhist Institute, and was all of a sudden involved in the political movements of the time. In 1959 Master Xu Yun passed away, which was felt as a great loss in Buddhist circles. During that period, for about ten odd years or so - and nearly twenty years before the "Cultural Revolution", yet also during the "Cultural Revolution" itself, I was moved back and forth like a chess piece by all sorts of political maneuverings. Nevertheless, and in spite of these events, having entered the Buddhist monastic order at an early age, I always cherished and aspired to realize the ultimate truth.
实际上,禅如何适应现代社会也就是佛教如何适应现代社会的问题。佛教适应现代社会不 仅仅是一个知识的问题,不仅仅是讲几句佛法、让大家知道佛教是怎么回事,最重要的是要让 现代人了解怎样进入修行、怎样改变自己,怎样在佛教里面找到安身立命的地方。这才是佛教 为什么要适应现代社会,或者是说为什么要现代化的原因。我记得在座的王雷泉教授经常讲这个问题—— "佛教要现代化是为了化现代" 。怎么化现代呢?我们大家都是现代人,我们需要 佛法。现代人即使有一个人需要佛法,佛法也有责任教化他、引导他,这就是化现代。我们不 要把化现代理解为包罗一切,好像就是要改造现代社会,不是这个意思。我们是要化现代所有 信佛的人,只要你信佛我们就有教化的责任,就有正确地引导的责任。信佛要正确地引导,只有正确地引导了,信佛才能够走向积极,走向于佛教有利,于国家、社会、人民有利,当然更 于我们个人有利。要正确引导,佛教就要作自我调整;不作自我调整,要想适应我们现在的这个社会是很难的。大家从弘法生活、信仰生活、修行生活上可以来实际地体会。
In fact, the issue of how to make the Chan Sect applicable to present society is, at the same time, the issue of how to make Buddhism applicable to modern times. It is not just a question of knowledge. Although, of course, through Dharma talks, it is vital to let people know what the Buddha taught, it is even more important to help contemporary people put that knowledge into practice, to teach them how to change self-centered views, and how to realize the ultimate truth through Buddhist teachings and practices. This is the reason why Buddhism should be applicable to the present society or why Buddhism should be modernized. As far as I remember, Professor Wang â who is present here today, has frequently addressed this topic under the title of, "The modernization of Buddhism for the sake of serving the needs of modern times". How exactly then can we get Buddhism to serve the needs of modern times? We, the contemporary people, yearn for the Buddhaâs teachings. Yet, even if there existed only one person interested in the teachings it would be the obligation of Buddhism to teach and guide that person. This is what the message, "bring Buddhism to serve the needs of modern times", both means and entails. Even so, it cannot be taken as an all round solution to everything, as if it will completely transform present society. The message does not mean that. Today, Buddhism should meet the requirements of all those people who believe in Buddhism. As long as you believe in Buddhism, Buddhism is obligated to teach and guide you. However, that belief must be correctly guided. In other words, it is only under such proper guidance that belief can be active and meaningful, can make valuable contributions to Buddhism, the country, society, people, and, in addition, benefit us as well. In order to instruct practitioners correctly, Buddhism needs to be subject to certain modifications, otherwise its applicability to todayâs society will be inadequate or inappropriate. I would therefore like to ask all of you to please think this over, from the perspectives of Dharma dissemination, religious belief, and, crucially, actual practice.
文革以后近二十年来,我一直都在做佛教文化宣传教育方面的工作,比如编杂志。编杂志 有其局限性,但也有其非常有利的一面,做这个工作能够接触到各方面读者的呼声,读者不断 地给你的杂志提出意见和建议,提出他们的想法。在这个工作中,最重要的就是经常思考佛教 如何来引导现代人尤其是界乎信与不信之间的人信仰佛教。
For the last twenty years or so, since the end of "Cultural Revolution", I have been carrying out work related to the dissemination of Buddhist culture and Buddhist education, such as editing and publishing a Buddhist journal. The work has its own limitations yet it is very beneficial to me. Doing my job as a chief editor, I get the opportunity to know what various readers want most, as they often write to us suggesting this and that or expressing their own ideas. In the process of doing my job, I am forced to think hard about how to guide or instruct the contemporary people, especially those who are in a state of hesitation concerning their belief in relation to Buddhism. This is a very important issue, I think.
文革以后,比起其他宗派来,关心和研究禅宗的人更多,想要了解禅宗的人也更多。在书 店里可以看到,探讨禅的书比较多。我没有统计过,但在我印象里,公开出版物里有关佛教的 书中,关于禅的书是占在第一位。当然其中有 "如来禅" 有 "祖师禅" ,有 "文字禅" 也有 "野狐禅" ,什么样的书都有,什么样的说法都有。社会是在如此热烈地探讨禅,我们佛教界 不能默然,我们佛教里有个规矩,默然了就是同意了。 "是事默然故,是事如斯。" 那就成了 人家怎么说我们就怎么听了,所以也要有反应。但是我总感觉到,佛教界的反应是不够的,声音太小太微弱,而且还很单调。所以社会上一方面是在把禅推向了一个热潮,另外一方面在某 种程度上也把禅歪曲了。迫于这样一种形势,我从历代祖师的语录、从佛言祖语当中体会到修 行不能离开生活,于是就提出了 "生活禅" 。
After the "Cultural Revolution", compared to other religions, more and more people have become interested in Chan Buddhism and want to explore and study it. In any bookstore, we can find many books on the subject. I have not done the relevant statistics myself, but I have a strong impression that amongst all Buddhist books formally published, those relating to Chan Buddhism are certainly the most numerous. Those books, of course, are related to the various different ways of training, such as the "Ru Lai (如来禅, suchness) Chan", "Zu Shi (祖师禅, Bodhidharma) Chan", "Wen Zi (words and letters) Chan", and "Ye Hu (野狐禅, wild fox) Chan", and therefore express and elaborate upon different styles and their corresponding explanations. Given that there is much heated debate in relation to Chan Buddhism nowadays, it is not appropriate for those in Buddhist circles to remain silent. It is a Buddhist belief that by remaining silent one expresses agreement. "By maintaining silence in relation to something, that something will simply be as it is." In this way we will accept whatever people say. This is not a correct attitude towards the issue. We have to respond to it. I think the response from within Buddhist circles has generally not been sufficient, that response being inadequate in terms of proportion, strength, and relevance; it has also been rather predictable. To my eyes it is clear that, on the one hand, people are now showing an increasing interest in Chan Buddhism whilst, on the other hand, they are tending to distort it to a certain extent. Under such circumstances, from the perspective of the Buddhaâs teachings and, also, on the basis of what successive old masters have said, I have gained the insight that self-training should be conducted in everyday life. I thus propose the "Sheng Huo Chan" (生活禅, or to be more precise what may be called in Eglish "Chan in Daily Life").
生活禅的概念大概是在1991年提出来的,1993年举办第一届生活禅夏令营的时候,才正式 推出这样一个理念。当时我们非常地谨慎,怕这样一个理念提出来遭到教内外人士的反对,那 我们就吃不消了。但是由于生活禅这个理念没有违背佛法的精神,没有违背禅宗的精神,恰恰是在这样一个关键问题上体现了佛法的精神,体现了禅的精神,因此能够得到教内外人士的关心重视,也给予了很大的同情和支持。所以生活禅夏令营一直坚持举办了八年,而且影响似乎是一年比一年在扩大。
The notion of "Sheng Huo Chan" was first put forward in 1991, yet the idea was only formally presented at the First Summer Camp of Sheng Huo Chan held in 1993. I was very cautious at the time because I was afraid of being opposed by Buddhists and the laity. If that had been the case, the loss would have been more than I could have stood. In fact, the idea is not against but in accord with the spirit of Buddhadharma, not against but in accord with the spirit of the Chan tradition, as such it has been attracting a lot of interest and winning support both within Buddhist circles and without. The Summer Camp of Sheng Huo Chan has been held continuously for the last eight years, and is continuing to have a stronger and stronger impact on society year after year.
上面讲的就是生活禅理念提出的前因,为什么要提出生活禅。那么生活禅有什么根据呢? 生活禅要讲起来可以有很多方法,因为禅可以随便跟佛法任何一个理念联系起来讲。吴立民先 生今年在我们那里讲了一个月的《楞伽经》,《楞伽经》的纲要就是 "五法三自性,八识二无 我" ,他最后讲五法的时候讲了一个题目是 "五法与生活禅" 。我觉得他讲得非常好,因此受 到他的启发。我今天就在他讲法的基础上加以发挥。为什么这么讲呢?因为我们在座的学习教 义的人比较多,上海这个地方,法师们、居士们都有很高的层次,离开教义来讲那就成了我杜撰的一样,根据教义来讲,似乎能够把握它。
So far I have mentioned the reason why I put forward the idea of Sheng Huo Chan. Now, let us come to what it is, the actual basis of Sheng Huo Chan. In relation to Sheng Huo Chan, there exist many ways of training. This is because Chan can be related to the Buddhadharma in many different ways. At the Bailin temple earlier this year, Mr. Wu Limin delivered a month-long series of lectures on the "Lankavatara Sutra". The focus of the "Lankavatara Sutra" (楞伽经) is the "five phenomena and three identities, eight consciousnesses (八识) and two selflessnesses (二无我)". When Mr. Wu Limin talked about the "five phenomena" (五法) he addressed a section entitled "The five phenomena and the Sheng Huo Chan". I think that what he said was extremely relevant and it has greatly inspired us. Today, I am going to elaborate upon the Sheng Huo Chan on the basis of what he said. Why do I say so? I say this because most of you present here have studied Buddhist doctrine; also, masters, monks, and lay Buddhists here in Shanghai have reached a high level in the training. Therefore, it is better for me to address it in light of the doctrine â otherwise you might form a wrong impression, that Sheng Huo Chan is entirely of my own making and not drawn or based, as it is, upon accepted doctrine.
五法是《楞伽经》的核心内容之一,而《楞伽经》又是达摩大师印心的根本经典。这部经 典以 "五法三自性、八识二无我、空不空如来藏" 为其总纲,而五法又是总纲的纲,所以根据 五法的次第来讲生活禅,我想是极其恰当的。因为四卷《楞伽经》是达摩传法的时候用以印心的一部经典,我在选编《禅宗七经》的时候,《楞伽经》是其中第一部经典。
The "five phenomena" then are the key focus of the "Lankavatara Sutra" (楞伽经), whilst the sutra itself was the very classical scripture that Master Bodhidharma used to confirm an enlightened Mind. The subject matter of the sutra is, as I mentioned above, the "five phenomena and three identities (三自性), the eight consciousnesses and two selflessnesses, and emptiness/non-emptiness and suchness (如来藏)", with the "five phenomena" being the main topic. I think the best way to proceed is for me to address the Sheng Huo Chan on the basis of the "five phenomena", and because the "Lankavatara Sutra" that addresses these was the classic used by Master Bodhidharma for Mind-to-Mind transmission. Also, I chose this sutra when compiling the "Seven Classical Sutras of Chan Buddhism".
五法是什么呢?就是 "相、名、分别、正智、如如" 。前三者就是我们迷界的生活,后二 者就是我们悟界的生活。 "相、名、分别" 是生活, "正智、如如" 是禅。也可以说这五法不 是一个一个地这么排列的,而是重叠的,五法是一件事,不是五件事。一个事物有相就必然有名,有名我们就要去认识他。认识一件事物,在开始的时候是我们的妄想分别在认识,是有漏 的。如果我们在这个有漏法上面以无漏智慧去认识,那就是正智。以无漏智慧认识的结果就符 合于真如的实相,那就是 "如如" 。所以在任何一件事上面都可以运用五法来分析。
What are the "five phenomena"? They are "form, name, separation, wisdom, and suchness." The first three are related to our life in the delusive world while the last two are related to life in the enlightened world. "Form, name, and separation" are the phenomena of ordinary life, while "wisdom and suchness" are the phenomena of Chan. The five phenomena are not arranged in any sequential order because they naturally overlap. In other words, they are one thing, not five different things. As long as a thing has form there will be a corresponding name for it. In so far as a particular thing has a name, we can get to know it. Knowing it at first with a separated and delusive Mind, it is referred to knowing from an unenlightened point of view. Suppose we look at a thing from an enlightened perspective, that knowing then becomes wisdom. Seeing a thing in the light of wisdom is to see it as it exists, as it is, in accord with Absolute Existence. That is "suchness". Anything, therefore, can be analyzed in terms of the five phenomena.
"相" 就是我们认识的对象,就是客观的一切诸法,是 "名" 之所在。名就是相的名称, 这个茶杯,我们不说它是个茶杯,先说它是一个相,然后再说它是个茶杯,那就是 "名" 。我 们根据这个名和相再去了解这个事物,这就是分别。分别实际就是认识,这个认识有时候又叫 妄想。因为它不是直接认识事物缘起法的本身,而是在执著指导下的认识,所以说它是妄想分 别,它不符合事物缘起无自性的实相。我们直接能够了解到事物的本质和实相,知道这个茶杯 是一切条件的组合,我们把条件一个一个地分开以后,茶杯到哪里去了呢?茶杯无自性,但是 它又是因缘组合。这样我们就能够认识到事物的本质。能够这样认识的,就是正智。这样认识 所得到的结果就是 "如如" ,如如者真如,真如者真理,真理者实相。
"Form" is the object we get to know. Form is the object-nature, indeed, the objective nature of all dharmas. It is the thing we give a name to. Name is simply the name of form. Take this teacup for example, we do not specifically say that it is a teacup; firstly we say that it is a cup and only then that it is a teacup. "Tea" here is the "name". Based on the form and name, we then come to know the thing. This is separation, a cognitive process grounded in what is sometimes called delusion. This is because it is not a direct understanding of the thing itself from the point of dependent origination but, rather, a cognition of it guided by attachments; such cognition then is based on delusion and discrimination. It does not coincide with the Absolute Existence based as this is on dependent origination and emptiness. Nevertheless, it is possible to directly comprehend a thingâs nature and its Absolute Existence, that is, we can know this teacup as the combination of all its necessary conditions. After stripping all those conditions away one by one, we may ask: "Where then is the teacup?" It has no self-identity; it is simply a combination of causative conditions. In this way we can see through to the absolute nature of the thing. Such insight is wisdom. What we observe when looking with such an insight is "suchness" itself, the true actuality, the ultimate truth and Absolute Existence.
"相、名、分别" 是生活,同时也是禅; "正智、如如" 是禅,同时也是生活。如果把这 两者截然分开的话,那生活禅还是不究竟,生活禅就是要说明,生活就是禅,禅就是生活,因为我们世间的一切万事万物无不可以包涵在生活当中,也无不可以包涵在禅当中,所以生活即 禅,禅即生活。五法为什么能够便于说明禅呢?它有世间与出世间、有染和净两个方面,说起 来比较有层次,生活禅可以用五法这样的次第来说明。
"Form, name, and separation" are life but also Chan, while "wisdom and suchness" are Chan but also life. If we were to separate the two completely this would not be what Sheng Huo Chan is about. What Sheng Huo Chan seeks to express and put forward is that life is Chan while Chan is life. Because all things, without exception, are involved in life and in Chan as well, life is therefore Chan and Chan is also life. How then can the five phenomena help to explain what Chan is? As the five phenomena are related to both the world and beyond, to both pure and impure aspects, I have been able to arrange my talk systematically based on them. Having previously talking about Sheng Huo Chan many times, I have gradually been able to sum up several key notions or "fundamental principles". There are altogether four key notions: first, the Bodhi Mind; second, the insight of Prajna; third, the path of counting the breaths; and fourth, the Sheng Huo Chan. These days, those four "fundamental principles" are just what I have been talking about from the perspective of "insight" and "ability" (the ability one obtains through dedicated practice). The Bodhi Mind and the insight of Prajna belong to the category of "insight", whilst the path of counting the breaths and Sheng Huo Chan belong to the "ability". However, because in actual fact it is not so clear-cut, this is just a rough classification. We cannot simply say that the Bodhi Mind corresponds to or reflects only insight, because if one possesses the Bodhi Mind and also puts it into action, he then possesses "ability" as well. The insight of Prajna, the all round wisdom, the perfect wisdom, seems to stress "insight", yet if we apply it to our life and use it to instruct and guide our life it is, then, the "ability". These considerations apply equally to the path of counting breaths and the Sheng Huo Chan.
我在讲生活禅的时候,逐步地把它归纳为几个核心的内容。生活禅有四个 "根本" :第一 是菩提心,第二是般若见,第三是息道观,第四才是生活禅。这四个 "根本" 也就是我这几天 所讲的从见地到功夫。菩提心和般若见可以说是见地,息道观和生活禅可以说是功夫。但这只 是大致上这么分,绝对不能截然地分开。不能说菩提心就只是见地,因为菩提心发起来以后,要见诸于行动,那么它也是功夫。般若见好像是偏重于见地,是大智慧、圆满的智慧,也要运 用于生活、指导于生活,所以它也是功夫。息道观、生活禅都是如此。
We all know that the Bodhi Mind is the foundation, starting point and root of all Buddhist teachings, especially of the Mahayana teachings. If one practices any kind of training without a Bodhi Mind he will only be able to reach the state of Sravaka and Pratyeka-buddha (二乘); in fact, guided by mistaken ideas he may even begin to lose his way along a wrong or confused path. In short, the Bodhi Mind is none other than the four great vows we take everyday: "However innumerable beings are, I vow to save them. However inexhaustible the passions are, I vow to extinguish them. However immeasurable the dharmas are, I vow to master them. However incomparable the Buddha-truth is, I vow to attain it." This is the actual embodiment of Bodhi Mind, the very content of Bodhi Mind. In addition, the ten vows of Bodhisattva Samantabhadra (普贤菩萨 ) we read everyday in our morning practice are also the Bodhi Mind. A person without a Bodhi Mind could not â at the same time - have wisdom, loving-kindness (maitri), and compassion (karuna). In particular, he could not have loving-kindness and compassion, because he has not the will or determination of mind to deliver all sentient beings, to devote himself to society, mankind, and all its people, and to fear no sacrifice for the sake of all beings. Without a Bodhi Mind, his practice is no more than for the sake of his own peace and freedom.
我们知道,佛教的一切,特别是大乘法门的一切,都是以菩提心作为一个开端和根本。离 开了菩提心,修一切的法门不是堕入二乘就是堕入外道邪见。概括起来讲,菩提心就是我们每 天所发的四弘誓愿: "众生无边誓愿度,烦恼无尽誓愿断,法门无量誓愿学,佛道无上誓愿成 四弘誓愿" 。这是菩提心的具体体现,也是菩提心的实际内容。还有我们每天早课念的普贤菩 萨十大愿王,那就是菩提心。没有菩提心的人,智慧慈悲不能俱足,特别是慈悲心生不起来。因为他没有度众生的心,没有为社会、人类、大众奉献自己的心,没有想到要为一切众生来舍 自己的头目脑髓。这种心发不起来,那么他修行不过就是为了一己的安定,一己的自由自在而已。
我想,就个人而言,不论他怎么样,与广大众生比起来,个人都是非常次要的问题,但对 于这个问题我们现代学佛的人都很难突破。我们往往一想到要学佛,就想到我该怎么样,对我 会怎么样,没想到学佛是要发起菩提心,没想到学佛是要为一切众生离苦得乐。 "一切众生离 苦得乐,我在其中矣" ——这样地来学佛,菩提心就发起来了;这样地来学佛,你的心量就广大了;这样地来学佛,我们大家彼此之间的关怀帮助理解同情就会建立起来。因为大家的目标 一致,愿望一致,利益一致。菩提心是前导,菩提心是我们的目标,菩提心是我们发心的动力、 修行的动力、做事的动力、弘法的动力,所以一定要发菩提心。佛经上面关于发菩提心的内容 俯拾皆是,为什么有这么多的内容?就是佛菩萨、历代祖师在反复地强调发菩提心的重要性。
I think, compared to all sentient beings, one person by him or herself, no matter who he or she may be, can only be considered as secondary. This however, is an insight that contemporary Buddhists seldom comprehend or penetrate in practice. When we practice Buddhist training we often think only in personal terms of what I can or should do or what I can or would get; we seldom think of how to cultivate a Bodhi Mind through practice. To have a Bodhi Mind, we have to put Buddhist teachings into practice for the sake of saving all sentient beings, to lift them out of their sufferings and bring them happiness. That is: "When all beings are released from suffering and enjoy happiness I myself am amongst them." Grounding our study and practice upon such motivation we will, also, have a broad and open-minded perspective and, having the same objectives, aspirations and benefits, we will enjoy the support and mutual understanding existing between one another. The Bodhi Mind will serve us as a guide, a target and motivation for us to take up the path, to practice the training, to disseminate the Dharma and, indeed, to do whatever we do. That is why we must have a Bodhi Mind. In the Buddhist scriptures there are a great many sayings related to the Bodhi Mind. Why? It is because the Buddha and successive old masters stressed time and again the importance of Bodhi Mind.
第二是般若见。菩提心发起之后,我们还要用般若智慧来衡量我们的言行,用正见来衡量。 破除了我执法执后所显示、所证悟、所获得的这种正智,就是般若智、般若见。我们现在学佛 的人,包括我自己在内,是不是破除了我执法执?我们的见解是不是就是正见呢?可以这么说, 我们学佛的人,虽然不能每一个人即刻就能达到这样一种境界,但是我们要有 "虽不能至、心向往之" 的思想。要认准这个目标,不能偏离,一偏离就不对,你心向往之,总有一天会达到。
Next there is the "insight of Prajna". Having a Bodhi Mind, we then need to use Prajna, the correct view, to evaluate what we say and what we do. The wisdom we demonstrate, confirm, and attain after eradicating the attachments of ego, and the attachments to Dharma itself, is Prajna, the insight of Prajna. Have or have not Buddhists, including myself, eliminated such attachments? Is our insight a correct view or not? To put it another way: every Buddhist, whether or not he or she has reached such a state already, should bear in mind the idea that, "even if it is beyond what seems achievable, the aspiration should always be there in my mind." Stick to this idea and do not depart from it, otherwise we will make mistakes. As long as we constantly maintains this aspiration in mind, we will eventually achieve success.
般若见是眼目。比如说戒定慧三学叫 "戒足、定身、慧目" ,戒是两条腿,定是我们的身 躯,慧就是眼目。有戒有定没有眼目,你往哪个方向走啊?如果我们只有眼目,没有身躯也没 有两条腿,那么正见就没有依托,没有载体,没有办法去落实。所以戒定慧三学缺一不可。一切的修行都离不开般若见,都离不开正见。八正道中正见在第一位,最重要。六度般若在最后,是统帅,这也是显示它的重要性。
Metaphorically, we refer to the insight of Prajna as the "eyes". For instance, we refer to the three trainings (三学) of precept, meditation, and wisdom as the "feet of precepts, the body of meditation, and the eyes of wisdom". That is, the precepts are represented by the two feet, meditation by the body, and wisdom by the eyes. With only feet and body but no eyes where could we go? Without feet and body the correct view would find no support, and nothing to carry or transport it; how then could it find a way to be put into practice? The three trainings should therefore be stressed at the same time. The insight of Prajna, the correct view, is what we must keep in mind during any kind of training. On the noble eightfold path (八正道), the correct view stands in first place; it is very important. Prajna is the last of the Six Paramitas (六度), as such it stands in a position of control, again, it is also very important.
第三是息道观。这个问题就比较复杂,不是一言半句能够讲得清楚的。从释迦牟尼佛到历代祖师直至现在,息道观都是我们一直在修的一个基本法门,又叫 "安那般那" ,数呼吸的意 思。禅如此高妙,如此了不起,最后还要通过这样一个简单的方法来修,这就是越高深的东西 越平凡,可能越平凡的东西也是越难做到。就像数呼吸这件事,呼吸离我们最近,于我们最亲切,我们时时刻刻可以感受得到。我们人是怎样生活的?生命是怎样延续的?就是因为我们这 一口气。老和尚们总在说, "一口气不来,转眼即是来生。" 可见这口气、这个呼吸对于我们人的重要性。但是这么重要、这么简单、与我们这么密切的事情,我们要把它管好数好,不容易,非常难!
Thirdly there is the path of counting the breaths. This issue is relatively complicated, and canât be easily explained in words. Ever since the time of the Buddha, up through the period of successive old masters, and until now, the path of counting the breaths was, and still is, our basic training method. In Sanskrit the term for counting the breaths is "Anapana". Just breathing, how natural; you can see then the natural grace and excellence that the state of Chan itself reflects. Even so, to practice we have to follow a simple way of training. In fact, very often the greater somethingâs depth and profundity, the more normal it actually is; the more normal it is, perhaps, the harder it is to achieve. The matter of counting breaths, the inhalation and exhalation, is so immediate and so intimate to us that we feel it at every moment. What gives us life? What sustains that life? It is the breaths. Old monks often say: "As soon as breathing stops another round of life begins." You see, the breath, the inhalation and exhalation, is so important to us. But when we try to distinguish, understand or count these important and simple breaths that are so vital to us, it is by no means an easy task.
息道观讲得最好、讲得最详细的是天台宗。我们这里有天台宗的专家——王雷泉教授在这儿。天台宗有五六本书专门讲禅波罗蜜,而禅波罗蜜的重点是讲数息观。我们的修行目标很远 大,知见要正确,但是落实到具体的方法上,一定要非常非常地实在、非常非常地稳妥,这样 一来,一是修行不会出偏差,二是修行不会成为空谈。放焰口里面召请和尚的亡灵时说: "黄 花翠竹,空谈秘密真诠。" 我们不能空谈,空谈不能了生死。我们要从实际的修行中来落实所 有高深的理念,在修行上使意识得到净化,这就是我们修行的根本。
The most excellent and detailed explanation for the way of counting the breaths is provided by the Tiantai School (天台宗). We have an expert of the Tiantai School (天台宗), Professor Wang Leiquan, here today. In the Tiantai School (天台宗) there are five or six books specifically dedicated to the Chan Paramita (禅波罗密). The path of counting the breaths is a major concern of the Chan Paramita. In our training we need to have a farsighted objective and correct view. As for the actual way of practice, it should be both extremely practicable and reliable so that our self-training can proceed in the right direction, and produce meaningful consequences or results. At the Ulka-mukha ceremony of feeding the hungry ghosts (放焰口), when we call for the disgraced monks (who have become hungry ghosts due to their ill deeds), we chant: "Do not indulge in empty discussion, by using common words like âyellow flowersâ and âgreen bambooâ, to talk about the true explanation as to what is the ultimate ground of being." We should not indulge in such empty talk; it cannot help us truly understanding the meaning of life and death. We have to apply the profound teachings to our daily practice and purify our Mind through the training. This is the very objective of self-training.
我们的身和心是不可分离的整体,净化心念、净化身心的方法很多,数息观是一个最简便 最亲切的方法。对于我们现代的人来说,信教也好不信教也好,这个方法没有宗教色彩,你只 要去做就会有利益有受用,这是个很实际的东西。你不信佛也可以修这个观,修了以后你也会 得到受用,得到受用了你才晓得佛的说法真实不虚,这样你再来信也不迟。佛法告诉我们要净 化我们的心念就用数息观,要净化我们这个身体就修白骨观。今天我们重点讲数息观。
Our Mind and body exist as an inseparable whole. There are a great many ways to purify the body and Mind. For us, the path of counting the breaths is the simplest and dearest one. Regarding contemporary people, no matter whether they are Buddhists or the laity, this way of training is neutral in the sense that it need not necessarily be a religious practice or, indeed, even be considered as having any religious characteristics or connotations. In practicing it, you will achieve and attain something both meaningful and beneficial. It produces concrete results no matter whether you believe it or not. Even if you do not believe in Buddhism you can still practice counting and following the breaths. In doing so you will certainly attain benefits. Through what you have attained you will come to see that what the Buddha taught is true. At that time, it would not be too late for you to believe in it. The Buddhaâs teachings instruct us to practice the path of counting the breaths so as to purify our Minds and, also teach us to practice Asthi-samjna (白骨观, the way of contemplating the impurity of skeleton) so as to purify our bodies. Today, I will lay stress upon the path of counting the breaths.
我刚才讲的就是属于最古老的方法 "五停心观" 。 "五停心观" ——这个停不是停止而是安定——就是使心能够安定下来的方法。散乱心的众生要修数息观。数息观的要领是什么?就是要使我们的意念和呼吸紧密结合起来。佛教的禅定功夫是指一些共性的东西,不是说光哪一门禅定重视呼吸,禅宗也同样重视数息。四祖五祖的法语当中也多次提到要怎样来调呼吸,菩提达摩的禅法 "内心无喘" 从功夫上来讲也是在修数息观。要使我们呼吸的不调相变成调相 ——风喘气这三者为息的不调相,只有到了息这个阶段才是调相——所以要 "内心无喘" 。当然这个 "内心无喘" 既有功夫上的意思,也有见地上的意思。从功夫的意义来讲,菩提达摩也 是修数息观, "如是安心者壁观" ,壁观者就是使内心无喘。
What I have just been speaking about is part of the oldest way of training, called the "five contemplations to cut off delusions and hindrances (五停心观)". The five contemplations are: Asubha smrti (contemplating impurity), Maitri smrti (contemplating loving- kindness and compassion), Idampratyayata pratiyasamutpada smrti (contemplating dependent origination), Dhatuprabheda smrti (contemplating egolessness), and Anapana smrti (contemplating the breaths). They are techniques used to cut off delusions and hindrances and make the Mind peaceful. For those who have a distracted Mind it is better to practice the path of counting the breaths. How then do we practice it? We have to closely combine or harmonize our thoughts, consciousness, and breaths together. Buddhist meditation is a practice common to all schools, all of which, including the Chan School, stress the path of counting the breaths. The Fourth and Fifth Patriarchs taught us time and time again how to regulate our breathing. Bodhidharmaâs way of "breathing both deeply and rhythmically" was one such path for counting the breaths, in its case, emphasizing the "ability". The aim of "breathing both deeply and rhythmically" is to transform both inharmonious inhalation and exhalation into harmonious inhalation and exhalation. The wind, gasp, and gas breath phases are inharmonious whilst only the last type, the breath phase, is harmonious. "Breathing both deeply and rhythmically" is of course related not only to "ablity" but also to "insight (见地)". From the perspective of "ability", what Bodhidharma taught was also the path of counting the breaths. Bodhidharma taught: "Facing a wall is the way to pacify the Mind." To gaze at a wall is to make the breaths harmonious.
佛家禅定的修行是在一呼一吸的转折上面做功夫。呼出来吸进去叫一呼一吸,它的中间转 折是什么?就是息所住的那一刻。息可以分为三个阶段,就是出息、入息、住息,要在住息上 面做功夫,你的心才能够真正安定下来。对修行得比较成熟、比较有功夫的人来说,住息的时 间越长,得禅定的可能性就越大。或者是说,这样就离得禅定的时间很近,你就很有可能将这 一呼一吸的转换之间的息住在那里,那么你当下就能够入定。所以要使我们的意念和呼吸保持一致、保持同步,就必须要非常清楚地知道入息、出息和住息。
To practice Buddhist meditation we have to focus our attention on the point, the shift, between inhalation and exhalation. What is this moment of transition between inhalation and exhalation? It is the moment that the breath stays inside. The breath consists of three stages: incoming, shift - staying inside, and outgoing. We have to focus our attention at the stage of the breathâs internal residing and then our Mind can be truly pacified. For those who are relatively mature and advanced in self-training, the longer the moment they maintain between inhalation and exhalation the more possibility there is for them to reach Samadhi or, in other words, the closer they are to the state of Samadhi. If we could hold this moment of transition between inhalation and exhalation, we would at once reach the state of Samadhi. Therefore, we have to clearly distinguish between now the incoming, now the internally residing, and now the outgoing breaths, so as to maintain our consciousness awareness as coinciding with the breaths, that is, we must allow the two â breathing and consciousness - to become synchronized.
我们数呼吸数什么呢?可以数入息也可以数出息。一般地来说,以数出息比较好,为什么 呢?因为我们每个人身体里面有许多浊气,这些浊气应该让它出来。你把意念放在出息上,就 能有意识地把五脏六腑的浊气吐出来。你在出息的时候数数,入息就不要管它,住息也不要管它。但是你要明明白白地知道,息在进来、息在住。住在什么地方?这有一个次第。开始的时 候不可能真正使息到丹田里面来,丹田就是我们脐下二指或三指的地方。练习的时间长了,功夫纯熟了,你就能够慢慢地使呼吸由浅到深、由粗到细、由短到长。开始可能在这个地方(师 以手示意胸口部位),慢慢下来一直到气海,又叫丹田,到这里就不要再往下边走。要注意这 个,往下边走就走不下去了。想做到一步到位不大可能,要想能够真正把气息慢慢引入丹田,专门练习的人也要经过三五个月才有可能做到。不能一下子把息引到丹田怎么办呢?引到哪儿 是哪儿,不要勉强,勉强会出毛病。要慢慢地来,使呼吸深、细、长,还要慢慢地使整个气息 引到丹田。引到丹田后气还要扩散到全身,那样你就可以不用鼻孔呼吸了。八万四千个毛孔都 可能成为呼吸的管道,它本身就是呼吸的管道,因为我们没有真正地去修炼去训练,所以不能 把八万四千个毛孔的优势都调动起来。
In our practice what should we count? we can count either the inhalation or exhalation, both will do. In general though, it is better to count the exhalations. Why? Because we have foul or stagnant air inside our body, so it is better to let it out. When we focus our attention on exhalation, we then purposely let it out from all our body organs. Count the exhalation alone and do not be concerned about the inhalation or holding but be clearly aware of the process - now the breath is incoming, now it is residing inside, now it is outgoing. Where and how should we keep the breath? It is a gradual process of practice. At the beginning, it is impossible for us to breathe deeply into the pubic region (丹田) - two and a half inches below the naval. The longer we practice the more mature we become. Then our breathing will gradually change from a shallow, rough, and short pattern into a deep, smooth, and long pattern. At first we may breathe in the chest region, by and by we should breathe deep down to the pubic region, there is no need to lead the breaths further down. We should consider this point, because in fact we cannot breathe any further down. In practice, we cannot start breathing down into the pubic region overnight. It takes at least three to five months of intensive training to be able to properly breathe deep down to the pubic region. If we cannot do it at first, what should we do? No matter how shallow the breaths are do not practice by force. To do so may be harmful. We have to practice step by step, making our breaths deeper, smoother, and longer, gradually leading them further down to the pubic region and then getting them suffused into the entire body. In this way we would be able to breathe without our nose, because all the eighty-four thousand pores of our body would become passages for our breaths. Actually they are in fact passages for our breaths. Though without having truly achieved success in our training it is hardly likely that we will be able to get those pores adequately functioning.
我们修到一定程度后,全身的优势都可以调动起来,其结果就是心变得安定,身体的潜在功能就会慢慢发挥出来。身体健康了,精力旺盛了,智慧开发了,还可能出一点小神通。如果 出了一点小神通,你必须很好地去运用它,不要人家荷包里的钱有多少,你看得很清楚,就学 搬运法把别人荷包里的钱调出来。这个方法我们不要,我们可以看得见,但是不要去用,一用 你就失去神通了。这当然是开玩笑的话,最重要的还是要得定、要开发智慧,逐步地使烦恼淡 化,这是非常重要的事情。烦恼淡化了,有没有智慧、有没有禅定你不要问,那是必然的结果。只要烦恼淡化了,就会有定、就会有慧。烦恼盖覆了智慧,因此智慧不能发挥出来。一旦烦恼 能够得到淡化、得到清除,那么我们本自具足的如来智慧德相就会显现出来。
Having reached a certain degree of accomplishment in our training, we can bring our bodyâs potential into play. As a result, our Mind would be pacified and our bodyâs potential would gradually reveal itself. At this stage, we are in good health, full of vitality, with developed wisdom, and perhaps occasionally encountering paranormal powers (神通). If we really do encounter such powers we have to be careful to use them appropriately. Suppose someone could see clearly how much money there was in anotherâs pocket, he then uses the transporting technique he has learnt to remove it from the pocket. We do not support the use of such techniques. Occasionally we may see something invisible, yet we cannot simply use the paranormal powers willy-nilly. If we did so we would lose them. This is, of course, just a joke. The most important thing in our training is to pacify the Mind, to develop our wisdom, and to wean ourselves away from all delusions and passions. As long as we can cut off delusions and sever our attachments to our various desires, we need not bother about whether or not we have acquired wisdom or whether or not we have reached the state of Samadhi - these are surely what we would attain. As long as delusions and passions are slowly killed off there is a corresponding increase in Samadhi and wisdom. Delusions and passions cast their shadow over wisdom so that wisdom is unable to reveal itself. At such a time as we destroy or get rid of our delusions and passions our primordial Mind or primitive wisdom will reveal itself.
在坐禅的时候,一开始要调五事:调睡眠、调饮食、调身、调息、调心。今天重点讲调呼 吸。刚开始在进入数息观的时候,我们可能呼吸很粗很粗,有时候鼻子不通气,呼吸像拉风箱一样,那个时候就是风,不是息,这是息的不调相。经过一段时间,这个风相会消失,就出现喘。喘就是我们呼吸出入不均,快一下、慢一下,结滞不通,这也是息的不调相。当每一呼每 一吸之间的距离基本上趋于稳定,只是在呼吸上比较粗,感觉得很明显,这就是气。风、喘、 气这三者叫 "息不调相" 。息的调相就是息,息是 "若有若无,绵绵密密" ,出入比较均衡, 而且又没有声音。大家记住这八个字就可以,叫做 "若有若无,绵绵密密,为息调相" 。
In the books of the Tiantai School (天台宗) concerning the five contemplations, the way of counting the breaths is also called "adjusting the breaths". When practicing sitting meditation, at first we have to pay attention to the "five aspects of adjustment". They are: sleep, food, body, breath, and the Mind. Today, my emphasis is upon adjusting the breaths. At the beginning when we practice the way of counting the breaths, we breathe in a short, rough manner; sometimes we can hardly breathe through the nose at all and our breaths are labored, rather like blowing air through bellows. This is called the wind phase of breaths; it is an inharmonious phase. As we continue to practice for a period of time the wind phase changes into the gasp phase. This is irregular: now quicker, now slower; it is also an uneven and inharmonious phase. Then comes the third phase, gas. What is the difference between the gasp phase and the gas phase? At the gas phase stage the incoming and outgoing breaths are more or less stable, but we can clearly feel them because they are thick. These three phases of wind, gasp, and gas are referred to as the "inharmonious phases". In the fourth one, called "breath", the breaths are long, slender, and continuous, we only partly feel them. At this stage the breaths are relatively even, thin, and peaceful. Please bear in mind what I have mentioned so that you can get your breaths well adjusted and regulated. This is the breath phase.
我们要把呼吸调好,把前面的三个不调相逐步地排除,调到息的调相,这需要一定的时间。 调呼吸这种方法不一定只是修禅宗、修禅定的人使用,修一切法门,调息都是一个前提。念阿 弥陀佛也要调息,调息调得不好,念阿弥陀佛就很吃力,心就定不下来。我曾经在广济寺讲过一次 "念佛与调五事" ,就是讲把佛号和息结合起来,把念阿弥陀佛和调息结合起来,这个方 法也很有效。我们学净土法门的人不妨试一试,绝对对我们的身心稳定有好处。关于息道观,我想不能够太细地来讲,下面就讲生活禅。
In practice, it takes a certain period of time for us to gradually adjust the breaths, changing the three inharmonious phases into a harmonious one. The way of adjusting breaths is a prerequisite for all Buddhist trainings; it is not just practiced by the Chan School for the attainment of Samadhi. Those who pray to Amitabha also have to regulate the breaths. Without doing so they could hardly achieve a peaceful state of Mind and would, consequently, have difficulty in praying to Amitabha. I once gave a talk in the Guangji temple entitled "Praying to Amitabha and the five aspects of adjustments". In that talk, I mentioned how to effectively coordinate and regulate the breaths whilst chanting the name Amitabha. Those who practice the Pure-Land School can try to apply it. It will surely be conducive to the peacefulness of both their body and Mind. I think I need not go into further details about the path of counting the breaths; let us now turn instead to the Sheng Huo Chan.
第四个根本观点就是生活禅。通过这几年的探索实践,我总结出来生活禅有四句口诀,可能很多人都见过这四句话。这四句口诀是什么呢?第一句就是 "将信仰落实于生活" 。这是我 们学佛人最重要的一件事。我们往往不能够把信仰和生活联系在一起,往往不能在生活当中去 落实信仰,往往是把信仰与生活打成两截,以为我到庙里去的那一刻是信仰,回到家里就是另 外一回事。在家里的佛堂里是在信佛,上街买菜、待人接物就是另外一副面孔。这就是信仰没 有落实。如果是一个真正把信仰落实于生活的人,那他一天24小时分分秒秒都在修行。所以说这是一句口诀,对我们修行学佛的人来说,这是最重要的一件事。
Fourthly then there is the Sheng Huo Chan. Through my personal study and practice during recent years, I have been able to formulate four major principles in relation to Sheng Huo Chan training. Most of you here will probably have heard of them. What are these four? The first major principle is, "live what we believe." Why do I say this? I think this is the most important issue for Buddhist practitioners. Usually we do not relate our belief to everyday life, and do not put that belief into everyday life. We often separate our faith from our life, thinking that the moment we are in a temple we are faithful, and that when we get back home we may act in another way. We are Buddhists in our meditation room at home yet someone else when we buy vegetables at the marketplace, or when we mix with other people. This shows that we do not live what we believe. For a person who truly lives what he believes, the practice of self-training is a full-time occupation - every moment, every second, twenty four hours a day. Therefore, this first principle, of "living what we believe", is very important, a most important issue for Buddhist practitioners.
第二句口诀就是 "将修行落实于当下" 。你不要认为只有上殿才是修行,在禅堂里打坐才是修行,到庙里来烧香拜佛做佛事才是修行,在家里早晚诵经才是修行。如果是这样,我们修 行的时间就太少了,一天24小时,和尚在庙里早晚上殿顶多两个小时,其它的时间怎么办?居士们当然有一些年纪大的人,一天可以拿着珠子念阿弥陀佛。年轻的人要上班要工作怎么办?有办法,只要你每时每刻观照自心,每时每刻观照当下,就能够把修行落实于当下。一切从现 在开始,永远都是现在,永远都是起步,你永远都在修行。一天24小时分分秒秒都住在当下,就是分分秒秒在修行,只有这样我们才能够真正成为一个修行人,才真正能够与佛法融为一体,才能成就法的人格。安祥禅的倡导者李耕云先生就讲法的人格化,要把法来人格化,那就是说 我们时时刻刻要安住在佛法当中,修行在佛法当中。所以这也是一句口诀,这句口诀很管用。 只要我们能够记住它,慢慢地去落实。一忘记了就提起来,提起来就能够落实。
The second major principle is, "practice self-training right now at the present moment." Do not think that self-training is only to be practiced when we have daily monastic lessons, when we practice sitting meditation in the meditation hall, when we burn incense during Buddhist activities, or when we chant sutras in the morning or in the evening at home. If that were the case, the time we devoted to our self-training would be too sort, too little time. In the temple monks usually spend most of the daytime studying and in doing their jobs; they chant sutras only in their morning and evening sutra chanting lessons, lasting two hours all together. What should they do at the time when they are not chanting sutras? For those elder, retired lay Buddhists, they might possibly pray to Amitabha all day long, counting their beads. For young people, however, there is the necessity of having to go to work everyday. How should they carry on their self-training? To deal with this matter, as long as they are always mindful at every moment, always aware of the present moment, then they would surely be engaged in self-training right then at and in the present moment. As long as they always begin at the present moment, always live in the present moment and make the present moment as the first step, then they would surely have self-training practiced at all times. To be mindful right now at the present moment, second by second, all day long, means to practice self-training all the time, continuously, without interruption or exception. This is the only way by which we can truly become a part of the Buddhadharma, the only way we can truly personify the Buddhadharma. Mr. Li Gengyun, the initiator of "An Xiang (serenity) Chan", argues for the personification of Buddhadharma. To personify the Buddhadharma means to remain peaceful at all times with the Buddhadharma. This is a principle we can readily apply. The only thing is to try to remember it and gradually put it into action; then, each time we do forget we must make it clear once again, and again put it into practice.
第三句口诀是 "将佛法融化于世间" 。佛法不能关在寺庙里,佛法不能跟世间法打成两截, 佛法与世间法不能分家。要晓得离开世间法没有佛法,世间法只要用佛法的观点加以净化、加以超越,它本身就是佛法。六祖大师有四句话我们大家都背得过,甚至于背得滚瓜烂熟,但就 是不能够去落实它。这四句话说: "佛法在世间,不离世间觉,离世觅菩提,恰如求兔角。" 就是说离开世间法要来觉悟佛法、找到佛法,就等于在兔子头上找犄角。兔子本身没有角,它 如果有了角的话就不成其为兔子了。佛法离开了世间就不是佛法了,就没有佛法了。佛法在哪 儿呢?佛法就在平常的穿衣吃饭日用施为等一切具体事务当中。这一点很难理解。我们往往觉 得这不是佛法,是世间法。但什么是佛法?表现出来的东西都是世间法,但也都是佛法。我在 这里讲,大家在这里听,这是什么呢?是世间法,但也是佛法。只要我们用佛法来理解它,就算将佛法融化于世间了。
The third major principle is, "integrate the Buddhadharma with this world." The Buddhadharma is not something to be kept just inside temples, something we can clearly distinguish or separate from the phenomenal world. In fact, in the absence of the world there would be no Buddhadharma. The phenomenal world represents the Buddhadharma itself. The phenomenal world can only be purified through the Buddhadharma; only then can we act transcendently. All of us well remember, or even recite fluently, what the Sixth Patriarch Hui Neng (638 â 713) said; yet we cannot put his words into action. He said: "The kingdom of Buddha is in this world, within which enlightenment is to be sought. To seek enlightenment by separating from this world is as absurd as asking for a rabbitâs horn." This means that if we wish to be enlightened in anywhere apart from this world, we are no more than asking for a rabbitâs horn. A rabbit has no horns. Suppose it had it would not be a rabbit. Separated from this world, the Buddhadharma would be something else, or we could say, there would be no Buddhadharma. Where is the Buddhadharma? It exists in all daily experiences, in what we wear and what we eat, in all these kinds of normal aspects of day-to-day life. We seem hardly to understand this point of view; instead, we often think that these kinds of normal aspects of day-to-day life are not Buddhadharma but, rather, something else in the phenomenal world. What is the Buddhadharma then? What the Buddhadharma reveals is the same as that revealed in this world, but it is really the Buddhadharma. I am giving this lecture here and you are listening. What is it? It is something happening in the phenomenal world, but it is also the Buddhadharma. As long as we can appreciate it in the light of the Buddhadharma we will be able to integrate it with this world.
如果不能把佛法融化于世间,以为佛法就在山门里边,或者我们有意识地把佛法关在山门 里边,那样佛法永远不能发扬光大。在传播佛法、使佛法融化于世间这样一个大问题上,我们 做得不够,非常不够!在这一点上,我们要向基督教、天主教学习,他们巴不得大家都能够懂 得上帝造人的道理。于是他们就抓住一切机会来传播他们的教义,这种精神实在是可嘉。我们 和尚或者居士,有三个人来问就不耐烦,只是说你好好来念阿弥陀佛就行了,不给他讲道理。 特别是我们年轻的法师们,人家一问多了脸就红了,或者回答不出来,或者不想回答。我们要 改变这种态度、这种做法,否则我们佛教的空间会越来越小。
Suppose we canât integrate the Buddhadharma with the world, suppose we take the Buddhadharma only as something existing inside temples, or even purposely seek to lock it up inside temples, the Buddhadharma would then cease to develop. Regarding the issue of how to disseminate the Buddhadharma or how to integrate it with this world, there is still quite a long way, indeed a very long way, for us to go! In this respect, we have to learn from Christianity and Catholicism, both of whom are very much eager to spread the Word of Almighty God, the Creator of the universe. They take every opportunity to disseminate their religious doctrines. With their proactive and positive attitude towards their faith, they set a fine example for us to follow. We, monks and lay Buddhists, on the contrary, would be impatient if we were asked questions about Buddhism by three different persons. We would simply tell them to pray to Amitabha, but without explaining why. Young masters, in particular, tend to blush with embarrassment when someone inquires of them time and again about Buddhism. Maybe they are unable to provide answers in the face of such questioning or, perhaps, they do not want to give an answer. We have to change such attitudes and behavior; otherwise the Buddhist voice will become weaker and weaker.
玉佛寺从过去的这块地一直到新买的这块地加在一起还不到二十亩,就在这块地上面,把 佛法封闭起来行不行呢?不行,一定要让佛法走出山门。但是现在政策有规定,一切宗教活动 必须在宗教活动场所进行。因此,人家来了,我们一定要热情地接待,要热情地弘法,要让所 有来的人都能够闻法欢喜。我们不走出去,人家自动进来,我们要宣传,多印一些经书结缘, 多印一些小册子结缘,你来了我就给你一本。你看也好,不看也好,不管他,只问耕耘莫问收 获。他拿回去总有人会看,即使他拿去扔了也无所谓。你不要以为:唉呀,他把经书扔掉了, 这个罪过还得了!不要有这种观念。因为佛教里有很多东西我们没有理解,比如说出佛身血, 它前面加了个定语叫 "恶心出佛身血" 。现在我们把经书毁掉了,把佛像污毁了,弄坏了、弄 脏了,啊,不得了,你出佛身血了!把大家吓得要命。实际他是无意中做的这件事,同时他也 赶快忏悔了,就什么事都没有了。我们不要有这种压力,经书尽量地多印,宣传的小册子尽量 地多印,让社会人士能够了解佛法。这既是传教工作,也是一种公关工作,我们要用佛法来做 好这个公关工作。
The area covered by the old Yufo temple, together with the additional piece of land you have bought, is small and limited. Could we enclose the Buddhadharma within this small area? No, we could not. We have to let it grow outside the temple. Now, as far as political regulations go, all religious activities should be carried out in monasteries and temples or in places specifically set aside or designated for religious activities. When people come to our temple, we must receive them warmly and tell them the Buddhaâs teachings in an active way, so as to make them feel happy and motivated to learn the teachings. As we stay in the temple nearly all the time we have to disseminate the teachings amongst those who willingly come to the temple. We have to print more scriptures or pamphlets expressing the basic teachings and practices in the hope of getting more and more people known about Buddhism. When people come to our temple, we can give each of them a free copy. Whether or not they do in fact read it is not our primary concern; we give according to the saying: "Do care about what we sow but not what we reap." As long as each person takes a copy away, someone will eventually read it. It is all right even if he does throw it away. Do not feel bad, thinking: "Hey, how could he throw the scripture away? It is really an unpardonable sin!" Do not bring such ideas to mind, because there are still many issues we have not fully understood concerning the Buddhist teachings. For instance, the sin of shedding the blood of a Buddha, is one of the five great sins yet, nevertheless, there is a confining context for it: "the sin of shedding the blood of a Buddha through ill will." Had someone destroyed the scripture, messed up the Buddha statue, or even ruined the statue, we would take it as something terrible, as "shedding the blood of a Buddha". This would also horrify all those present at the time. In fact, he might conceivably have done these things accidentally and feel immediately repentant at what he has done. If so, it is okay. There is no need for us to be worried about this kind of thing. Better to print as many scriptures and pamphlets as possible, so as to let the public learn the Buddhist teachings. This is both a job of education and, simultaneously, a job of public relations. We have to do this job well, under the guidance of Buddhadharma.
我记得到我们柏林寺去的人,不管是政府里的人也好,还是其它部门的人也好,来了不问 我们要别的东西,就说你们有什么书赶快给我们准备一点,都是要书。为什么呢?他要了解佛 教。你这个庙修得这么大,和尚这么多、小和尚这么多,你这个佛教究竟怎么回事?你们一天 在这里搞些什么名堂?他不知道,所以他要书去看,要了解。我们也要让人家来了解,欢迎人 家来了解。要多印书,多印通俗的书来结缘,让大家来到庙里既烧香又叩头,而且又得到一本 法宝回去。香港、台湾、新加坡的这些事情做得非常好,它就是一大堆的书放在那里,大家随 便拿。你不要印得太精致了,印得一般就可以,但是也要印得有一定的档次,完全没有档次人家拿去就不喜欢看,要印那些通俗易懂、契理契机的书作结缘品。这就是逐步地来使佛法融化 于世间。
As far as I know, when people, from all walks of life â no matter whether they are government officials or members of the general public - come to visit our Bailin (cypress trees) temple, they do not ask for anything other than books. They often ask us to prepare books for them. Why? They want to know about Buddhism. They want to understand what the doctrine really means because such a large temple has been constructed recently in which many monks, young monks in particular, live. They want to be aware of what is going on inside. As they do not know, they want to learn through books. We, on the other hand, have to let them know, and also welcome the opportunity to let them study. As long as we have plenty of books or booklets concerning the basic teachings and practices printed, people will be able to take a copy when they come to worship and burn incense. Monasteries and temples in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore have done an excellent job in this respect. They prepare piles of books there for taking away free of charge. When we print, it is not necessary to pay too much attention to delicate workmanship. At the same time, in order to encourage people to read, we have to be aware of printing quality. Without good quality printing people may be discouraged from reading. In addition, books or booklets we are going to print should be easy to understand, should be in line with what the Buddha taught (契理契机), and should befit the social environment of the times and the mental disposition of the people. By paying careful attention to these matters we can gradually help the Buddhadharma to become integrated with the world.
我也经常讲到,宗教政策规定我们不要到外面去宣传,但是并不限制在寺庙里宣传。政府 给我们这样一个政策,我们就要把它用足用够。这实际上就是在体现宗教信仰自由政策,说明 宗教信仰是自由的。人们到庙里来,出家人送一些宣传品,不管是内宾外宾,他们都会非常高 兴的。我觉得这边,特别是作为一个对外的窗口,不妨请人翻译一些英文的资料,比如把玉佛寺的历史用英文写出来,把真禅大和尚对社会的各种贡献、对佛教的各种贡献用英文写出来,把佛法的一些基本道理,找几本书,用英文也写出来。印一些英文的东西来让老外了解我们的 佛教,对老外也要宣传,因为老外很关键。他总在说我们的信仰不自由,总在说我们人权有问题,总在外面攻击我们。我们在这个方面可以做很好的工作,这都是生活禅。
As I often mention, the religious policy of our country does not allow us to spread the Buddhaâs teachings outside of monasteries and temples, but the Government does not prohibit or constrain us from doing so inside. Regarding the policy given to us, we have to make the best use of it. To fully implement what the policy permits is in fact to show the freedom we Chinese people enjoy in the pursuit of religion. This suggests that the religious policy is not a forced one. We have freedom to choose our own religious faith. When people, no matter whether they are Chinese or foreigners, come to our monasteries or temples, if we offer books or booklets to them they will feel very happy. I think, because the Yufo temple is located in Shanghai, it can act as a window to the outside world. It is a good idea to try to get the information we have available in Chinese translated into English versions. For instance, produce an English version of the history of the Yufo temple or the contributions made by Master Zhen Chan (1916 â 1995) to both Buddhism and society. Produce an English version of the basic Buddhist teachings and practices. Then, with the information available in English, when foreign guests come for a visit we can offer them copies in English. In this way we can help them to know and better understand about Buddhism in China today. This latter point is also very important. We have to let people outside of our country see the very fact of Buddhismâs existence and growth here. This is important because some of those people frequently condemn us for our lack of religious freedom and our perceived lack of human rights. There is a lot of work we could do in this respect, all of which is within the scope of Sheng Huo Chan.
第四个口诀就是 "将个人融化于大众" 。这是我们每个人要记住的,因为离开了大众就没 有个人。这个道理大家应该说都是能够懂的,但往往懂得道理不等于就能够按这个道理去做。 怎么叫将个人融化于大众呢?我们生活在社会中、在团体中,这个社会像网一样,我们是网里 面的一个小网孔,如果我们离开了这个网,到哪里去找个人呢?我们个人就好像是大海里的一 滴水一样,如果把这一滴水从大海里孤立出来,不到一个小时,这滴水就干涸了。个人是非常 渺小的,只有集体的力量才是无穷无尽的。所以说我们一定要时时刻刻想到我是众生的一份子,我不能离开众生,不能离开大众。佛都说 "我在僧数" ,说 "佛在僧数" ,佛是僧团里面的一份子。佛说法的时候也有一个比喻,就是说那滴水不能离开大海,离开大海那一滴水就会干掉,个人不能离开集体,个人离开集体是一无所用。
The fourth major principle is, to "keep close links with all beings." This is something we have to constantly bear in mind, because no single individual could live alone without other beings. This is a fact of common sense that everybody knows. However, the point is that to know about it is not the same thing as putting it into action. What does the message "keep close links with all beings" mean? Separate from all beings there could be no individual existence. We live our lives in society and in a community that is like a net, with us the meshes. Suppose there is no net, how then could the meshes exist? How could an individual live alone? In other words, each of us is just like a drop of water in a vast ocean. To isolate a drop of water from the ocean would cause it to dry up in less than an hour. An individual is small and negligible. Collective power is infinite. Therefore, at all times, we have to bear in mind that each one of us is just one amongst countless beings. A person cannot depart somewhere, away from all beings, but must live together with all others. The Buddha himself once said "I am among the monks." This means he took himself to be one of the Sangha. In his teachings the Buddha also made use of this metaphor, that a drop of water cannot be isolated from the ocean. Once the drop of water is removed or separated from the ocean, it will dry up. A person canât live without collective supports. A person can do nothing if he or she separates him or herself apart from all beings.
Now, let me repeat the four major principles of Sheng Huo Chan training once again. They are as follows:
1) Live what we believe; 2) Practice self-training right now at the present moment; 3) Integrate the Buddhadharma with this world; and 4) Keep close links with all beings.
下面还有四句口诀。我们信佛的人究竟信什么?我们都说我们在信佛,往往信的是大殿里 供的泥塑木雕的那尊佛;或者我皈依某个师父,我是某个师父的徒弟,认为这就是信佛;或者 我们修某一个法门,认为这就是信佛。这些当然都是信佛的一部分内容,但并不是全部的。你要真正全面地来体现信仰、体现正信的内容,应该最少要具备以下四点,就是四句口诀:
Next, there is also a four-line statement Iâd like to mention as a motto we should keep in mind. Being Buddhist practitioners, what do we truly believe in? We say that we believe in Buddhism. However, often we think that to worship Buddha statues made of clay or wood is to act in accordance with our belief. We think we are Buddhists because we have entered the Buddhist monastic order and become disciples of certain masters. We think we are faithful because we are practicing some sort of training. All these things, of course, are ways to express our belief, but they do not cover its full meaning. We have at least to live up to the four-line motto, so as to truly realize what we believe in, and to embody what a right faith is. The four lines of this motto are as follows.
第一, "以三宝为正信的核心" 。——三宝是我们建立正信的最主要的核心内容。
First, "take the Triratna (三宝, the Three Treasures: Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha) as the very core of right faith." That is, the Three Treasures are the key foundations upon which we set up our right faith.
第二, "以因果为正信的准绳" 。——信佛就要信因果,不信因果你说你信佛就无有是处。在佛教界流传着一个笑话,这个笑话讲得非常的不好,我也非常不喜欢听,但是有人讲。就是: "居士怕因果,和尚怕居士,因果怕和尚。" 这个话讲得我们和尚脸上非常难受,说因果怕和尚,那就是说和尚不讲因果。我希望我们一定要扭转这种风气。我们每个和尚都要深信因果,做一切事情都要从因果出发。当然居士们深信因果非常好,居士们学佛是从和尚那里学来的,所以和尚首先要深信因果。这一条一定要做得非常好,我们才能够真正地起到表率作用,才能够真正在四众当中模范人天。我们做一切事情,就要以因果为准绳,因果是一个标准,是一个尺度。
Second, "take the Law of Cause and Effect (因果侓) as the criterion of right faith." Those who believe in Buddhism must feel sure of the Law of Cause and Effect. If not, how can they say they are Buddhists? There is a joke in Buddhist circles. It is a hurtful joke that I, personally, do not wish to have heard. However, some people do tell it. It goes like that: "Lay Buddhists are afraid of the Law of Cause and Effect; monks are afraid of lay Buddhists; and the Law of Cause and Effect is afraid of monks." This joke makes us feel extremely embarrassed. "The Law of Cause and Effect is afraid of monks" implies that monks do not feel certain about the Law. I hope we will do our best to turn this unfortunate tendency around. Every monk must believe, totally, in the Law. Whatever he does he must bear the Law in mind, and must not blame the Law wrongly or mistakenly. It is very good for lay Buddhists to completely believe in the Law. They learn the Buddhaâs teachings from monks. Monks, therefore, have to believe in the Law first. As long as we monks truly believe in and follow the Law we can truly set fine examples for others; we can truly act as models for the four types of Buddhist community (四众). Whatever we do we must take the Law as the criterion, because the Law is a standard, a specified scale against which our belief can be judged and measured.
第三, "以般若为正信的眼目" 。——信仰要有一个眼目,信仰的眼目就是般若、就是智慧。
Third, "take Prajna (wisdom) as the Dharma eyes of right faith." There should be a specific form of insight by which we show our right faith. That is Prajna - wisdom.
第四, "以解脱为正信的归宿" 。——我们信佛的人,每个人都希望最终得到解脱。解脱是什么呢?解脱就是烦恼的超越、对世间的超越、对生死的超越。解脱并不是一定要到另外一个地方去,而是就在这个地方解脱,当下解脱。我们都到另外一个地方去,这个世间谁来管呢? 苦恼众生谁来度呢?解脱者,超越也。解脱者,净化也。
Fourth, "take Nirvana as the ultimate destination of right faith". Being Buddhist practitioners, each of us wants to eventually attain release. What is release? It is going beyond our passions, going beyond worldly matters, and going beyond life and death. It is not a mater of attaining release to or in some other place, but about achieving release right here at this very moment. Suppose we all went elsewhere, who then would manage this world? Who would deliver all beings from their sufferings? To attain or achieve release is to go beyond. To attain release is to be purified. Going beyond this world, going beyond life and death, and going beyond all the passions is both what release refers to and what it is.
The above mentioned four-line motto is what we as Buddhist practitioners should live up to. Todayâs lecture is the last in this series of exchanges. I have simply spoken out as the ideas have come to my mind. It is, therefore, somewhat out of order. Lastly, I want to briefly summarize the meaning of Sheng Huo Chan.
禅修的目的不外是要使我们的痛苦得到止息。痛苦从哪里来呢?痛苦来自无明和迷惑,因 此只要有明、只要有智慧就不会有苦。明是什么呢?明就是觉性,明就是正见、正知、正念。我们在日常生活当中要不断地培养这种觉性,以观照当下的方式来培养我们的觉性,使这种观 照保持连续性和稳定性。我们修行无非就是要这样,做到平常打成一片。打成一片用现代话来 说就是要保持连续性和稳定性,使之绵绵密密。这种修行方式便是在生活中修行的生活禅。在 我们日常生活中,不断地观照自己身心的实相,对自己的一举一动念念分明,分分秒秒在在处 处提起正见、安住正念、观照当下,这便是生活禅。
The objective of Chan training is no more than the cutting off of sufferings. Where do those sufferings come from? They come from our ignorance and delusion. With enlightenment and the guidance of wisdom we would no longer feel such pain. What is enlightenment? It is the state of being enlightened. It is right view (正见), right intention (正知), and right mindfulness (正念). In our daily life we must attempt to gradually achieve enlightenment through an approach of being always mindful in the present moment. That state of mindfulness must then be kept going in a continuous and steady way. This is what we should do in order to maintain the practice in our everyday life. In other words, we have to maintain our practice progressing in a continuous and steady way, harmonizing the practice with everyday life. This way of training is what the Sheng Huo Chan proposes, that is, to keep practicing in our everyday life, to be always mindful to the basic truths of existence, to be always well aware of our every act and every thought, moment by moment, and to have right view, right intention and right mindfulness at all times throughout our life. This is what the Sheng Huo Chan represents.
在行住坐卧当中能够时时观照当下,使自己的心与佛相应、与法相应、与戒相应,我们当下便是身居乐土。这种觉性形之于语言,必然是清净语、慈爱语、柔软语,由此而达至我们的 口业清净;这种觉性见之于行动,必然是慈悲道德奉献、助人为乐、与人为善,由此而达至我 们身业的清净;这种觉性能使我们的心保持灵明不昧,照破内在的贪瞋痴三毒,养成慈悲喜舍的心态,成就觉悟奉献的精神,由此而达至意业的清净。勤修三学,化解并淡出三毒,净化三业,这是我们修习佛法的全部任务,而所有这一切只有在日常生活中去落实完成
佛法不离世间法,佛法的任务就是要净化世间法、提升世间法、超越世间法。同样禅修也 绝不能离开世间法,绝不能离开生活。离开了生活、离开了世间法,禅修的断、证——禅修要 断什么证什么——便成了无的放矢、空中楼阁,没有一个着落之处。所以我们深刻地认识到,佛教要适应当前的社会,要适应当前大众学佛修行的需要,佛教要契理契机地弘法、利益众生, 必须要调整我们的步伐,大力提倡人间佛教,提倡在生活中修行、在修行中生活的生活禅。
As long as we can be always mindful in the present moment, in whatever we do and in whatever we say, as long as we can maintain our Mind in accord with the Buddha, Dharma, and precepts, we are right now in the Pure-Land. When we speak with such enlightenment, what we say must be pure and soft and full of loving-kindness and compassion. This is the way by which we are able to maintain the purity of what we say, and to purify what we say. When we act with such enlightenment what we do must involve selfless devotion, helping others, and being friendly towards others. This is the way by which we are able to maintain the purity of our actions, and to purify what we do. With enlightenment we can maintain a clear and dynamic Mind; we can break up our three inner poisons of greed, hatred, and ignorance; we can reach a merciful and benevolent state of Mind; and, we can willingly dedicate ourselves to others. This is the way by which we are ale to maintain the purity of our thoughts, and to purify what we think. Diligently practice the three trainings (precepts, meditation, and wisdom), gradually break up the three poisons (三毒: greed, hatred, and ignorance), and purify the three actions (三业: what we say, what we do, and what we think). These are tasks for our Buddhist trainings, and tasks we have to implement in our everyday life. The Buddhaâs teachings are not apart from this world. The aim of the teachings is to purify, upgrade, and transcend this world. Chan training, by the same token, cannot be apart from this world; it cannot be apart from our life. Away from our life, away from this world, what could we break up and what could we achieve in our training? Away from our life, away from this world, our training would have no target, like a castle in the air high above solid ground. We have, therefore, to be fully aware of this point, that Buddhism should befit the needs of society and contemporary practitioners. Buddhism should disseminate the Dharma and help all beings in line with what the Buddha taught and what the present society and people need. For all these above mentioned reasons, we have to make further improvements. We actively advocate Living Buddhism and the Sheng Huo Chan, which requires practitioners to conduct self-training in everyday life and to live life in an enlightened way.
最后,还有我经常强调的做人的四句口诀——这个也是老生常谈——做人有四件事,信佛 的也好不信佛的也好都要重视:一个是信仰,一个是因果,一个是良心,一个是道德。对有信 仰的人来说,这八个字全部要落实 ;对于没有信仰的人来说,起码要讲 良心、讲道德,这是我们做人的起码要求。佛教在这个社会当中所扮演的角色是什么?我经常 跟人说,佛教对社会的作用就是做人良心的保证。我们这个社会中的每一个人有了良心了,我们的社会就能稳定,就能发展,就能进步。人要没有良心了,我们这个社会的乱象就会丛生,事端就会越来越多,腐败现象就会越来越严重。所以我希望我们在座的全体僧俗大众,一定要使佛教充分发挥保证社会良心的作用。
Lastly, I want to emphasize once again what I often talk about, that is, the four basic aspects an individual - no matter whether a Buddhist or member of the public - must bear clearly in mind. They are faith, cause-and-effect, conscience, and morality. A person who has religious belief should put those four aspects into action. Those who do not have any religious belief should do what their conscience asks them to do and should do everything in accord with morality, because this is the basic quality of a human being. What kind of role does Buddhism play in society? I often say that the role Buddhism plays in society is to assure people of their conscience. As long as each person has a clear and active conscience our society can be stable, can develop, and can progress day by day. Without such a clear and active conscience, the whole of society will invariably tend towards increasing disorder, conflict and growing corruption. I hope that all the monks and lay Buddhists here today, including myself, will do our best to play the role of assuring people of their conscience.
Amitabha! Thank you!
Postscript 附 记
This manuscript was transcribed from the recordings made when I delivered these six lectures at the Yufo temple in Shanghai. In order to keep the oral characteristic there are a number of unnecessary repetitions or phrases that arenât grammatically perfect. It was my personal intention to revise the manuscript before publication. I could not actually find time to review it because we were in a hurry to get it printed for participants of the Ninth Summer Camp of Sheng Huo Chan. I sincerely hope that readers will let us know of any errors or misprints in the book, so that we can correct them when we get it reprinted again.
Jing Hui Abbot of Bailin Temple, Hebei, CHINA, June 18, 2001
Jegyzetek, hasznos linkek
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Venerable Jing Hui Chan Master, 2004 | fordĂtotta Yao Dong jushi 翻译: 耀东居士 @ Xing Long Tang | 2018.08 v3; harmadik, teljes verziĂł Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 licenc alkalmazĂĄsĂĄval | 署名-非商业性使用-禁止演绎 4.0 国际 Ha hibĂĄkat, megjelenĂ©si vagy egyĂ©b problĂ©mĂĄkat talĂĄlsz, Ărj nekĂŒnk: master [at] rgm [pont] hu