Déli harcművészet alapjai - 南拳入門 Xu Taihe (許太和, 1926)
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Portrait Xu Taihe of Jiangyin at the age of fifty - 江陰許太和先生五十小影 photo by Wang Yingruo - 王瑩若題
Xu Taihe and Xu Yuancai – father and son demonstrating boxing - 太和先生與遠才君的父子對拳 photo by Wang Yingruo - 王瑩若題
Preface - 序
BY XU YUSHENG of Hebei at the Beijing Physical Education Research Society, autumn, 1923 中華民國十二年秋右燕禹生許靇厚序於北京體育研究社中
In the spring of 1923, the first National Martial Arts Conference was held in Shanghai. I accepted Ma Zizhen’s invitation and brought along some Physical Education Research Society colleagues to this Shanghai meeting, intent on seeing the boxing arts of the southern provinces in order to expand our perspective. But once the conference began, there were so many practitioners of northern styles, the lack of southern was palpable. Then in the guesthouse, I met Xu Taihe. At almost fifty, he has the courteous bearing of a Confucian scholar. I asked him about his skills in the Renhe style of Shaolin, then over the course of the two-day conference I saw that his movement was vigorous and his spirit was lively, yet his bearing was dignified and always proper. The gallant youths did not compare to him in the slightest. Now that I have come to know Xu, the Shanghai event was not a waste of time after all. Recently he has been putting his time into examining his knowledge and writing it down into a book to share with all those who are interested, and he has asked me to make a preface to it. I am sure that after this book is published it will bring people quite a bit of delight and will also bring a shining light to the martial arts world. This is my sincere hope and with it I preface this book.
Preface - 序 (李肖白)
BY LI XIAOBAI in Shanghai, May 1, 1926 十五年五月一日李肖白識於滬上
I met Xu Taihe in the autumn of 1917. I was then teaching at the Zhaimen Classical Learning School, as was Xu. He was born in Beiguo, Jiangyin, which has long had martial arts experts. His skill is such that he can be called a “glory-bringing hero”. He has a deep sense of responsibility and a high moral code. At the time, he had the double posting of vice principal of literary studies and martial arts instructor, rushing back and forth between the two, but he never complained of weariness, just as solid every day throughout the whole year. I witnessed his instructing of students as he corrected their postures and explained the functions of the movements with tireless care. From this we can know that he inspires interest in these arts. Boxing skills originally did not have names, so he has made systematic terminology for them. From this we can know how much attention he gives to structuring the exercises for groups of students. At the end of the course, he then pointed out all sorts of differences between these skills and the northern styles of boxing arts. From this we can know that he is able to make connections between different curricula. Because of these things, colleagues have commented that they did not expect a boxing arts master to have such a deep understanding of teaching methods as Xu does. He has since continued into a third exalted position, as martial arts instructor at Wujiang High School, where he has made a distinguished name for himself. He has compiled his experience into a book for his students, called Fundamentals of Southern Boxing Arts. After ten years in the making, he has remained unsatisfied, frequently making corrections. A few days ago, he sent me a letter telling me the publication date had been set and asked me to provide a few words to commemorate the event. Because I so respect and admire him, I present this preface for the book so that the world may know of Xu’s character.
Preface - 序 (許枬)
BY XU ZHAN in recognition of true talent, 7th month, 1925 十四年秋七月許枬識棟材
I am ignorant when it comes to boxing arts. When I returned home this summer, uncle Taihe showed me his manuscript for this book. Its drawings and explanations are very clear and complete. He told me: “Boxing arts originally come from the same source, neither ‘northern’ nor ‘southern’. Southerners are smaller in stature, with nimble hands and feet, therefore the strength of southern boxing lies in evasive defense. The techniques are also somewhat different because the boxing arts of northerners focus on attack. What is described in the book is the basics of training in southern boxing arts. It is similar to studying calligraphy. When learning how to construct characters, whatever style of calligraphy you learn, they are all based on a standard. As for how to perform the techniques in a boxing set, or the applications of various weapons, it is thus like studying the calligraphy of Su Dongpo, Huang Tingjian, Mi Fu, and Cai Xiang [the four great masters of calligraphy of the Song Dynasty], who despite having the same heritage had each of them a distinct quality. This describes why the book is so titled.” I have documented here but the briefest sum of his words.
Preface - 序 (王瑩若)
BY WANG YINGRUO of Jiangyin, Jan, 1926 十五年一月江陰王瑩若識
The origins of boxing arts are very old indeed. It says for example in the [2nd century] Books of Han [chapter 23]: “Min of Qi used martial prowess to win.” And in the [3rd century] Xunzi [chapter 15]: “That man of Qi had glorious martial skill.” This is because the study of martial arts had by the end of the Warring States Era [3rd century BC] already produced a great number of skilled exponents. During the Northern & Southern Dynasties [420—589], Master Damo came to China from India. In response to an invitation from Emperor Wu of the Liang Dynasty [502—577], he headed to Nanjing to discuss Buddhism with him. But he did not keep his appointment with the emperor, instead crossing the river into the territory of Wei and ending up at the Shaolin Temple at Mt. Song, where he immediately saw the need to discuss the strengthening of the body. The expectation was that Buddhism emphasizes the state of nothingness that is Nirvana. Everything is but emptiness. Therefore the monks cast their minds into the “ocean of enlightenment”, focused their intention upon the “profound gateway”… and mainly fell asleep. And thus Damo saw the need for strengthening the body. His idea was that if the body was strengthened, then the spirit would more easily awaken, compensating for the monks’ habit of drifting off. Moving forward and back, left and right, by way of eighteen techniques – this was the beginning of the Shaolin tradition. Students of it looked back to its founder to understand its meaning. Martial skills and sword methods were added, and the art grew to seventy-two techniques. The two masters Bai and Li then blended these with the original techniques, and the art spread widely as more than a hundred and seventy techniques. Later eras had transmitters of the art, such as Zhang Sanfeng of the Song Dynasty, who established his own style focusing on defense, issuing power only in an emergency, but then conclusively. Using stillness to overcome motion, later generations called it the “internal school”. But because Shaolin focuses on attack, it was called the “external school”. This is why boxing arts are divided into internal and external, or what are nowadays called the “northern school” and “southern school”. After Zhang Sanfeng there was Wang Zong of Shaanxi. Wang taught Chen Zhoutong of Wen Prefecture, who during the reign of the Ming emperor Jiajing [1521—1566] passed this art down into two lineages [northern and southern], the art then spreading to eastern Zhejiang. Thus in our town of Beiguo [being in the path of the eastward spread], fighters have always been praised. In the last years of the Ming Dynasty, the Manchu troops marched south, taking prefectures and counties, watching surrender after surrender, the edges of their weapons mowing down all before them. Our town alone, a tiny plot of land, rebelled and resisted, preferring death over bowing down. The casualties in the Manchu army numbered several tens of thousands. But this was actually a release of righteous fury, and not really due to the training of martial artists. Beiguo is a small secluded town in the southeast corner [of Jiangyin], in the vicinity of Qinchuan to the east and Liangxi to the south, surrounded by many bodies of water. Its fields are fertile and its people are simple folk, and many of them are farmers and merchants who spend their spare time obsessed with skillful boxers. When the Taiping army rose up [1850s] and occupied the area south of the Yangzte River, they trampled over everything, both countryside and cities, in murderous savagery. The citizens of Beiguo gathered up every able-bodied man and wrapped his head in white cloth to show he was distinct [from both rebel and Qing soldiers]. Contemporaries dubbed them the “old men” [for thereby looking gray-haired], and they were known as being both the wisest and bravest. Troops were mustered and generals assigned just like in a military camp. In the Battle of Turning-Dragon Bridge, the cunning of the enemy brought death to almost every boxer there. After this event, their bones were collected into a communal burial on the banks beside the bridge. Nowadays, whenever noble-minded people pass by this grave site, they always heave sighs and weep for them, while the descendants of the boxers remain stern in grief, mourning such selflessness with these words: “This shows the greatness of Beiguo’s boxers.” Xu stands out among the boxers of Beiguo, with his Renhe Style southern boxing art. His nature is bold and his body is strong. At the end of the Qing Dynasty [fifteen years before this book], the nation was in political turmoil [“buzzing like cicadas”], foreign aggression increasing by the day. Xu considers boxing arts to be among the purest and most ancient of our traditions, and so he was an early advocate of physical education. Seeing these arts as ideal for building up the body to strengthen the nation, he has been doing his utmost to promote them. In the prime of his life, he went from place to place teaching students. His footprints are everywhere in the northern area south of the Yangzte River. This heroic gentleman hurried about like a busy duckling. Therefore after not even ten years, his students numbered a thousand. Since 1912, he has served as an instructor in the Shanghai East Asian Physical Education School, the Sutai Chinese Physical Education School, the Liangxi “Perfection of Virtue” High School, and as head of martial arts curricula at the Chengjiang Public Physical Education Grounds. In the spring of 1923, he attended the Shanghai National Martial Arts Conference, representing Renhe Style Southern Boxing, where he was deeply admired by his comrades. Again putting forth his learning, he has now written a book, with drawings and explanations, called Fundamentals of Southern Boxing Arts, wishing to spread his studies to his comrades and stimulate the spirit of our citizens. Before sending it to the printers, he asked me to write a piece about boxing arts history. As I am really a layman when it comes to boxing arts, I shamefully gave no answer. But since I have had the good fortune to know this man for many years, I decided to give my leisure time to elaborating on the subject and thus produce this preface.
Author's Preface - 自序 (許太和)
by XU TAIHE of the Chengjiang neighborhood, Mar, 1925 十四年三月澄江許太和識
我國學校體育敎材、向取自國外、近年來始稍有以國技編為敎材者。 考國技一道、原分南北兩派、北人軀幹雄偉、力大勢猛、善于攻、南人身體短小、步履輕便、宜于守、皆各有其特長、未易分軒輊也。 北派拳術如譚腿等、近日訪間多有印行、惟南拳則尚付闕如、予不敏、爰將幼年所習、幷年來在蘇省各校所敎授者、略加編訂、付諸梓人、題曰南拳入門、非敢擅稱著述、聊以供海內同志諸君之參考云耳、
The physical education instructional methods in our nation’s schools were adopted from abroad, but in recent years we have begun to make use of our martial arts to make teaching materials. Our martial arts methods may be divided into two branches: northern and southern. Northerners have an imposing build and great strength. This branch is excellent for attack. Southerners have a smaller stature and step more nimbly. This branch is ideal for defense. Both have their specialties, but they cannot be easily divided into better or worse. Northern boxing arts, such as Tantui, have recently appeared in numerous publications, but southern boxing arts have still been unrepresented. I am not clever, but I have practiced since my youth and have been teaching for the last few years in various schools in Jiangsu. I have compiled a brief volume for publication titled Fundamentals of Southern Boxing Arts. I would not dare to claim this work is definitive, I am simply supplying some reference material for my comrades throughout the nation.
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The secrets of practicing boxing arts - 練習拳術的祕訣
After demonstrating boxing sets, people are often red-faced, panting for air, and dripping with sweat. This is because they do not understand how to regulate their breath during their practice. Regulating the breath is truly indispensable in practicing boxing arts. Otherwise the practice will be a situation of harms instead benefits. The method of regulating the breath is described below:
What is meant by “regulating the breath”? Simply that the breath is to be kept even. For example, with each punch, air should be lightly exhaled, creating some pressure on the sides of the lips, and with each withdrawing of the fist, air should be lightly inhaled through the nose. Exhale a certain amount and then the inhale should be the same amount, neither too much nor too little. If you exhale four ounces, then inhale five or six ounces, inhale will exceed exhale, and after a while you will have a distending abdomen. Or if you exhale five or six ounces, then inhale four ounces, exhale will exceed inhale, and you will end up coughing. Breathing should always be even, for if it is not, the harms will not be minor. To be red-faced, panting, and sweating are little things, but they are signs of greater problems. Also when practicing, you must not use excessive effort or have a competitive mentality. Once you become careless, you will bring about dizzy spells and fatigued limbs, and as you train over a long period, the harm that is generated will be beyond description. Be mindful of these things when practicing boxing arts.
List of Exercises
Basic Stances - 步法基本
Thirteen Basic Hand Techniques - 基本徒手十三節:
Twelve Defensive Techniques - 保守十二法 :
Practical Boxing Techniques - 應用的拳法:
Shoveling - 剷法:
Chiseling - 鑿法:
Spearing - 搶子:
Elbow strikes - 肘法:
Shoulder strikes - 肩尖法:
Hand strikes - 手法:
Hip strikes - 臀法:
Knees strikes - 膝法:
Kicks - 腿法:
Special Tricks - 特殊運動:
Fundamentals of Southern Boxing Arts - 南術入門
Basic Stances - ※基本步法
[From Loyal Observations on Government, part 1, chapter 1:] “To seek a tree that will live long, you have to consider the strength of its roots. To find a stream that will flow far, you have to consider the depth of its source.” Anyone can see these are platitudes, but they cannot be disregarded. We who study boxing arts have to consider all famous maxims. Practicing boxing arts is not a child’s game, and so if you are serious about the training, you must build from the basics, and then whether you are training in southern or northern styles, be it saber, spear, sword, or halberd, you will be able to see results. The six kinds of stances below [not including standing at attention], followed by the hand techniques, are basic exercises. If you want to learn boxing arts, please grab a partner and start practicing.
1. STANDING AT ATTENTION - 一）立正式
Your body stands straight, your hands hanging down, chest sticking out, chin pulled in, legs expressing strength, toes and heels next to each other.
2. FOUR-LEVEL STANCE - （二）四平式
從立正式起 From standing at attention, （一）兩足尖向外轉、 i. your toes turn outward, （二）兩足跟向外轉、約離一尺二寸許、 ii. your heels turn outward to be about a foot and a quarter apart, （三）向下蹲、仝時兩手前平閤掌、指尖觸顎、如下圖、 iii. squat down, your hands at the same time going forward as level joined palms, fingertips touching your chin.
3. SHIVERING-CHICKEN STANCE - （三）寒鷄式
從四平式起 From four-level stance, （一）向左〔右〕轉、全身力量在右〔左〕足上、左〔右〕足略屈、足尖用力踏緊、 i. turn to the right, the weight of your whole body going onto your left foot, your right leg slightly bending, the toes touching down pulled back. （二）還原成四平式、 ii. Return to four-level stance. （三）向右〔左〕轉、成寒鷄式、 iii. Turn to the left and make the shivering-chicken stance on the other side. （四）還原四平式、如下圖、 iv. Return again to four-level stance. See the drawing [showing the position in movement 3]:
4. TWISTING-SILK STANCE - （四）絞絲式
從寒鷄式起 From shivering-chicken stance, （一）兩足再向左〔右〕轉、地位不動、 i. Both feet turn to the right while staying in the same place. （二）還原、成寒鷄式、 ii. Return to shivering-chicken stance. （三）向右〔左〕反對為之、 iii. Turn to the left to perform the position on the other side. （四）還原、成寒鷄式、如下圖 iv. Return again to shivering-chicken stance.
5. BOW & ARROW STANCE - （五）弓箭式
從寒鷄式起 約放大五六寸、前足挺直、全身力量在後足、如下圖、 From shivering-chicken stance, increase the size of your step by about half a foot, your front leg straightening, the weight of your whole body still on your rear foot.
6. LONG-THREE STANCE - （六）長三式
從弓箭式起 左足前屈、右足在後挺直、上體挺胸縮頦、如下圖、 From bow & arrow stance, your left leg bends in front, your right leg straightening behind, your chest sticking out, your chin pulling in.
7. T-SHAPED STANCE - （七）丁字式
從長三式起 左足收進點地、全身重量在右足上、距離約五六寸、如下圖、 From long-three stance, your left foot withdraws and goes forward to touch the ground, the weight of your whole body sitting onto your right foot, your feet about half a foot apart.
Thirteen Basic Hand Techniques - ※基本徒手十三節
我們處在這二十世紀；生存競爭劇烈時代，萬百事業，不可不有異常的努力和奮鬥，纔能得凑成功•換句話說，卽是你無論為工，為商，為農，為士須得把你的職業，去刻刻改造和建設，方才得有你的生存立脚點•但是要應你這「適者生存」的一條公例•―精神的充足，和身體的健康，却是你應付戰鬥時的•維一要素和工具• 這樣講來，我們在做百事之先，須得問一問：「你的體格好不好」這分明是很要緊的了•在要講到身體好不好的問題，那就不得不歸談到運動方面去了• 運動足以强健我們身體，舒暢我們精神，這是誰都知道的•而運動中，最足以强固我們體魄的•那末要算是拳術了•不過拳術這項運動•說起來，正和藥石一個樣子•他能夠醫人，也能夠害人，如果用了得當，就於身體有莫大的利益，用了不得當，那末適足以損害我們的生命•江湖人的賣技，伶人的敎徒弟•他們就是這樣•―不管敎法的如何•―合於生理與否，―專用强功和盲動，弄到結果十死八九•實是可歎了！ 所以拳術一項，總得有名師敎授纔是•―接着人體生理上的發達，選配適宜的敎材，學習初步，先從基本，基本練好，再習他種，就不難連貫而見效果了•諸位要練習拳術嗎？下面十三節，就是基本的功夫，每天早晨照例操練幾下子，不難指日見效•―現在把他寫在下面：有不當處，尚祈海內專家指敎•
We are now in the 20th century, an era of intense struggle for existence, of limitless undertakings, and we have to put forth unusual effort and striving in order to succeed. In other words, no matter whether you are a laborer, merchant, farmer, or scholar, you have to constantly adapt and recreate your profession in order to have a foothold on survival. You have to face up to the general rule of “survival of the fittest”. To that end, an abundance of spirit and the health of the body have to be constantly fought for. They are essential tools. To discuss this, the first of all things we have to do is ask: “Is your physique good or is it not?” This distinction is very important. And to discuss the question of health, we then have to talk about exercise. Exercise is capable of strengthening our bodies and easing our spirits. This is something everyone knows. But exercise does more than this. Consider that although boxing arts are a form of exercise, they actually have a medicinal quality. And yet while the training can heal people, it can also harm. If we train appropriately, then the body will receive the greatest benefit, but if we train inappropriately, we will injure ourselves. Itinerant professionals, disciples of street performers, train in this way. Regardless of the teaching method, or whether or not it conforms to physiological principles, they rashly force themselves, and eight out of ten end up dead – truly a pity. Therefore to learn boxing arts, always obtain instruction from a noteworthy teacher. The physiological development of the human body has to be paired with suitable teaching material. In the beginning of the training, start from basics, and once you are good at the basics, then practice the rest. It will then not be difficult to see consistent results. Can everyone practice boxing arts? The thirteen exercises below are basic skills. Practice them every morning and you will see results in a matter of days. (If any errors are found in what I have written below, I hope the nation’s experts will give me corrections.)
1. DOUBLE SPREADING PALMS - 第一節 雙分掌
部位：立正式身體直立、兩肘抱腰、足尖靠攏、 Starting position: standing at attention, your body standing straight, your elbows wrapping your waist, your toes standing together （一）兩手向左右分掌、 i. Your hands spread apart to the sides. （二）還原、 ii. Return to the original position. （十六動） (Do this sixteen times.)
2. ALTERNATING SINGLE PUNCHES - 第二節 輪流單拳
部位：立正式 Starting position: standing at attention （一）左手向左打出、右手保胸成前平屈、 i. Your left hand strikes out to the left, your right arm bending across in front of you to guard your chest. （二）右手向右打出、左手保胸、成前平屈、 ii. Your right hand strikes out to the right, your left arm bending across in front of you to guard your chest. （十六動） (Do this sixteen times.)
3. DOUBLE SPEARING FISTS - 第三節 雙鎗拳
部位：立正式 兩肘抱腰 Starting position: standing at attention, elbows wrapping your waist （一）兩手向左右出拳、 i. Your hands punch out to the sides. （二）（還原、） ii. Return to the original position. （十六動） (Do this sixteen times.)
4. SPLITTING & DROPPING - 第四節 豁倒
部位：立正式 兩手下垂 Starting position: standing at attention, hands hanging down （一）兩手自前上向耳旁豁、 i. Your hands go forward and upward, splitting until beside your ears. （二）用腕力向臀後倒、 ii. Putting strength into your wrists, they drop to go behind your buttocks. （十六動） (Do this sixteen times.)
5. DANCING KICKS [as in Russian dancing] - 第五節 蹁腿
部位：四平式 兩肘抱腰 Starting position: four-level stance, elbows wrapping your waist （一）左手向左舉、 i. Your left hand raises to the left. （二）右手向左舉、 ii. Your right hand raises to the left [right]. （三）左足蹁腿踢在左手掌上、 iii. Your left foot does a dancing kick up to your left palm. （四）右足蹁腿、踢在右手掌上、 iv. Your right foot does a dancing kick up to your right palm.
6. DOUBLE PALM STRIKES - 第六節 雙掌手
部位：張三式 兩肘抱腰 Starting position: long-three stance, elbows wrapping your waist （一）兩手向前掌、左足在前、 i. Your hands go forward as palm strikes, your left foot forward. （二）還原、向後右、轉足在前、 ii. Return to the original position and turn to the right rear so your right foot is forward. （三）兩手向前掌、 iii. Your hands go forward as palm strikes. （四）反復行之、 iv. Continue on the other side. （十六動） (Do this sixteen times.)
7. SINGLE FOLDING FIST - 第七節 單折拳
部位：張三式 雙拳抱腰 Starting position: long-three stance, your fists wrapped to your waist （一）左足前箭步、左手向前一拳、 i. Your left leg makes a forward arrow stance, your left hand punching forward. （二）右向後轉、右足前箭步、左手還原、右手向前一拳、 ii. Turn to the right rear, your right leg making a forward arrow stance, your left hand pulling back, right hand punching forward. （十六動） (Do this sixteen times.)
8. DOUBLE FOLDING FISTS, DOUBLE SPEARING FISTS - 第八節 雙折雙鎗拳
部位：立正式 Starting position: standing at attention （一）左足前箭步、同時雙手前後拳、 i. Your left foot makes a forward arrow stance, your hands punching forward and back. （二）雙手抱腰、還原足不動、 ii. Your hands wrap to your waist, returning you to the original position, but with your feet staying where they are. （三）右足向前箭步、同時雙手前後拳、 iii. Your right foot makes a forward arrow stance, your hands punching forward and back… （四）至（八）照上行之、同時右向後轉、（十六動） iv. Do this eight times, then turn around to the right rear (and continue for a total of sixteen times).
9. COILING-SILK KICK - 第九節 絞絲腿
部位：寒鷄式 兩肘抱腰 Starting position: shivering-chicken stance, elbows wrapping your waist （一）右足提起、向前撓圈踢出、 i. Your right foot lifts forward, coils a circle and kicks out. （二）還原、右足在前、 ii. Return to the original position with your right foot forward. （三）左足提起、向前撓圈踢出、 iii. Your left foot lifts forward, coils a circle and kicks out… （四）反對行之、 iv. Continue on the other side. （十六動） (Do this sixteen times.)
10. SEND FORWARD A PUNCH & A KICK - 第十節 向前一腿一拳
部位：寒鷄式 左足在前、兩肘抱腰、 Starting position: shivering-chicken stance, left foot forward, elbows wrapping your waist （一）左手向前一拳、 i. Your left hand goes forward with a punch, （二）左手還原、 ii. then returns to its original position, （三）右足向前一腿、 iii. and your right foot goes forward with a kick. （四）右手向前一拳、 iv. Your right hand goes forward with punch… （五）反復行之、 v. Continue on the other side. （十六動） (Do this sixteen times.)
11. LEFT & RIGHT PUNCHING FORWARD - 第十一節 向前左右拳
部位：立正 兩肘抱腰 Starting position: standing at attention, elbows wrapping your waist （一）左足前出、同時左手向前一拳、 i. Your left foot steps forward, your left hand punching forward. （二）右足上步、同時右手向前一拳、 ii. Your right foot steps forward, your right hand punching forward. （三）至（八）照上行之、同時右向後轉還原〔同時右向後轉〕、（十六動） iii. Do this eight times, then turn around to the right rear (and continue for a total of sixteen times).
12. FORWARD TYING - 第十二節 向前紥
部位：寒鷄式 兩肘抱腰 Starting position: shivering-chicken stance, elbows wrapping your waist （一）左足前出、同時左手前紥、 i. With your left foot stepping forward, your left hand goes forward, tying up. （二）右足上步、同時右手前紥、 ii. With your right foot stepping forward, your right hand goes forward, tying up. （三）至（八）照上行之、同時右向後轉、（十六動） iii. Do this eight times, then turn around to the right rear (and continue for a total of sixteen times).
13. SPLITTING UPWARD - 第十三節 向上豁
部位：寒鷄式 左足在前 Starting position: shivering-chicken stance, left foot forward （一）右足向後退、左手向上豁、 i. Your right foot steps back as your left hand splits upward. （二）左足向後退、右手向上豁、 ii. Your left foot steps back as your right hand splits upward. （三）至（八）照上行之、同時右向後轉、（十六動） iii. Do this eight times, then turn around to the right rear (and continue for a total of sixteen times).
14. BREATHING - 第十四節 呼吸
部位：兩足開立 Starting position: standing with feet apart （一）上體向後彎、兩手握拳拍胸、盡量吸、 i. With your upper body bending back, your hands grasp into fists and hit your chest as you inhale fully. （二）上體向前彎、兩手拍背上、盡量呼、 ii. Your upper body bends forward, your hands hitting your upper back as you exhale fully. （三）反復行之、（十六動） iii. Repeat this over and over (for a total of sixteen times).
Twelve Defensive Techniques - 〔保守十二法〕
Origin of the Twelve Techniques - ※十二法的由來
The twelve techniques listed below are from the seventh-generation master Renhe of the Shaolin Temple at Mt. Song. Originally there were eighteen techniques, but in the course of passing them down over generations, only twelve now remain. These twelve are called: ARRESTING, TYING UP, SPLITTING, BRINGING ALONG, JUMPING AWAY, CAPTURING, FANNING, CHOPPING, HIDING, DUCKING, FLASHING PALM and BURNING. If we want to learn boxing arts, we definitely should work on fundamentals, making our bodies lively, our hands and feet nimble. Then if we find ourselves in an unexpected situation, we will not stiffen up like wooden chickens to have suffering inflicted upon us by others.
 ARRESTING - 抅：
From in front of me, I forcefully send forward with an “arresting” action.
 TYING UP - 紥：
Going from arresting in front of me, I then send to the side. This is called “tying up”.
 SPLITTING - 豁：
From both hands hanging down, I put strength into my wrists and raise them up, going forward and upward, bending my arms to send my palms behind my ears. This is called “splitting”.
 BRINGING ALONG - 帶：
When I am in a moment of stumbling away, I use one hand to firmly grasp onto the opponent’s fist. This is called “bringing along”.
 JUMPING AWAY - 騰：
When a spear thrusts or a saber chops, direct blocking in such a moment is not an option and all I have is a fierce retreat. This is called “jumping away”.
 CAPTURING - 擄：
If an opponent punches toward me, I use both palms to capture his arm and force it to the left [or right]. His body will not be able to keep its structure and he will stumble away. This is called “capturing”.
 FANNING - 搧：
When a fist strikes and a foot kicks at the same time, I cannot defend against both, so I drape across to one side to keep from getting hit. This is called “fanning”.
 CHOPPING - 劈：
Deliberately using the edge of a palm, I slash downward in front of me from above. This is called “chopping”.
 HIDING - 躱：
If several opponents are punching and kicking at me all at once, it is always too late to block anything, so I grab onto one guy and hide myself behind him. This is called “hiding”.
 DUCKING - 避：
This is almost the same as fanning. Keeping my mind nimble and my lively body, when it is too late to do anything, I fan away downward. This is called “ducking”.
 FLASHING PALM -閃：
If an opponent punches toward me, I fan away to one side while slapping the side of his shoulder with my front hand, destabilizing his stance and sending him stumbling away. This is called “flashing palm”.
 BURNING - 著：
If I am alone and attacked by a crowd of opponents, I am hopelessly outnumbered and have no choice but to run away. This is called “burning”.
Practical Boxing Techniques - 〔應用的拳法〕
Some Fist Essentials - 用拳指要
When you make a fist with the center of the hand facing downward, back of the hand facing upward, it is an “active punch”. It is good to strike with, easy to withdraw, and also easy to curve into blocking the opponent. The opposite is a “passive punch”. It is too risky, and so we should not use it. When punching out, if strength is put into shoulder, elbow, and wrist equally, it is a “barbarian punch”. It is withdrawn too slowly and brings injury to your organs, harmful rather than helpful. Thus we should only use the “active punch” and avoid these problems.
SINGLE STRAIGHT PUNCH - 單直拳
When striking out with a punch, I put strength into the wrist, using either foot forward, either hand forward. (To defeat this technique, use CARRYING-FROM-BELOW HANDS.)
DOUBLE STRAIGHT PUNCHES - 雙直拳
When striking with double punches, I put equal strength into both of them, whether punching forward or back. (To defeat this technique, use POKING HANDS or TYING HANDS.)
HOISTING-FROM-BELOW PUNCH - 下超拳
I put strength into my wrist (the center of the hand facing upward), the hand hoisting upward to the opponent’s chin or belly, whether my left or right hand. (To defeat this technique, use DOWNWARD CHOPPING HAND.)
DOWNWARD-FACING BULLET PUNCH - 下彈拳 用一手、向上彈起、彈在敵人的顎上、（手心向下）破法—用單挑拳破之、 I shoot a hand upward to an opponent’s chin (with the center of the hand facing downward). (To defeat this technique, use SINGLE CARRYING FIST.)
SKYPIERCING PUNCH - 冲天拳
An opponent grabs me and presses down to take me to the ground, so I send a hand punching upward toward his chin. He will then stumble away.
“THROWING DOWN A GOLD BRICK” PUNCH - 落地金磚拳
An opponent with a large body is harder to escape from, so using a fist to strike downward to the top of his foot will have the best effect. (To defeat this technique, use UPRIGHT ELBOW.)
PIERCING-BODY PUNCH - 穿身拳
When an opponent backs off, I catch him while he is unprepared by putting my left hand on his head and sending out my right hand with a punch to his left armpit.
SPREADING OPEN TO MAKE A “SINGLE LINE” PUNCH - 分開一字拳
If opponents attack from the left and right, I use both hands to strike out to their chests, which can cause them both to stumble away to the sides.
FRONT & BACK DOUBLE FOLDING FISTS, DOUBLE SPREADING FISTS - 前後雙折雙分拳
Opponents attack from my left and right, so I use both hands to perform FRONT & BACK DOUBLE FOLDING FISTS, DOUBLE SPREADING FISTS to defeat them.
DOUBLE SIDEWAYS PUNCHES - 雙邊拳
There are opponents to my sides, so I send both fists striking out to the left and right (punching out from my chest, the centers of the hands facing downward), causing them to stumble back. (To defeat this technique, use WHITE CRANE TURNS OVER.)
SINGLE CARRYING FIST - 單挑拳
An opponent holding a heavy weapon strikes downward to the upper or middle area of my body, and so I send a CARRYING FIST toward his weapon, putting strength into the wrist, thereby defeating his attack.
DOUBLE CARRYING FISTS - 雙挑拳
An opponent uses a hand to poke to my throat, so I use DOUBLE CARRYING FISTS to destroy his technique. Then I twine around his hand and fold downward, making him kneel down.
TURNING-DRAGON PUNCH - 囘龍拳
If opponents from in front and behind strike downward to my head or chest, I then use my right hand to send a punch to the rear opponent while using my left arm to send a GORING ELBOW to the front opponent, destroying their attacks.
DOUBLE HAND “BARRACKS GATE” PUNCH - 雙手營門勢拳
If an opponent uses both hands to strike to my head and belly, I then use my right hand to block upward and my left hand to block downward, destroying his attacks.
SINGLE HIDING HAND, FOLDING FIST - 單躱折拳
An opponent punches to my left or right armpit, so I use a FOLDING-FIST ELBOW to trap his hand, then I turn to the left or right, causing him to stumble away.
SINGLE CRAB-SHELL PUNCH - 單蟹殼拳
An opponent sweeps to my leg, so I use either hand to do a CRAB-SHELL PUNCH to his head (with the center of the hand facing upward), and the pain he receives makes him pass out at once.
DOUBLE CRAB-SHELL PUNCHES - 雙蟹殼拳
An opponent attacks with a poke to my bladder, so I use DOUBLE CRAB-SHELL PUNCHES to strike to his head or back to defeat it.
DOUBLE SPREADING CRAB-SHELL PUNCHES - 蟹殼雙分拳
Opponents surrounding me strike chaotically at my body, so I use DOUBLE SPREADING CRAB-SHELL PUNCHES to strike to their faces, and the pain they receive will cause them to flee.
SINGLE-BARRELED PUNCH & DOUBLE-BARRELED PUNCHES - 雙管和單管拳
Single or double, they are almost the same, but DOUBLE-BARRELED PUNCHES strike to both of an opponent’s ears, whereas the SINGLE-BARRELED PUNCH strikes to only one ear.
“OLD MAN PUSHES THE MOUNTAIN” PUNCH - 老君推山拳
敵人前立、乘其不備、我用兩拳向他胸前推出、他就要向後跌倒、破法―用雙挑拳破之、 When an opponent stands in front of me, I take advantage of a moment he is unprepared by using both fists to push out to his chest, causing him to stumble back. (To defeat this technique, use DOUBLE CARRYING FISTS.)
LOW THRUST PUNCH - 下沖拳
An opponent tries to grab my leg to pull it out from under me, so I punch my right hand downward to strike to the back of his hand, rendering his hand incapable of grabbing.
FOUR-LEVEL PUNCH - 四平拳
If an opponent sends a POKING HAND toward my waist, I send a punch to his shoulder, causing him to stumble away.
STRAIGHT FLAT SHOVEL - 直扁剷
“Flat shovel” means to strike to an opponent’s head (with the center of the hand facing downward). (To defeat this technique, use UPWARD BLOCKING HAND.)
SINGLE CHISEL TO EYEBROW - 單鑿眉
“Single chiseling” means to use a slightly bent double finger (the center of the hand facing downward) to chisel toward an opponent’s chest or head. (To defeat this technique, use SINGLE SPLITTING HAND.)
單槍子（又叫雙龍入海） SINGLE SPEAR (also called DOUBLE DRAGONS ENTER THE SEA)
An opponent strikes at me, so I use a double finger to chisel toward his eyes. (To defeat this technique, use UPWARD BLOCKING HAND.)
DOUBLE SPEARS - 雙槍子
If I am attacked by opponents from in front and behind, I use “double spears” to chisel them away, one hand chiseling toward an opponent’s head, the other hand chiseling toward the other opponent’s abdomen. (I put strength into my fingertips, making two-fingered pointers.)
GORING ELBOW - 丁肘
An opponent from the side comes to attack me, so I use an arm to strike to his chest or armpit. (To defeat this technique, use SINGLE CRAB-SHELL PUNCH.)
CARRYING-GORING ELBOWS - 挑丁肘
Opponent’s to my left and right come to strike me, so I use CARRYING-GORING ELBOWS to strike to their waists, using both arms to carry upward from below. (To defeat this, use the FLAT SHOVEL technique.)
DOWNWARD THRUSTING ELBOW - 下冲肘
If an opponent attacks the top of my foot, I make a fist with one hand and thrust downward onto his back (using the elbow).
SUBDUING ELBOW - 剋肘
An opponent attacks me with a shoulder, so I use SUBDUING ELBOW to restrain his shoulder, causing him to stumble away. (To defeat this technique, use REAR PRESSING SHOULDER.)
FOLDING-FIST ELBOW - 折拳肘
An opponent punches to my armpit, or pulls on my shirt, so I fold an elbow downward to trap his hand, then move forward and back almost simultaneously, causing him to stumble away.
UPRIGHT ELBOW - 豎肘
An opponent uses a hip to crash into my belly, so I use UPRIGHT ELBOW to thrust to his back (bringing my elbow forcefully down from above).
DOUBLE UPRIGHT ELBOWS - 雙豎肘
An opponent uses REAR PRESSING SHOULDER to crash into me, so I use DOUBLE UPRIGHT ELBOWS to thrust to his back, causing him to stumble away.
RIGHT SHOULDER STRIKE - 右肩尖
An opponent uses a SHOULDER STRIKE to crash against my chest or upper back, so I perform the fanning action [which also contains a shoulder strike], sending him stumbling away.
HEAD ELBOWS (for dealing with headbutting) - 頭肘（卽頭）
An opponent uses his head to smash to my chest or back, so I use my hands to do a slicing action onto his head, causing him to kneel down.
BUDDHIST CRASHING-ELBOWS (for butting [with the elbows]) - 佛頂肘（卽頭）
An opponent grabs my head to subdue me, so I send BUDDHIST CRASHING-ELBOWS upward to crash into his body, causing him to stumble back.
STRAIGHT PALM STRIKE - 直掌
An opponent runs forward to attack me, so I send a palm strike to his shoulder, causing him to stumble back. (To defeat this technique, use UPRIGHT ELBOW.)
DOUBLE PALM STRIKE - 雙掌手
If an opponent uses both hands to do a palm attack to my shoulder, I use DOUBLE SPLITTING HANDS to destroy his attack.
SINGLE POKING HAND - 單插手
This is when I send a hand (fingers extended straight) to poke to an opponent’s armpit (the hand going upward form below). (To defeat this technique, use FOLDING FIST.)
THREAD-THROUGH POKING HAND - 穿插手
An opponent strikes to the top of my head [with his left hand], so I use my left hand to knock it away upward and my right hand to poke out to his left armpit (or chest).
DOWNWARD POKING HAND - 下插手
An opponent chisels to my eyes, so I use my left hand to knock it away upward and my right hand to poke to his abdomen, causing him to jump back.
SINGLE UPWARD CHOPPING HAND - 單上劈手
An opponent strikes toward my ear, so I use my right hand to chop out toward the left, chopping away his hand, giving him no place for his strike to land.
DOUBLE UPWARD CHOPPING HANDS - 雙上劈手
An opponent holding a staff comes forward to strike to the top of my head, so my feet shift a step to the rear while my hands go upward with a chopping action, chopping away his staff, giving him no place for his strike to land.
LEADING-FROM-BELOW HAND - 下帶手
An opponent punches to my body at a moment when I am stumbling back, so I use a hand to grab his fist, keeping me from falling.
UPWARD PROPPING HANDS - 上架手
An opponent uses a hand to chop to the top of my head, so I use both hands to block upward while kicking [with my front foot] to his belly, causing him to stumble away.
SINGLE CIRCLING HAND - 單圈手
An opponent strikes to the top of my head, so I use my left hand to prop upward (as a SINGLE CIRCLING HAND), then use my right hand to punch [forward] to his chest, causing him to stumble away.
DOUBLE CIRCLING HANDS - 雙圈手
An opponent tries to twist my head to press me down, so I use DOUBLE CIRCLING HANDS to wrap around his throat, causing him to release his hands.
“BARRACKS GATE” POSTURE - 營門勢手
An opponent chops down to the top of my head with his left hand and punches to my chest with his right hand, so I use my left hand to block upward and my right hand to split to the right, then use a foot to kick to his belly.
和合手（手心相對） CLOSING HANDS (palms facing each other)
An opponent punches to my chest, so I use CLOSING HANDS to close around his hand and then fold upward, causing him to stumble away.
雙分手（手心左右向外） DOUBLE SPREADING HANDS (palms facing outward to the left and right)
Two opponents press together at the base of my skull, so I send DOUBLE SPREADING HANDS out to their armpits, rendering them unable to press on me.
DOWNWARD OVERTURNING HANDS (LIFTING THE BELL to the rear) - 下倒手（後提領）
An opponent kicks to my belly, or thrusts with a spear to my leg, so I put strength into my wrists and split from above to the rear to defeat it.
SINGLE HIDING HAND - 單躱手
An opponent uses a saber to thrust to my belly, so I use SINGLE HIDING HAND to defeat it (without rotating the hand).
SINGLE ARRESTING HAND - 單抅手
An opponent punches to my chest, so I use arresting or perhaps tying up to defeat it.
SINGLE TYING HAND - 單紥手
An opponent pokes to my chest, so I use arresting or perhaps a blocking hand to defeat it.
TYING HANDS - 捆手
An opponent strikes to my nose (using a FLAT SHOVEL technique), so I use my right hand to grab his hand and my left hand to prop up his elbow, then fold to the rear, causing him to stumble.
SINGLE FLASHING HAND - 單閃手
An opponent chisels to my eyes, so I use my left hand to seize his hand, then I use my right hand to do a flashing palm to his shoulder, causing him to stumble away to the side.
DOUBLE CAPTURING HANDS - 雙擄手
An opponent tries to jam my throat, so I use DOUBLE CAPTURING HANDS to capture his hand, then I seal him off to the right, causing him to kneel down.
CHEST-PROTECTING HAND - 保胸手
An opponent chisels to my chest with a double finger, so I use an UPWARD BLOCKING HAND to defeat it.
UPWARD JAMMING HAND - 上叉手
An opponent strikes to my head, so I use my left hand to split it away, then send out my right hand to jam his throat, causing him to stumble back.
CALDRON-PROPPING HAND (palm facing upward) - 托鼎手（手心向上）
An opponent attacks me with a palm strike, causing me to back off, so I send out a hand to scoop up his fist and prop it to the rear, causing him to stumble away.
DOUBLE CALDRON-PROPPING HANDS - 雙托鼎手
An opponent uses his head to smash to my belly, so I use my right hand to control his neck and my left hand to control his arm, then prop upward, causing him to be thrown away.
SINGLE LIFTING THE BELL and DOUBLE LIFTING THE BELL - 單提鈴手和雙提領
These two techniques are easier to apply than to describe. Their function is the same as for DOWNWARD BULLET PUNCH.
SINGLE ELBOW-PROPPING HAND - 單托肘手
An opponent strikes to my head, so I use my left hand, or right, to prop up his elbow, causing his strike to be unable to reach me.
DOUBLE ELBOW-PROPPING HANDS - 雙托肘手
Opponents to my left and right attack my head, so I use both hands to prop up their elbows, making them want to sit down.
DOWNWARD SINGLE JAMMING HAND - 下單叉手
An opponent uses a forearm to smash to my belly, so I use a hand to grab his neck and rush forward, causing him to be pressed down.
DOWNWARD DOUBLE JAMMING HANDS - 下雙叉手
An opponent tries to kick me with a REAR-BRACING LEG, so I use my right hand to grab his leg and my left hand to grab his neck, then forcefully shoot forward, causing him to fall down.
ORIOLE-SCOOPING HAND - 黃鷹揸手
An opponent tries to scoop to my face, so I use my right hand to scoop to his genitals, causing him to release his hand.
LEADING-FROM-ABOVE HAND - 上帶手
An opponent sends a palm strike toward me, making me want to stumble away, so I use a hand to scoop up his hand, then twist it and draw it to the rear, causing him to stumble.
BOW-PULLING HANDS - 拉弓手
Opponents scoop up my shoulders, so I send my left hand forward, scooping to the chest of the one [on the left], while my right hand scoops forward to the chin of the one to my right side, causing them to kneel down.
SINGLE CARRYING HAND - 單挑手
An opponent kicks to my shoulder, so I use my left hand to do a carrying action to the top of his foot, causing him to stumble back.
DOUBLE CARRYING HANDS - 雙挑手
An opponent pokes to my waist, so I use my hands to scoop his wrist, then fold to the rear, causing him to stumble away.
DOUBLE SPLITTING HANDS - 雙豁手
An opponent strikes to my ears, so I use DOUBLE SPLITTING HANDS to defeat it, my hands splitting away on the left and right, then I send a palm strike arcing toward his chest, causing him to stumble away.
DOUBLE BRUSHING HANDS - 雙捎手
Opponents bearhug me from the left and right, so I use DOUBLE BRUSHING HANDS to press against their throats, causing them to stumble away.
SINGLE BLOCKING HAND - 單撓手
An opponent strikes to my left ear, so I use my left hand to block upward, which can defeat his attack. I will then punch with my right hand, causing him to stumble away.
SNAKE-BITE HANDS - 蛇點手
Two opponents grab my neck, so I use SNAKE-BITE HANDS to poke to their chests (using double fingers) to defeat them.
BELL-RINGING HANDS - 搖鈴手
An opponent comes forward to attack my nose, so I use BELL-RINGING HANDS to twine around his fist, then pull toward the left, causing him to stumble back.
DOUBLE PRESSING HANDS - 雙壓手
Two opponents attack my waist from the left and right, so I use both hands to press on their backs, causing them to kneel down.
HOISTING-FROM-BELOW HAND - 下超手
An opponent attacks toward my leg, so I use a hand to hoist up his leg, causing him to stumble back.
GROUND-SLICING HAND - 切地手
An opponent uses a staff to tap to my leg, so I use my left hand to slice downward as my right hand protecting my chest knocks away his staff, defeating his attack.
BOW-PUSHING HAND - 推弓手
There are two opponents. One is using his shoulder to crash toward my chest, and so I use my left hand to do a palm strike to his shoulder. The other is using his hip to crash toward the back of my legs, and for him I use my right hand to chop to the rear. This can destroy their attacks.
REFLECTING-MIRROR HAND - 照鏡手
An opponent uses CHISEL TO EYEBROW to chisel toward my eyes, so I block upward with my left hand to defeat it, then punch at him with my right hand, causing him to stumble away.
DOUBLE SHOOTING HANDS - 雙發手
An opponent does a palm strike to my face, so I shoot both hands upward to his elbow, causing him to stumble back.
INVITING HAND - 請手
An opponent wraps me in a bearhug, so I use INVITING HAND to send a palm strike to his face, causing him to stumble back.
HOMAGE-PAYING HANDS - 南無手
An opponent uses his head to press my chin, so I use HOMAGE-PAYING HANDS to poke toward his chest, causing him to stumble back.
CARRYING-FORWARD HANDS - 挑當手
An opponent uses both hands to poke to my body, so I use both hands to scoop his hands and then fold forward while using my right foot to kick to his chest, causing him to stumble back.
TWISTED-HEAD HANDS - 盤頭手
An opponent behind me comes to twist my head, so I use my left hand to chop behind, but an opponent to my right comes in to grab my neck, so I use my right hand to chop upward to his throat, and both of them are thus rendered incapable of twisting me.
SIDEWAYS SEIZING HANDS - 方揢手
An opponent strikes to my chest, so I use both hands to seize his fist, rendering him incapable of reaching me.
WHITE CRANE HIDES - 白鶴朵
An opponent to my right comes to strike my shoulder, so I use send right hand to brace against his shoulder. An opponent to my left kicks to my chest, so I perform LIFTING THE BELL with a hand chopping to the rear, chopping onto his leg. This can defeat their attacks.
WRIST-SNOWFALL HAND - 腕雪手
An opponent punches to my chest (with the center of the hand facing upward), so I use my right hand to scoop up his fist. He uses WRIST-SNOWFALL HAND to prevent this, grabbing me with his hand turning over (so the center of his hand is facing downward), then I use my left hand to chop out forward while taking away my scooping hand.
CUFFING HANDS - 鎖手
An opponent punches at me and it is too late for me to resist it, so I use both hands to lock around his fist (or if he uses two fists, I squeeze them together so they are like one), and in that way his strike cannot reach my body.
DANCING DRAGON ENTERS THE CAVE - 五龍進洞手
An opponent tries to sweep my leg, so I send both hands to scoop his ears, preventing his sweep from connecting with my leg. (To defeat this technique, use UPWARD SPLITTING HANDS.)
SIDE-ANGLE HAND - 側角手
敵人向我腰部一插手、我用側角手破部、再用左手、打他膀胱、右手打他頭部、那末就可破之、 An opponent sends a POKING HAND to my waist, so I use a SIDE-ANGLE HAND to defeat it, and then I use my left hand to strike to his bladder while using my right hand to strike to his head so there is no way for him to defend.
SCISSOR-FLOGGING HANDS - 剪拷手
An opponent chisels toward my face, so I use SCISSOR-FLOGGING HANDS, scissoring around his wrist (meaning that I twine my hands around his wrist), then fold to the rear, causing him to stumble away.
PEEL-FLOGGING HANDS - 脫拷手
An opponent scoops up my knee, so I send PEEL-FLOGGING HANDS toward his hands (meaning that I forcefully send my hands flogging downward toward the top of my leg), causing him to let go.
TYRANT DEMANDS WINE - 霸王請酒手
An opponent says some insulting words to me, so I use the hand technique of TYRANT DEMANDS WINE to literally shut him up, putting my right hand on his chin and hoisting upward, causing him to stumble back.
REAR POKING FLOWER-HANDS - 後插花手
An opponent from behind grabs me in a bearhug, so I use REAR POKING FLOWER- HANDS to scoop his genitals. The pain he receives can induce him to let go.
HIP STRIKE - 臀
As I get away, he tries to grab me in another bearhug, so I smash my buttocks against him so that he is unable to grab around me.
THRUSTING KNEE - 刺膝
An opponent comes forward to do a bearhug, so I thrust my knee into his belly, the pain he receives inducing him to let go.
CLOSING KNEES, SPREADING KNEES - 合膝分膝
An opponent kicks to my “urination tool”, and so my hands go inward to hold onto my “precious thing” and are afraid to let go, leaving me able to only close my knees together around his foot. He then tries to scoop [with a hand] to my head, so I smash my head against his face [letting go with my knees in order to do this], his attack destroyed by the pain he receives.
SHOVELING KICK and COILING SILK KICK - 剷腿和繞絲腿
An opponent kicks at me using a SHOVELING KICK or a COILING SILK KICK, so I use a hand to chisel at the top of his foot, which can destroy his technique.
FORWARD OR BACK SEIZING LEG - 前後略腿
With my hands holding onto something I am unwilling to let go of as an opponent comes forward to attack me, it is only convenient for me to send out a foot (going forward or back) onto his foot, so that if he approaches, he will stumble.
SINGLE CROWDING LEG - 單靠腿
An opponent uses a knee to thrust to my body, so I use SINGLE CROWDING LEG to crowd against his knee, causing him to stumble away.
REAR BRACING KICK - 後撑腿
An opponent strikes to my back, so I use a foot to do a bracing kick behind me, kicking to his genitals, causing him to guard himself as if his life depends on it.
DRAPING KICK - 披腿
An opponent attacks directly in front of me, using his left hand to strike to my head, so I use my right foot to do a draping kick to his back, causing him to stumble away.
SPECIAL TRICKS - 〔特殊運動〕
The rest of the exercises are all special tricks, their movements and methods described below:
SWEEPING THE GROUND - 地掃
Opponents try to grab me from all around and I want to escape, so I squat down to perform SWEEPING THE GROUND, placing my hands on the ground, my right foot spinning in a circle on the ground (my upper body maintaining its position), sweeping aside an opponent’s leg, then sweeping the rest of them, causing them to stumble. I take advantage of this moment to run away.
COMPLETE TURN - 全轉
This is almost the same as SWEEPING THE GROUND, but instead of placing your hands on the ground, they are still protecting your chest [wrapped to your waist]. With one foot spinning in a circle, your upper body makes a full turn.
WHITE CRANE TURNS OVER - 白鶴翻身
The function of this technique is the same as in REAR BRACING KICK.
WHIRLWIND KICK - 旋風
An opponent comes at me quickly and I have no time to get away, so I use a “whirlwind” – squatting my body down, then spinning my right foot around to the left to kick to his back while my body is jumping up, causing him to stumble forward.
FORWARD DROP (also called SNOW FALLING IN FRONT) - 前撲（又名當面跌雪）
An opponent punches to my back or leg. When I see he is about to hit me, I fling myself forward and downward so he cannot reach my back.
CARP FLIPS OVER - 鯉魚翻身
In the midst of dropping forward, an opponent punches at me, and once he connects it is too late to resist it, so the best thing to do is CARP FLIPS OVER – spinning my body around to the left or right in order to evade.
PHEASANT LOOKS FOR THE SKY [i.e. kip] - 野鷄搜天
When falling back, my legs unable to straighten up, if the opponent then attacks me, I use my feet to kick out upward, making him want to back off, and by riding along with this action I can stand up again.
BACKWARD DROP (also called SNOW FALLING BEHIND) - 後撲（又名背後跌雪）
This method is almost the same as FORWARD DROP, just dropping down to the rear, and it should be a little more lively.
SINGLE-LINE STANCE [i.e. split] - 一字步
i. Stand at attention, your hands hanging down [or at your waist according to the drawing].
ii. Your feet jump apart to the left and right, or forward and back, your legs making a “single line” posture, your hands at the same time touching the ground, the weight of your whole body going onto your legs.
DRAGONFLY DODGES - 蜻蜓躱
Your hands grasping a bar, hands in front of your chest, your legs raise up and straighten so the weight of your whole body is on your hands.
BOY WORSHIPS BUDDHA - 童子拜觀音
i. Your body sits cross-legged like a monk, left foot under, right foot over, hands held high, palms together.
ii. Your joined palms come down so your elbows are touching the ground and your feet raise up so the weight of your whole body is on your forearms.
TIGER JUMPS [i.e. cartwheel] - 虎跳
Your hands raise up, then your body bends downward to the left so your hands are touching the ground, your feet suddenly arc upward, and you make a complete circle.
PLANK-SNATCHING SOMERSAULT [i.e. forward hand spring] - 搶板金斗
i. Run a few steps forward, raise your hands, and dive forward and downward, hands touching the ground.
ii. Your feet forcefully leap up behind you and you jump in a complete circle.
iii. Stand at attention.
ROLLING LAMP [i.e. forward roll] - 滾燈
i. Standing at attention, bend your body forward, and wrap your hands around your feet.
ii. Putting strength into your feet, go forward and roll downward.
iii. Stand up.
SINGLE LAUNCHING - 單飛
i. Stand at attention, hands at your waist.
ii. Your right foot goes forward into a lifting kick, your right hand at the same time hitting the back of the foot.
DOUBLE LAUNCHING - 雙飛
Stand at attention.
i. Your body squats down halfway.
ii. Your left foot kicks upward, your right [left] hand going forward, left [right] hand to the rear.
iii. When your left foot is about to come down, your right foot kicks upward, your right hand at the same time hitting the back of the foot, your left hand going forward [to the rear].
SPARROW HOPS - 麻雀跳
i. Your body stands at attention.
ii. Your body squats down, your left leg extending forward, your right leg bending, your right hand going forward.
iii. Your right leg jumps up to be extended forward, your left leg bending, your left hand going forward. This hopping method looks just like a sparrow.
GOLDEN ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG - 金鷄獨立
i. Stand at attention.
ii. One foot goes forward, lifting until level, your hands at your waist.
iii. Squat down.
FROG HOPS - 田鷄跳
Your whole body lowers to look like a frog. Putting strength into your toes and palms, your body about an inch off the ground, hop with your hands and feet in unison (traveling forward or back, left or right).
CENTIPEDE WALKING - 蜈蚣走
i. Put your hands on the ground, your legs extended behind you, and put strength into your toes, making a straight line with your body. Put the strength of your whole body into your hands and feet, your body about an inch off the ground.
ii. In this position, walk forward or backward.
The various movements above are basic and practical techniques. Below is an exercise of linked movements, called Big Dipper Boxing. It has altogether six sections, but this book presents only the first section, the remaining five sections to be revealed in a future volume. I hope you will pardon me for this.
FIRST SECTION OF BIG DIPPER BOXING - 第一節 天罡拳
Posture 1: Stand at attention, facing to the south. Your right hand performs BOW-PUSHING HAND to the front as your left hand performs LIFTING THE BELL to the rear.
Posture 2: Your left hand performs BOW-PUSHING HAND to the front as your right hand performs LIFTING THE BELL to the rear.
Posture 3: Your right palm goes diagonally to the forward right as your right foot steps diagonally to the forward right to make a reverse long-three stance (facing to the southwest), your left hand going diagonally to the left rear, performing LIFTING THE BELL (i.e. WHITE CRANE HIDES).
Posture 4: Your right hand performs FOLDING FIST to your waist, your left hand performing SINGLE HIDING HAND in front of your chest, as your left foot makes a T-shaped stance. (You are facing to the southeast corner.)
Posture 5: Your right foot goes forward with a SHOVELING KICK.
Posture 6: Your left hand goes forward with a palm strike as your left foot goes forward to make a long-three stance.
Posture 7: Your right hand goes forward with a punch, your left hand at the same time withdrawing, performing CHEST-PROTECTING HAND.
Posture 8: Your hands go upward, spread apart to the sides, go downward, and perform CARRYING-FROM-BELOW HANDS, your left foot at the same time withdrawing to make a T-shaped stance.
Posture 9: Your body turns to the left, your legs making a twisting-silk stance (facing to the southwest corner), then your right foot goes forward with a COILING-SILK KICK and comes down to make a long-three stance.
Posture 10: Your hands go upward, spreading apart, then your hands grasp into fists facing each other, performing LION OPENS ITS MOUTH WIDE, the center of the hands facing upward. (You are facing to the northwest.)
Posture 11: Your hands go to the left and right, then perform CARRYING-FROM-BELOW HANDS, your left foot making a T-shaped stance (facing to the northwest).
Posture 12: Your right foot goes forward with a first kick, then comes down to make a reverse long-three stance.
Posture 13: Your left foot goes forward with a second kick as you turn around to the left rear.
Posture 14: Turn further to the left as your right foot does a third kick and then comes down to make a reverse long-three stance (facing to the southeast corner).
Posture 15: Perform LION OPENS ITS MOUTH WIDE (facing to the southeast).
Posture 16: Your right foot shifts to be in front of your left foot, making a twisting-silk stance, as you turn to the right (to be facing to the southwest), your hands going to the right rear, performing TURNING-DRAGON PUNCH.
Posture 17: Your left foot takes a step forward to make a bow & arrow stance (your hands staying as they are).
Posture 18: Your hands go forward, blocking in an arc, as you leap forward a large step to make a bow & arrow stance, your hands going downward to slice the ground, performing GROUND-SLICING HANDS.
Posture 19: Your left leg switches to a long-three stance as your left hand goes forward with a palm strike.
Posture 20: Your right hand goes forward with a punch, your left hand at the same time withdrawing, performing CHEST-PROTECTING HAND.
Posture 21: Use DANCING-FLOWER HANDS (Your hands go in front of your chest, your right hand arcing to your left shoulder, your left hand lifting in arc until over your right hand, and then your hands spread apart to the left and right.) to perform WHITE CRANE HIDES.
Posture 22: Your hands perform CARRYING-FROM-BELOW HANDS as your legs make a twisting-silk stance.
Posture 23: Your right foot goes forward with a kick, then makes a reverse long-three stance.
Posture 24: Perform LION OPENS ITS MOUTH WIDE (facing to the northeast).
Posture 25: Use DANCING-FLOWER HANDS [on the other side] to perform WHITE CRANE HIDES, your left foot forward in a T-shaped stance.
Posture 26: Leap forward a large step to make a bow & arrow stance (facing to the northeast), your left hand performing GROUND-SLICING HAND.
Posture 27: Then change to a long-three stance as your left hand goes forward with a palm strike.
Posture 28: Your right hand goes forward with a punch your left hand performing CHEST-PROTECTING HAND.
Posture 29: Use DANCING-FLOWER HANDS to perform WHITE CRANE HIDES, your left foot forward, making a T-shaped stance.
Posture 30: Your hands perform CARRYING-FROM-BELOW HANDS as your legs make a twisting-silk stance.
Posture 31: Your right foot goes forward with a kick, then comes down to make a reverse long-three stance.
Posture 32: Perform LION OPENS ITS MOUTH WIDE (facing to the southwest).
Posture 33: Your right foot takes a step to the left, your hands wrapping to your waist [chest], and you turn to the left, your [right] shoulder going to the ground to send you into a SIDEWAYS SHOULDER ROLL (facing to the south).
Posture 34: Stand up from the roll and make a four-level stance, your hands wrapping to your waist as DOUBLE FOLDING FISTS.
Posture 35: Your legs make the posture of standing at attention as your hands perform DOUBLE SPEARING FISTS.
Posture 36: Your hands go forward as DOUBLE CIRCLING HANDS [forming a salute], then hang down, bringing you back to the original position.
SIX MEDICINAL PRESCRIPTIONS - 〔藥方六種〕
 Amber Pellets (also called Moderating Injury Pellets – for treating impact injuries) - 虎珀丸 又名和傷丸 耑治跌打重傷法
歸身 蘇木 生地 羌活 丹皮 杜仲鹽水炒 熟地 白朮各二兩 陳皮 南星 獨活 川斷各一兩 乳香去油 沒藥去油 赤芍 川芎 茯苓 靑皮 白芍各一兩 木瓜 牛膝 苡仁各三兩 虎珀二錢 茄皮四兩 桂枝一兩 肉桂二錢 黑豆四兩 桑枝三錢 甘草五錢
guishen, sapanwood, Chinese foxglove root, qianghuo angelica, peony root bark, eucommia bark – fried in salted water, cooked Chinese foxglove, baizhu – 100 grams, dried orange peel, nanxing, duhuo angelica, chuanduan – 50 grams, frankincense oil, myrrh oil, red peony root, Sichuan lovage, tuckahoe, orange peel, white peony root – 50 grams, papaya skin, ox-knee root, coix seed – 150 grams, amber – 10 grams, eggplant skin – 200 grams, cassia twig – 50 grams, cinnamon – 10 grams, black soybeans – 200 grams, mulberry branch – 15 grams, licorice root – 25 grams.
共研細末 紅糖為丸 每丸〔每服〕重二錢中者每丸一錢五分 每天吃二次陳酒送下
Pestle them into a powder. Mix with brown sugar and form them into pellets of 10 grams each, or for milder cases, 7.5 grams each. Eat two each day, swallowed with mellow liquor.
 “Clearing the Mind and Harmonizing the Energy” Soup (for treating injuries involving spitting of blood) - 淸心和氣湯 治跌打重傷者吐血後用
麥冬 百合 橘紅 紫苑 丹皮 蘇木各一錢 山藥二錢 槐花二錢 厚朴八分 香附八分 靑皮八分 甘草三分
monkey-grass tuber, lily buds, dried tangerine, ziyuan, peony root bark, sapanwood – 5 grams, Chinese yam – 10 grams, huaihua – 10 grams, magnolia bark – 4 grams, flatsedge tuber – 4 grams, holly – 4 grams, licorice root – 1.5 grams.
加燈心二十根 河水一碗 煎透 每天吃二次
Add twenty lamp wicks. Put everything into a bowl of fresh water. Cook thoroughly. Take two doses per day.
 For rapid recovery from fractures - 治跌打損傷重者速用
二便不通 汙血不散 肚臌氣脹 上攻心胸 悶幾死者 先用此藥方行之
(This medicine can also be used for dealing with: constipation, sluggish circulation, flatulence, getting the wind knocked out of you, and asthma attacks.)
生軍及陳酒先煎一兩〔生軍一兩用陳酒先煎〕 歸尾五錢 桃仁去皮尖七粒打 加酒一兩共煎
Cook 50 grams of shengjun in mellow liquor, add dong quai – 25 grams, 7 grains from pounded taoren nut shells, wine – 50 grams. Cook everything together.
Take two doses each day at dawn.
 Saintly Powder (for treating injuries to the extremities) - 如聖散 治手足別傷
川草烏去皮各三錢 蒼朮 白芷 細辛 川芎 防風各一錢 共研末重者吃一錢 中者吃五分 下者吃三分
chuancaowu – 15 grams, atractylodes root, Chinese angelica, Chinese wild ginger root, Sichuan lovage, parsnip root – 5 grams, 5 grams, 2.5 grams, 1.5 grams.
This medicine must not be eaten frequently. Swallow with some mellow liquor, then stay out of wind.
 Medicine to apply to wounds - 傷敷藥
生川草烏各五錢 白茄子一兩 乳香沒藥各五錢去油 元寸香一分 樟冰四錢 白芷五錢 南桂三錢 五茄皮一兩 生半夏五錢 生錦紋七錢
raw chuancaowu – 25 grams, white eggplant – 50 grams, frankincense & myrrh – 25 grams, yuan musk – 0.5 grams, iced camphor – 20 grams, Chinese angelica – 25 grams, nangui – 15 grams, wujia bark – 50 grams, raw crow-dipper – 25 grams, raw jinwen – 35 grams.
共研細 陳白小粉半斤炒焦 共研和用滴花燒酒調敷 每天上午七時 下午九時 敷之可也 重者敷五六天 中者敷三四天 輕者敷二天
Pestle them into a powder. Add 250 grams of seared chenbo starch. Pestle again. Mix with white liquor and apply as drips. It can be applied at either 7am or 9pm. For serious cases, apply for five or six days. For moderate cases, three or four days. For mild cases, two days.
 Recipe for cuts from weapons - 刀傷出血方
此桑藤香（卽好桻香）五錢 用碗片刮下 眞象皮一兩
mulberry vine fragrance (also called haofeng fragrance) – 25 grams, yongwan, authentic elephant skin – 50 grams.
Pestle, then add “300-year blood dust” (i.e. coffin ash) – 250 grams. Pestle again, then apply the medicine to stop the bleeding.
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