XING LONG TANG - A Tudat Feltárásának Mahāyāna Szútrája《大乘顯識經》



   



A Tudat Feltárásának Mahāyāna Szútrája《大乘顯識經》

T12n0347 大乘顯識經 第1/第2卷
CBETA 電子佛典集成 » 大正藏 (T) » 第 12 冊 » No.0347 »

Szanszkrinr√≥l k√≠naira ford√≠totta Tang Dinaszti√°ban a Tripiṭaka Mester Divākara, Indi√°b√≥l 中天竺國沙門地婆訶羅奉 詔譯

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ElsŇĎ tekercs 第1卷

[0178c06] 如是我聞:

Thus I have heard:

[0178c06] 一時薄伽梵,在王舍城迦蘭陀竹林,與大比丘眾千二百五十人俱——皆阿羅漢,諸漏已盡,無復煩惱逮得自在,心善解脫、慧善解脫,於去來今照了無礙,是大那伽;如佛之教,所作已辦棄大重擔,獲於己利,已斷流轉生死有苦,以正智力,善知眾生心之所趣——如是大聲聞眾,長老舍利弗而為上首;復有無量菩薩摩訶薩眾,俱在會集。

At one time the Bhagavān was in the Karaṇḍa Bamboo Garden (迦蘭陀竹林) of the city of Rājagṛha (王舍城), together with 1,250 great bhikṣus. All of them were Arhats (阿羅漢), who had ended their afflictions (kleśa, 煩惱) and the discharges (āsrava, 漏) thereof, and achieved freedom. With their minds completely liberated and their wisdom fully unfolded, like the great dragon (nāga, 龍), they saw the past, future, and present, hindrance free. Taught by the Buddha, they had completed their undertaking [for Arhatship] and shed the enormous heavy burden. They had acquired benefits for themselves, having ended their suffering (duḥkha, 苦) in transmigrating through their cycle of birth and death. With the power of true knowledge, they were adept in identifying the proclivities of sentient beings. At the head of the multitude of such great voice-hearers (śrāvaka, 大聲聞眾) was the Elder Śāriputra (長老舍利弗). Also in this assembly was an innumerable multitude of Bodhisattva-Mahāsattvas (無量菩薩摩訶薩眾).

[0178c13] 爾時諸比丘在世尊所,多有疲睡,失容阿委不能自持。於是世尊,面門暉發如蓮花開。

In the presence of the World-Honored One (世尊), the bhikṣus (比丘) were tired and drowsy, losing their color and too exhausted to hold up. Then the face of the World-Honored One lit up like a blooming lotus flower.

時諸比丘,咸悉醒悟各自嚴正,作如是念:

Forthwith the bhikṣus (比丘) all became alert, each straightening up and thinking (念):

「今佛世尊,顏容暉煥面光照朗,欲開何法眼作大饒益?」

„The Buddha-Bhagavān (佛世尊) now looks resplendent, his face glowing with light. What dharma-eye (法眼) will He open to give us great benefits?"

[0178c17] 爾時賢護勝上童真,修容豐美柔和光澤色相具足,六萬商主前後圍遶,侍從轟欝聲如地震,來詣佛所。

The youth [Bhadrapāla] Worthy Protector Superior, complete with fine qualities, such as robust good looks, gentleness, and radiance, surrounded by 60,000 merchant lords, together with attendants, with rumbling sounds like an earthquake, came to the Buddha.

見佛世尊寂靜安隱眾德之藏,巍巍赫朗如大金樹,深心信重合掌思惟,作如是念:「眾共稱讚,佛一切智普見一切,是如來、阿羅訶、正等覺,誠實不虛。」

Seeing the Buddha-Bhagavān (佛世尊) silent and peaceful as the store (藏, garba) of virtues, and majestic and radiant like a towering golden tree, he pondered as he joined his palms with profound faith and reverence. He thought: „As praised by all, the Buddha, who is all-knowing and all-seeing, is truly the Tathāgata (如來), Arhat (阿羅訶), Samyak-Saṁbuddha (正等覺). It is not false."

頂禮佛足,諦視而住。

He bowed his head down at the feet of the Buddha then gazed at Him.

[0178c24] 佛見賢護,舉身放光流照賢護,賢護爾時便獲無畏,遶佛三匝,頂禮佛足,而白佛言:

The Buddha saw Worthy Protector (賢護) and radiated light from His entire body to shine on him. Worthy Protector then acquired fearlessness. He circled the Buddha three times, and again bowed his head down at the Buddha’s feet. He said to the Buddha:

「唯願世尊,悲愍教授,我今始於佛所得淨信心,心悕妙法欲有所問,而我久處生死,溺煩惱苦亂念紛雜,於戒等業無作冥資,雖心奇重我今不知,於此愚惑疑網之中,如何超出得度生死?世尊是一切智,普見一切,佛出甚難希有逢遇,如如意珠施眾生樂;佛是大如意寶,一切眾生咸由依佛得大安樂;是大父母,眾生善本,因佛父母得見正路。唯願悲愍開曉疑闇。」

„I pray only that the World-Honored One (世尊) will teach me with compassion (悲). It is only today that I have acquired pure faith (淨信心) here, where the Buddha is. My mind (心) longing for the true Dharma (妙法), I would like to ask questions. However, I have long been in my cycle of birth and death (生死), drowning in afflictions (煩惱) and chaotic thoughts. I have no hidden provisions, such as observance of precepts or other good karmas (業). Anxious as I am, I do not know how to transcend birth and death and be delivered from the web of ignorance, affliction, and doubt. The World-Honored One is all-knowing and all-seeing. The appearance of a Buddha in the world is rare and hard to encounter. As a wish-fulfilling jewel can give happiness to sentient beings (眾生), the Buddha is the greatest wish-fulfilling jewel (佛是大如意寶). All sentient beings (一切眾生) depend upon the Buddha to acquire great peace and bliss. He is the great parent (大父母) and sentient beings’ root of goodness (眾生善本). Because of the Buddha-parent, one will be able see the right path (正路). I pray only that, out of sympathy, He will remove my doubts and darkness."

[0179a05] 佛告賢護:「汝有所疑,恣汝意問。我當為汝分別解說。」

The Buddha told Worthy Protector (賢護): „You may ask anything about your doubts. I will resolve them separately for you."

[0179a06] 爾時賢護,蒙佛聽許,心專請問在一面住。時長老阿難,見賢護童真姿容暉澤色相具足,白佛言:

「世尊!未曾有也!此賢護童真有大福德光色豐盛,諸王威相咸蔽不現。」

Then (爾時), Worthy Protector (賢護), having received the Buddha’s permission, stood on one side to concentrate on his questions. Meanwhile, the Elder Ānanda (長老阿難), seeing the radiance and good features of the youth Worthy Protector, said to the Buddha:

„A sight never encountered before! This youth Worthy Protector has great merit (大福德), whose radiance and glow outshine the awesome appearances of kings."

[0179a10] 佛告阿難:「此賢護勝上童真,福業所致,雖處人間受天勝果,安寧適樂歡娛嬉戲,暢悅恣心猶如帝釋。閻浮提中,唯除月實童真,更無比者。」

The Buddha told Ānanda (阿難):

„This youth Worthy Protector Superior, because of his meritorious karma (福業), enjoys splendid celestial-life requital while living in the human world. He can frolic and enjoy peace and pleasure totally at will, like the god-king Śakra (釋提桓因 -> 釋). No one in Jambudvīpa (贍部洲) can compare with him, except for the youth Moon Reality."

[0179a13] 阿難白佛言:「賢護童真果報資用宿植善根,唯願為說。」

Ānanda (阿難) asked the Buddha (佛):

„I pray only that we be told about the youth Worthy Protector, concerning his current resources as karmic requital and the roots of goodness (kuśala-mūla, 善根) he has planted in the past."

[0179a14] 佛告阿難:

The Buddha told Ānanda:

「賢護現受樂報資用廣大,及宿勝因,汝今當聽。

„You should hear the pleasure-requital in the form of enormous resources that Worthy Protector now enjoys and learn the contributing causes from his past.

阿難!此賢護童真,六萬商主資產豐饒金寶盈積,恭敬受教,隨逐奉事,六萬床座敷設臥具,氈褥繒綺并倚枕等,雜色暉發妙麗莊嚴,俱羅帷幕及憍奢耶,火浣幣帛支那安輸,周匝施布眾寶彫間,相宣煥爛交錯如畫。

Ānanda! (阿難) This youth Worthy Protector is attended by 60,000 merchant lords who have an abundance of assets and an accumulation of gold and jewels. They respectfully accept his instructions and follow him at his service. [In his residence there are] 60,000 beds with well-arranged bedding, blankets, fine linens, and pillows, in various colors, beautiful and magnificent. All around are columns, jeweled carvings, colorful silk curtains, and other decorations, as gorgeous as those in a painting.

六萬妓女被服安輸眾色間雜,金寶瓔飾鮮華𥙆麗光彩耀目,其觸細軟如天迦遮,輕重隨心適稱情意,戲容笑語歌唱相娛,閑婉嚴潔柔敬事主,於他人所心絕愛欲,慚恥低首或覆頭為容,肌膚平滿柔軟細滑,手足支節踝等骨脈,咸悉不現,齒白齊密髮紺右旋,如削蠟成如工畫作,氏族華望名譽流遠,如是婦人而為侍從。

There are 60,000 artistic ladies (六萬妓女), dressed in silk in a variety of colors, adorned with golden jewelry and necklaces in dazzling colors, so fine and delicate to the touch that they are like celestial crystal. Their weight can be light or heavy, suiting the wearer’s mood. Playing, laughing, talking, singing, these ladies entertain and serve their master with gentleness, prudence, and respect. They withdraw their love and desire for others, lowering their heads with humility or covering their heads for modesty. Their skin is fine, soft, and smooth. The bony joints of their hands, feet, and ankles do not show. Their teeth are white and straight, without gaps, and their black hair curls to the right, like wax shavings portrayed in a painting. They come from families and clans with names known far and wide. Such women are his attendants.

又有六萬供食婦人,飯餅諸物種種異色,香味調美如天餚饍,飲具八德見令心悅,寧身適意不勞而熟,是福之食應心而至,滌淨擁穢去諸病惡。

Moreover, there are 60,000 women who serve him food, such as rice, bread, and so forth, in various colors. The aromas and flavors are as wonderful as those of celestial food. As requital for his merit, such food cooked without labor arrives at his wish. The water there has the eight virtues (八功德水 -> 八德), pleasing to one’s mind and soothing to one’s body, and it cleanses filth and removes diseases.

庭宇臺樓具足六萬,摩尼、真珠、琉璃諸珍羅布垂飾,眾寶間鈿行列端美,綺綵蒙懸綴以鈴鐸,隨風颻颺鏗鏘和發,地若琉璃現眾影像,雜花散布清涼快樂,遨遊栖息暢心適志。

„His mansions and towers are adorned with 60,000 beautifully arranged jewels, such as precious gems and aquamarine. Bells suspended from ribbons jingle harmoniously in the winds. The ground is like aquamarine, showing myriad reflections, with various flowers scattered around. [The place] is cool and pleasant, inviting leisurely strolls to relax one’s mind.

又有細腰般拏、箜篌、長笛、銅鈸、清歌,種種音聲數凡六萬,美聲調潤響亮聞遠,喧囂雜作震警方域,福業所致歡樂不絕。

There are musical instruments, such as paṇava drums (箜篌), flutes (長笛), sitars (銅鈸), and brass cymbals (清歌), playing 60,000 kinds of melodies (音聲數凡六萬). The beautiful sounds are harmonious and loud, resonating far and wide. Joy and happiness brought by meritorious karma (福業) flow non-stop (不絕).

鴿等諸鳥飛翔遊集,異聲間和暢心悅耳,藤蔓眾花縈緣臺閣,鮮葩標秀蓊欝暉煥,鈴鐸樂器響若天宮,房廊昭晰如須彌窟神藥流照。

Doves and other birds are flying around, their various calls enjoyable to one’s mind and pleasant to one’s ear. Flowering vines climb up on the towers, adorning them with bright flowers and lush leaves. The tones of bells and musical instruments sound like those in a celestial palace. The halls are spacious like a cavern of Mount Sumeru (須彌), where divine medicine flows.

有六萬城高牆峻峙樓櫓備設,街街布列四衢三達,美麗填溢諸方湊集,種種服飾種種言語,法制萬差殊容異狀,奇貨列肆商侶百千,交易囂喧聲震城域,園林欝茂大樹小樹,藤蔓卉藥眾花競發,清波環映間錯光鮮粲如舒錦,象馬車乘其眾百千,往還不絕充遍城邑。

There are 60,000 cities graced with towers and surrounded by high walls. The streets are well designed with crossroads to reach all directions. Adding to the magnificence are people who come from everywhere, wearing various kinds of clothing, speaking various kinds of languages. They have different facial features and follow diverse customs. Hundreds of thousands of merchants display their extraordinary goods. The raucous sounds of trade shake the entire city. „In the lush gardens and forests, there are large and small trees, vines, medicinal herbs, and flowers in full bloom. [In their midst are pools] the clear waters of which reflect shimmering light, like a sheet of colorful brocade. Hundreds and thousands of elephants, horses, and carriages move endlessly throughout the city.

[0179b18] 「阿難!六萬城中名德高人,及諸豪富并諸商主,日日稱讚賢護童真,播揚聲德,虔恭合掌禮拜修敬。

Ānanda (阿難), in these 60,000 cities, the noble and the famous, as well as the wealthy and the merchant lords, praise the youth Worthy Protector every day, broadcasting his merit. They respectfully join their palms and make obeisance to him in reverence.

嬌薩羅國波斯匿王福力富盛,比之賢護狀類貧下。月實童真,無量百千妓從侍繞,恭敬奉事愛悅歡戲眾樂所依,雖天帝釋百千萬倍不及月實。

„Prasenajit, the king of Kauśala (嬌薩羅國波斯匿王), is wealthy because of the power of his merit (福力富盛), but he is poor in comparison with Worthy Protector (賢護). The youth Moon Reality (月實) is surrounded by 100,000 artistic attendants, serving him respectfully and entertaining him with music and frolics. Even the god-king śakra is a billion times less fortunate than Moon Reality (月實).

賢護童真,容色豐美富有自在安寧適樂,亦百千萬倍不及月實;斯皆宿福所感非力致也。

Likewise the youth Worthy Protector, with his robust, high-colored good looks, wealth, ease, peace, and pleasures, is also a billion times less fortunate than Moon Reality (月實). Their fortunes, in each case, are not acquired by force, but are a response to their past merits.

[0179b25] 「阿難!賢護童真又有如意寶輅,天寶彫嚴光暉赫爛,天金金剛光玉日受,種種諸寶鈿廁間錯,麗若觀星,運速如風如金翅飛,乘此寶輅,寶洲等所應念而至,身不疲勞戲樂而返。」

„Ānanda (阿難), the youth Worthy Protector (賢護) has a wish-fulfilling carriage inlaid with celestial jewels (天寶), radiating bright light like celestial gold (天金) or vajra (金剛). It is decorated with various kinds of treasures, mixed as beautifully as stars. It moves swiftly, like the wind, like the flight of the golden-winged bird. Riding this jeweled carriage, he arrives at any treasure island on a thought. Then he comes home from his pleasure tour, not tired."

[0179b29] 是時阿難,頂禮佛足而白佛言:

Ānanda (阿難) bowed down at the feet of the Buddha. He asked the Buddha:

「賢護童真種何善根,修何福業,資產廣大,受大樂報,宮室妙麗,寶輅奇特?」

„What roots of goodness did the youth Worthy Protector plant and what meritorious karma (福業) did he do, now to own enormous assets and to enjoy this great pleasure-requital (受大樂報), living in such magnificent mansions (宮室妙麗) decorated with extraordinary treasures (寶輅奇特)?"

[0179c03] 佛告阿難:

The Buddha told Ānanda:

「賢護童真由先於佛法中修植福業,故今獲此廣大樂報。過去有佛名曰樂光如來、應供、正遍知、明行足、善逝、世間解、無上士、調御丈夫、天人師、佛、世尊。

„The youth Worthy Protector, because he planted in the past meritorious karma in the Buddha Dharma (佛法中修植福業), has now received this enormous pleasure-requital. In the past, there was a Buddha called Blissful Light (曰樂光), the Tathāgata (如來), Arhat (應供), Samyak-Saṁbuddha (正遍知), Knowledge and Conduct Perfected (明行足), Sugata (善逝), Understanding the World (世間解), Unsurpassed One (無上士), Tamer of Men (調御丈夫), Teacher to Gods and Humans (調御丈夫), Buddha (佛) the World-Honored One (世尊).

賢護爾時於彼佛法之中出家作比丘,名曰法髻,多虧戒行,然善講說修多羅、阿毘達摩、毘奈耶等,三藏深教咸悉明達,常為眾生宣暢敷演,法施不絕美音深重,正直高亮剖析明辯,聽者歡喜,聞所說法,思惟修行,脫惡趣者其數無量。

Worthy Protector (賢護) then (爾時) renounced family life and became a bhikṣu, called Dharma Topknot (法髻), in the Dharma of that Buddha (佛法). He was inadequate in observing the precepts for conduct (戒行). However, he clearly understood the profound teachings in the Tripiṭaka (三藏) (Sūtras, the Vinaya, and the Abhidharma) and he excelled in expounding them. He always pronounced the teachings to sentient beings (眾生) in solemn, beautiful tones, endlessly giving the Dharma as alms. He was forthright and brilliant in his eloquent exposition, and the hearers delighted in the Dharma they heard (聞所說法). They pondered the teachings and trained themselves accordingly, and those who saved themselves from taking the evil life-journeys (gati, 趣) or life-path (道) were innumerable (無量).

[0179c12] 「阿難!法髻比丘以法施功德,於九十劫受天人報。又見清淨持戒比丘身羸瘦瘠,恒施飲食及屣履等,殷重誠徹淨心布施,故今獲此大富樂報,勝妙宮室,奇特寶輅。

Ānanda (阿難), the bhikṣu Dharma Topknot (法髻比丘), because of his merit of giving the Dharma (法施功德), enjoyed the celestial-life requital for ninety kalpas (九十劫受天人報). In addition, when Dharma Topknot saw thin and frail bhikṣus who observed their precepts purely, he always gave them drink (飲) food (食) and shoes, and so forth (及屣履等). Because he gave alms courteously and sincerely with a pure mind (淨心), he now has received this pleasure-requital in the form of great wealth, magnificent mansions, and extraordinary jeweled carriages.

又遇迦葉如來示教指誨而告之曰:『汝於未來釋迦牟尼佛所,當得授記。』故今見我,我為說法而成熟之。」

Moreover, Dharma Topknot later encountered Kāśyapa Tathāgata (遇迦葉如來), who gave him teachings and guidance, and told him, ‘You will receive a prophecy from the future Buddha Śākyamuni (釋迦牟尼佛).’ Hence he is seeing me now, and I will pronounce the Dharma to him to bring him to maturity."

[0179c18] 阿難白佛言:

Ānanda said to the Buddha:

「世尊!賢護勝上童真,如是財富金寶盈積豪盛自在,謙柔卑下,無憍慠心,甚為奇特。」

„World-Honored One (世尊), the youth Worthy Protector Superior has command of such an abundance of riches, gold, and treasures. It is extraordinary that he is gentle and modest, without any pride or arrogance."

[0179c20] 佛言阿難:「大智不於財寶欲樂而生矜慠,賢護久修善行,善法所資,常食福果。」

The Buddha said, „Great wisdom (大智) does not become arrogant because of wealth, treasures, and sensory pleasures. Worthy Protector (賢護) has long trained in good works. Supported by good dharmas (善法所資), he always has fortune fruits to eat (食福果)."

[0179c22] 賢護蒙佛、阿難共稱歎已,恭敬合掌頂禮佛足,白佛言:

Worthy Protector, having been praised by the Buddha (賢護蒙佛) and Ānanda (阿難), joined his palms reverently and bowed down at the feet of the Buddha. He implored the Buddha,

「世尊!憐愍攝護一切眾生,欲少請問,願垂聽許。」

„World-Honored One (世尊) Please pity, accept, and protect all sentient beings (一切眾生). I request permission to ask a few questions."

[0179c24] 佛告賢護:「我先聽汝,汝有所疑,今恣汝問,我當為汝分別解說。」

The Buddha told Worthy Protector, „You have my permission. You may ask me about your doubts. I will explicate them to you."

[0179c26] 賢護白佛言:

Worthy Protector (賢護) said to the Buddha:

「世尊!眾生雖知有識,如寶閉在篋中,不顯不知。

„World-Honored One, although sentient beings know that there is consciousness (眾生雖知有識), it is like a jewel (寶) kept in a box, unrevealed and unknowable (不顯不知).

世尊!不知此識作何形狀?何故名識?眾生死時手足亂動,眼色變異制不自由,諸根喪滅,諸大乖離,識遷於身,去至何所?自性如何?作何色相?云何捨離此身更受餘身?云何身分棄之於此,而牽諸入獲當來報,受種種身差別不同?

World-Honored One, I do not know the form of this consciousness. Nor the reason that it is called consciousness (何故名識). When a person dies (眾生死時), his hands and feet may convulse (手足亂動), and the look of his eyes changes uncontrollably (眼色變異制不自由). As one’s faculties perish, the four domains—earth, water, fire, and wind—disperse (諸根喪滅,諸大乖離). Where does one’s consciousness go after it has left the current body? (識遷於身,去至何所?) What is its essence? (自性如何?) What is its form? (作何色相?) How does it assume the next body after leaving this body? (云何捨離此身更受餘身?) After this body is abandoned, how does consciousness carry one’s faculties in order to accept the next requital, which can be a body of any kind? (云何身分棄之於此,而牽諸入獲當來報,受種種身差別不同?)

世尊!云何眾生身謝滅已,更生諸入?云何今生積聚福業,來生得之?今身為福,當來身食?云何識能滋長於身?云何識入,隨身轉變?」

World-Honored One (世尊), how does a sentient being grow new faculties after the expiration of this body? (云何眾生身謝滅已,更生諸入?) Why does one accumulate meritorious karma in this life, only to receive its requital in the next life? (云何今生積聚福業,來生得之?)

The current body does meritorious karma (今身為福), and the next body will eat [the karmic fruit] (當來身食)? How does one’s consciousness nourish one’s body and keep it alive? (云何識能滋長於身?) How do consciousness and faculties develop according to one’s body? (云何識入,隨身轉變)"

[0180a06] 佛言:「善哉,善哉!賢護!善哉!善問!諦聽!諦聽!善思念之!當為汝說。」

The Buddha said, "Very good! (善哉) Very good! (善哉) Worthy Protector, these are good questions. Hearken! (諦聽) Hearken! (諦聽) Ponder this well. (善思念之) I will explain to you. (當為汝說)"

[0180a08] 賢護白佛言:「世尊!唯然奉教!」

Worthy Protector said to the Buddha, "World-Honored One (世尊), affirmatively I accept Your teachings. (唯然奉教)"

[0180a08] 佛告賢護:「識之運轉,遷滅往來,猶如風大,無色、無形、不可顯現,而能發動萬物,示眾殊狀,或搖振林木,摧折破裂,出大音聲,或為冷為熱觸眾生身,作苦作樂,風無手足面目形容,亦無黑白黃赤諸色。

The Buddha told Worthy Protector:

"The process and transference of [ālaya] consciousness are like the wind, which is formless (無色), shapeless (無形), and unidentifiable (不可顯現). However, the wind can activate myriad things and display myriad conditions, whether making loud sounds as it shakes the forest or breaks off branches, or causing pleasure or pain as it touches with cold or hot the bodies of sentient beings (眾生身). The wind does not have hands, feet, face, or shape. (風無手足面目形容) Nor does it have various colors, such as black, white, red, or yellow (亦無黑白黃赤諸色).

賢護!識界亦爾,無色、無形、無光明顯現,以因緣故,顯示種種功用殊異。當知受覺法界亦復如是,無色、無形,以因緣故顯發功用。

Worthy Protector (賢護), the same is true for the domain of consciousness. It is formless (無色), shapeless (無形), not revealed by light (無光明顯現). However, through causes and conditions (以因緣故), it can manifest various kinds of functions (功用殊異). Know that the dharma realms of sensory reception and perception (當知受覺法界亦復如是) are also formless (無色) and shapeless (無形). Through causes and conditions (因緣), various functions manifest (顯發功用).

賢護!眾生死此,受覺法界識界皆捨離身,識運受覺法界受餘身者,譬如風大吹眾妙花,花住於此香流至遠,風體不取妙花之香,香體、風體及與身根俱無形色,而非風力香不遠至。

"Worthy Protector (賢護), after the death of a sentient being (眾生死此), the dharma realms of sensory reception and perception and the domain of [ālaya] consciousness abandon the body (受覺法界識界皆捨離身). The way [ālaya] consciousness carries the dharma realms of sensory reception and perception to accept another body (識運受覺法界受餘身) is like a gust of wind sweeping across wonderful flowers (譬如風大吹眾妙花). The flowers (花) stay put, but their fragrance will flow far. The wind in essence does not grasp the fragrance of the flowers. Fragrance and the wind in essence are both formless and shapeless (無形色). However, without the power of the wind (非風力), fragrance will not travel far (香不遠至).

[0180a20] 「賢護!眾生身死,識持受覺法界以至他生,因父母緣而識託之,受覺法界皆隨於識,亦復如是。如從花勝力而鼻有嗅,從嗅勝力而得香境;又如從風身勝力得風色觸,因風力香得至遠。

Worthy Protector (賢護), after a person’s death (眾生身死), his [ālaya] consciousness carries the dharma realms of sensory reception and perception to the next rebirth (識持受覺法界以至他生), which is conditioned upon his parents entrusted by his [ālaya] consciousness (因父母緣而識託之). In this way the dharma realms of sensory reception and perception (受覺法界) accompany [ālaya] consciousness (皆隨於識). Because of the quality of the flowers, one’s nose can detect their scent. Because of one’s olfactory power, one smells fragrance, a sense object. The wind touches the flowers because of its power. Because of the power of the wind, fragrance can flow far.

如是從識有受,從受有覺,從覺有法,遂能了知善與不善。

Likewise (如是), from consciousness, sensory reception arises (從識有受); from sensory reception, perception arises (從受有覺); and by perception, mental objects are differentiated (從覺有法). Then one knows good and evil (遂能了知善與不善).

[0180a25] 「賢護!又如畫工料理壁板,諸所畫處如法端潔,隨意所為圖繪眾像,則工之識智俱無形色,而為種種奇容異狀。如是識智無形而生六色,謂因眼見色,眼識無形;因耳聞聲,聲無形色;因鼻知香,香無形色;因舌知味,味無形色;因身知觸,觸無形色;法入諸境,皆悉無形。識無形色,亦復如是。

"Worthy Protector (賢護), by analogy, a painter applies pigments to the wall, and he can paint pictures as neatly and properly as he wishes. The consciousness and intellect of the painter are both formless and shapeless (則工之識智俱無形色), but they can create various kinds of extraordinary images and shapes (而為種種奇容異狀). Thus one’s consciousness and intellect project the six percepts (六色). The eye sees sights (眼見色), and the eye consciousness is formless and shapeless (眼識無形); the ear hears sounds (耳聞聲), which are formless and shapeless (聲無形色); the nose detects odors (鼻知香), which are formless and shapeless (香無形色); the tongue tastes flavors (舌知味), which are formless and shapeless (味無形色); and the body knows tactile sensations (身知觸), which are formless and shapeless (觸無形色). As one’s faculties and perceptions (法入諸境) are shapeless (無形), so too one’s consciousness is formless (識無形色).

[0180b04] 「賢護!識棄此身受他生者,眾生死時識為業障所纏,報盡命終猶如滅定阿羅漢識,如阿羅漢入滅盡定,其阿羅漢識從身滅轉。如是死者之識棄身及界,乘於念力而作是,知彼如是:我某乙。生平所作事業,臨終咸現憶念明了,身之與心二受逼切。

"Worthy Protector (賢護), when [ālaya] consciousness (v) abandons one’s current body to accept another life, it is still bound by karma hindrances at the moment of one’s death. When one’s current requital ends with death, [one’s consciousness] is as if in the Samādhi of Total Halt (滅盡定 ~ the cessation of perception and sensation / nirodhasamāpatti). When an Arhat (阿羅漢) enters the Samādhi of Total Halt, his sensory reception and perception are suspended. Thus, when [ālaya] consciousness of the dying one abandons the body and its [four] domains, it does so with the power of memory. Upon dying, one’s consciousness replays clearly from memory all the karmas one has done in one’s entire life. Both body and mind are under stress (身之與心二受逼切).

[0180b09] 「賢護!識是何義?識名為種?能生眾類雜報身牙,知覺想念同苞於識,知苦知樂,知惡知善及善惡境,故名為識。

"Worthy Protector, what is the meaning of consciousness? (識是何義) [Ālaya] consciousness means seed, which can sprout a karmic body of any kind. Perception (知覺), thinking (想念) and memory are also sprouted from [ālaya] consciousness (同苞於識). Because it knows pleasure (知苦), pain (知樂), good (知善), and evil (知惡), as well as good and evil objects (善惡境), It is called consciousness (故名為識).

如汝所問:『云何識離此身而受餘報?』

You ask me how one’s [ālaya] consciousness leaves this body to accept the next requital.

賢護!識之遷身,如面之像現之於鏡,如印之文顯之於泥;

Worthy Protector, each body sprouted from one’s [ālaya] consciousness is like the reflection of a face in a mirror, like the markings in the mud, imprinted by a stamp.

譬如日出光之所及眾闇咸除,日沒光謝,闇便如故,闇無形質,非常無常,能得其處;識亦如是,無質無形,因受想顯。識在於身,如闇之體,視不可見,不可執持,如母懷子,不能自知是男是女,黑白黃色,根具不具,手足耳目,類與不類,飲食熱刺,其子便動覺知苦痛,眾生來去屈伸視瞬,語笑談說擔運負重,作諸事業,識相具顯,而不能知識之所在,止於身中不知其狀。

"As an analogy, the light of sunrise removes darkness, which returns after sunset. Darkness has no mass, no shape, neither permanent nor impermanent, but it is always there. The same is true for consciousness. Having no mass and no shape, it is revealed through sensory reception and perception. Consciousness in one’s body is like the essence of darkness, which cannot be seen or touched. It is like the fetus inside the mother, who does not know whether it is male or female. Nor does she know whether it looks black, white, or yellow, whether it has complete faculties, whether it has normal hands, feet, ears, and eyes. However, stimulated by hot food and drink [eaten by the mother], the fetus will move, because it feels pain. The presence of consciousness is evident as sentient beings come or go, bend or extend, stare or blink, speak or laugh, carry heavy loads, or do things. However, they do not know the whereabouts of consciousness in their bodies, nor its form.

[0180b22] 「賢護!識之自性遍入諸處,不為諸處之所染污,六根、六境、五煩惱陰,識遍止之,不為其染,由此而顯識之事用。

Worthy Protector, the consciousness in essence permeates the sensory fields, but it is not tainted by them. Consciousness permeates the six faculties (六根), the six sense objects (六境), and the the five aggregates (五煩惱), but it is not tainted by them. Through them, the functions of consciousness are evident.

[0180b24] 「賢護!如木機關繫執一所作種種業,或行走騰躍或跳擲戲舞。於意云何?機關所作是誰之力?」

Worthy Protector, it is like a mechanism which enables a wooden machine to perform various kinds of tasks, whether talking, leaping, jumping, or dancing. What is your opinion? By whose power is this wooden machine enabled to work?"

[0180b27] 賢護白佛言:「智慧狹淺,非能決了。」

Worthy Protector replied to the Buddha, "My wisdom and knowledge (智慧) are too shallow to determine this."

[0180b27] 佛告賢護:

The Buddha told Worthy Protector:

「當知皆是作業之力,作業無形,但智運耳!如是身之機關,以識之力作諸事業,仙通、乾闥婆、龍神、人、天、阿修羅等,種種趣業咸悉依之,識能生身,如工作機關,識無形質普持法界智力具足,乃至能知宿命之事。

"We should know that it is by one’s power to do karmas (業之力). The power for doing karmas is formless (作業無形) but directed by one’s intellect (但智運耳). Thus, a body-machine (身之機關) can do things with the power of consciousness (識之力作諸事業). Whether ṛṣis (仙通), gandharvas (乾闥婆), dragons (龍神), humans (人), asuras (天), or sentient beings on other life-journeys, all depend on it to do karmas. [Ālaya] consciousness can form the body as a work machine (識能生身,如工作機關). Consciousness, without any form or mass, can uphold the dharma realm with complete mental power (識無形質普持法界智力具足). It knows even things in one’s past lives.

譬如日光,惡業眾生及諸不淨死屍臭穢,無偏等照,不為諸惡之所污染;識亦如是,雖處猪狗食不淨類諸惡趣身,而不為彼之所染污。

By analogy, the pervasive sunlight (日光) shines equally on sentient beings with evil karma, corpses, impure things, and stinking things, but it is not tainted by evils. Neither is [ālaya] consciousness. Even when it is in the body of a dog or a pig, which eats impure things, or in the body of anyone taking an evil life-journey, it is never tainted.

[0180c06] 「賢護!識捨此身,隨善惡業遷受餘報。

Worthy Protector (賢護), [ālaya] consciousness abandons this body (識捨此身) and moves away to accept the next requital according to good or evil karma (隨善惡業遷受餘報).

譬如風大出深山邃谷,入於薝蔔眾香之林,其風便香,經於糞穢死屍臭惡穢污之所,其風便臭,若風香臭俱至,風則香臭並兼,盛者先顯,風無形質香臭無形,然風持香臭遷之於遠;

By analogy, when the wind exits a remote mountain or a steep gorge and sweeps across a forest of fragrant campaka trees, it carries fragrance. When the wind sweeps across a place of feces, corpses, rot, or filth, it carries stench. When it passes through both places, it carries both fragrance and stench. The stronger scent will be manifested first. The wind has no mass, and the scent has no shape (風無形質香臭無形). Yet the wind can carry both fragrance and stench far.

識棄此身,持善惡業遷受餘報,亦復如是,猶彼風大持物香臭致於他所。又如人夢,見眾色像種種事業,而不自知安眠而臥,福德之人命盡識遷,亦復如是安隱不覺,如夢遷化無所恐懼,識之遷出不由喉口及諸竅穴,莫測所從莫知徑戶。」

Likewise, [ālaya] consciousness abandons this body (識棄此身), carrying good and evil karmas (善惡業), to accept the next requital. It is just like the wind carrying fragrance and stench to another place. It is also like a dreamer (又如人夢) who sees myriads of images and does various kinds of karmas (種種事業) in a dream, unaware that he is lying asleep. When a virtuous person dies, the transference of his [ālaya] consciousness is peaceful and unconscious, in the same way as his going somewhere in a dream without any fear. The exit of [ālaya] consciousness is not through one’s throat, mouth, or other orifices (識之遷出不由喉口及諸竅穴). Its exit and route are unknown."

[0180c17] 爾時賢護勝上童真頂禮佛足,白佛言:

Then, (爾時) the youth Worthy Protector Superior (Bhadrapāla 賢護) bowed down at the feet of the Buddha (buddhapāda 佛足). He asked the Buddha:

「世尊!鷄鵝等子其卵未熟,周匝細密識從何入?子死卵中,卵殼不破,無隙無竅,識從何出?」

"Where does [ālaya] consciousness enter into the embryo inside the egg of a chicken or goose, the shell of which is impenetrable? If the embryo dies within the egg and if the eggshell has no crack (無隙) or hole (無竅), where does [ālaya] consciousness exit (識從何出)?"

[0180c20] 佛言:

The Buddha replied:

「賢護!譬如烏麻薝蔔花熏,其油香美名薝蔔油,與凡麻油好惡殊隔,油先無香以花熏種,油遂成香,香不破麻而入,亦不破麻而出,復無形質留止油內,但以因緣力故,香遷油內,油成香澤;鷄鵝子識入出於卵,亦復如是。

Worthy Protector Superior (Bhadrapāla 賢護), by analogy, if black sesame seeds are processed with campaka flowers, the oil will become aromatic and be called campaka oil. It is far superior to ordinary sesame oil. The oil initially does not contain any aroma (油先無香) but becomes aromatic after the seeds have been processed with the flowers (以花熏種). The fragrance does not crack the sesame seeds in order to enter or to exit, nor does it leave any substance in the oil. However, because of the force of causes and conditions (但以因緣力故), the fragrance is blended into the oil (香遷油內) and the oil becomes aromatic (油成香澤).

鷄鵝子識入出於卵,亦復如是。如薝蔔香遷於油內,識之遷運,如日流光,如摩尼照,如木生火。

The way [ālaya] consciousness moves into or out of the embryo of a chicken or a goose despite the eggshell is like the infusion of the campaka fragrance into the oil. The transference of [ālaya] consciousness is like the way the sun shines, a jewel sparkles, or wood blazes.

又如種子,種之於地,體化地中,芽苗莖葉備顯於外,生白不白赤等雜色種種之花,種種力味成熟,所為種種差別,同一大地等資四大,各隨其種所生便異,如是一識法界,生於一切生死之身,或黑或白或黃赤等,淳和瞋暴種種殊品。

[Ālaya] consciousness is also like a seed (又如種子). When a seed is planted and transformed in the ground (種之於地,體化地中), its sprouts, stem, branches, and leaves will successively emerge above the ground. Then flowers in a variety of colors, such as white, off-white, and red, will appear (生白不白赤等雜色種種之花); fruits in a variety of flavors will ripen (種種力味成熟). The same great earth, providing the (同一大地等資) four domains (四大) [earth, water, fire, and wind] grows different things according to their seeds (各隨其種所生便異). Similarly (如是), the dharma realm of [ālaya] the one consciousness (一識法界) manifests a sentient being successively reborn (生於一切生死之身) with black, white, yellow, or red skin, with different characters, gentle or violent (或黑或白或黃赤等), to undergo birth and death.

[0181a03] 「賢護!識無手足,無支節言語,由法界中念力強大,眾生死時識棄此身,識與念力為來生種,即離於識不得法界,離於法界亦不得識。識與風大微妙念界、受界、法界和合而遷。」

Worthy Protector, consciousness has neither hands nor feet (識無手足), neither joints nor speech (無支節言語). In its dharma realm, the power of memory is strong (由法界中念力強大). Upon the death of a sentient being (眾生死時), [ālaya] consciousness abandons the current body (識棄此身), with the power of memory (識與念力), it becomes the seed for the next life (為來生種). Apart from consciousness (即離於識), there is no dharma realm (不得法界); apart from dharma realm (離於法界), there is no consciousness (亦不得識). [Ālaya] consciousness moves away along the [karmic] wind, together with the dharma realm (識與風), including the realms of memory (念界) and sensory reception (受界)."

[0181a06] 賢護白佛言:「若如是者,云何世尊,說識無色?」

Worthy Protector further asked the Buddha, "If so, why does World-Honored One say that consciousness is formless (識無色)?"

[0181a07] 佛言:

The Buddha replied,

「賢護!色有二種:一、內,二、外。內謂眼識,眼則為外。如是耳識為內,耳則為外;鼻識為內,鼻則為外;舌識為內,舌則為外;身識為內,身則為外。

"Worthy Protector, there are two kinds of form (色有二種), the internal and the external (一、內,二、外). Eye consciousness (眼識) is internal, and eye (眼) is external. Similarly, ear consciousness (耳識) is internal, and ear (耳) is external; nose consciousness (鼻識) is internal, and nose (鼻) is external; tongue consciousness (舌識) is internal, and tongue (舌) is external; body consciousness (身識) is internal, and body (身) is external.

[0181a11] 「賢護!如生盲人夢見美色,手足面目形容姝麗,便於夢中生大愛悅,及睡覺已,冥無所見,夜盡晝明,人眾聚會,盲者遂說夢中樂事,我見麗人姿容殊絕,園觀華茂,人眾百千,嚴飾嬉戲,肌膚光澤,肩髆緊滿,臂長而圓猶如象鼻,我於夢中獲大快樂,適心喜歎。

Worthy Protector, suppose a person born blind (如生盲人夢) dreams of a beautiful woman (見美色), and he clearly sees her hands, feet (手足面目), and beautiful features (形容姝麗). He loves the sights as he dreams. When the night’s sleep is over and daylight arrives, the blind man describes to a crowd the pleasing things in his dream, saying, ‘I saw a beautiful woman whose features were uniquely exquisite (我見麗人姿容殊絕), a garden with lush flowers (園觀華茂), and hundreds and thousands of well-adorned people (人眾百千), who frolicked merrily (嚴飾嬉戲). Their skin was lustrous, their shoulders were plump, and their arms were long and rounded like an elephant trunk. I gained great happiness from my dream, and my heart was gladdened (適心喜歎).’

賢護!此生盲人未曾見物,云何夢中而能見色?」

Worthy Protector (賢護), this man was born blind, who has never seen anything with his eyes. Why can he perceive sights in his dream?"

[0181a18] 賢護白佛言:「唯願開示。」

Worthy Protector replied, "I pray that You will indicate the reason."

[0181a18] 佛告賢護:

The Buddha told Worthy Protector:

「夢中見者名內眼所,是慧分別,非肉眼見,其內眼所,以念力故,盲者夢中須臾而現。復以念力覺而憶之;識之內色亦復如是。

What one sees in a dream are internal eye objects (夢中見者名內眼所), differentiated by one’s intellect (是慧分別), not through the physical eye (非肉眼見). These internal eye objects (其內眼所) manifest temporarily in the blind man’s dream (以念力故盲者夢中須臾而現) because of the power of memory. He also recalls the dream with the power of memory (復以念力覺而憶之). With the right memory at death, one sees internal forms projected by consciousness (識之內色亦復如是).

[0181a22] 「復次,賢護!身死識遷,猶如種子棄在地中,四大攝持,苗莖枝葉漸次遷化,識為念受善不善等四法攝持,棄身遷化亦復如是。」

"Furthermore, Worthy Protector, the transference of consciousness (身死識遷) upon one’s death is like a seed discarded on the ground (猶如種子棄在地中). With the support of the four domains (四大攝持), it gradually transforms into sprout, seedling, stem, branches, and leaves.

Likewise, one’s consciousness (識) is supported by these four dharmas (四法攝持): memory (念), receptiveness (受), good (善), and evil (不善).

[0181a24] 賢護白佛言:「世尊!云何善不善法攝持於識?」

[0181a25] 佛言賢護:「譬如妙頗梨寶,隨所處物若黑若白,寶色隨物成白成黑,善不善法攝持於識亦復如是,隨所攝持成善不善,遷化受報。」

By analogy, a crystal jewel placed alongside something black or white will appear black or white. Likewise, [ālaya] consciousness supported by good or evil karmas will transfer somewhere to receive corresponding requitals, good or evil."

[0181a28] 賢護復白佛言:「此身云何稟受於識?」

Worthy Protector next asked the Buddha, "Where does one’s body hold consciousness?"

[0181a29] 佛言賢護:

The Buddha replied to Worthy Protector:

「此識無積無聚亦無生長,譬如牙生,非種不變而生,亦非種壞而生,然牙生時種則變毀。

Consciousness neither accumulates nor gathers, nor does it grow. [The development of consciousness in an embryo] is like the birth of a sprout. The sprout is born neither before the seed is transformed nor after the seed is destroyed. However, when the sprout appears, the seed is spent.

賢護!於意云何?其牙所在,止於何處?子耶?枝耶?莖柯葉耶?止樹頭耶?」

Worthy Protector, what is your opinion? Where does the seed stay? In the sprout, the stem, the branches, the leaves, or the top of the tree?"

[0181b04] 賢護白佛言:「不也!世尊!牙無所止。」

Worthy Protector replied to the Buddha, "No, World-Honored One, the seed stays nowhere."

[0181b05] 「如是,賢護!識之在身止無處所,非眼非耳鼻舌身等,種生牙時,如識微覺,乃至花結合時,如識有受,含開花發時至結果,如識有身,識之生身遍身支體,求識所止莫得其所。若除於識身則不生,

"Indeed (如是), Worthy Protector (賢護), [ālaya] consciousness does not stay in a particular place in the body (識之在身止無處), not in the eye (非眼), ear (非耳), nose (鼻), or the tongue (舌), body (身). A seed giving birth to a sprout is likened to consciousness becoming dimly aware [in an embryo] (種生牙時,如識微覺). The formation of flower buds is likened to consciousness becoming receptive. The stage from blooming of flowers to bearing of fruits (含開花發時至結果) is likened to [ālaya] consciousness forming a body (如識有身). The way [ālaya] consciousness forms a body is throughout all parts of the body (識之生身遍身支體). However, one cannot find where it stays. Without [ālaya] consciousness, the body cannot be formed.

如樹果熟,堪為將來樹之種子,非不熟者,如是報熟身死,識種便現,因識有受,因受有愛,繫著於愛便生於念,識攝取念隨善惡業,與風大并知念父母,因緣合對,識便託之,如人面影現之於鏡,非淨非明面像不現,鏡明面對影像乃現,鏡中之像無受無念,而隨人身屈伸俯仰,開口談謔,行來進止,種種運動。賢護!影像現誰之力也?」

For example, only a ripe fruit from a tree (如樹果熟), not an unripe fruit, is capable of releasing the seed for a new tree to come. Similarly, when one’s [current] requital has matured, one dies and the consciousness-seed appears. Because of consciousness (識種便現), there is sensory reception (因識有受); because of sensory reception, there is love (因受有愛). Bondage of love produces memory (繫著於愛便生於念). [Ālaya] consciousness carries memory and moves away like the wind according to good and evil karmas (識攝取念隨善惡業). It also thinks of its parents-to-be and entrusts (與風大并知念父母) those who match the causes and conditions (因緣合對). For example (如), the reflection of one’s face (人面影現之於鏡) does not appear in a mirror if the mirror is not clear (非淨非明面像不現). If the mirror is clear, the reflection appears (鏡明面對影像乃現). The image in the mirror (鏡中之像) has no sensation (無受) or thinking (無念), but it follows the person to stretch or bend, to face upward or downward, to open the mouth to speak or joke, to walk or stand, performing various kinds of motion. Worthy Protector (賢護), by what force does the reflection appear in a mirror (影像現誰之力也)?"

[0181b17] 賢護白佛言:

Worthy Protector replied to the Buddha:

「是人之力,由有面故而有面影,影像之色如面之色,根具不具咸悉如面。」

"It is by the decision of the person (是人之力). Because of his face (由有面), there is its reflection (而有面影). The form of the reflection is like that of the person’s face (影像之色如面之色). Its sense organs, whether complete or incomplete (根具不具), are like those on his face (咸悉如面)."

[0181b18] 佛言:

The Buddha said:

「面為影因,鏡為影緣,因緣和合故有影現。由識因故,有受想行及諸心所,父母為緣,因緣和合而有身現。如彼身鏡,鏡中之影身去影滅,身持影像,或別現於水等之中;識棄此身,持善惡業遷受餘報,亦復如是。又如尼瞿陀烏曇婆等,種子雖小能生大樹,樹復生子,子棄故樹,更生新樹,故樹經久,質力衰微,味液銷竭乾枯腐朽。如是諸小生類,其識棄身乘己之業,或受種種諸類大身。又如大麥、小麥、烏麻、菉豆及摩沙等,種種子實皆以種故,牙莖花實生長成熟;如是由有識故,隨遷生類即便有覺,由覺有受,持善惡業受種種身。又如蜂止花愛樂戀著,唼吮花味以自資養,蜂棄此花更處餘花,或棄香入臭,或棄臭入香,隨其所在莫不自愛戀結貪著;識亦如是,以福業故獲諸天身受勝樂果,或棄天身,以惡業故獲地獄報受眾苦果,輪迴遷轉為種種身,識如欝金紅藍芬陀利等,其子皆白,破其子中不見牙花不見異色,種之於地以水潤液,便有牙等,順時滋長花果敷榮,或赤或白種種之色,色與牙等不在子中,然離於子皆不得生。

"The person’s face is the cause of the reflection, and the mirror is the condition of the reflection. The reflection appears because of the convergence of causes and conditions. Likewise, [ālaya] consciousness is the cause of one’s sensory reception, perception, mental processing, and mental functions, and the parents are the conditions. As the causes and conditions converge, a body appears [like a reflection in the mirror]. As for the person and the mirror, when the person moves away, his mirror reflection is also gone. The person may cast his reflection elsewhere, perhaps in the water. Similarly, carrying good and evil karmas, [ālaya] consciousness abandons this body and moves away to accept the next requital. As another analogy, the seed of a banyan tree or a ficus tree is small, but it can grow a huge tree. The tree again bears seeds. The new seed then abandons the old tree to grow a new tree. As the old tree grows weak over time, with its sap exhausted, it will dry out and decay. After [ālaya] consciousness abandons the body of a sentient being, [like a small seed] it will accept a huge body of some kind according to karma. It is also like many kinds of seeds, such as barley, wheat, sesame, mung bean, and legume. Because a seed is planted, sprout, stem, flowers, and fruits will grow and ripen. Similarly, because [ālaya] consciousness has moved into a sentient being of some kind, this being has awareness and sensory reception. The way [ālaya] consciousness, holding good and evil karmas, successively accepts a variety of bodies is also like a bee that stops over flowers. With love, pleasure, and attachment, it sucks the flavor of a flower for nourishment. The bee then abandons this flower to seek other flowers at other places. Whether it abandons fragrance for stench or it abandons stench for fragrance, it cannot help loving and coveting the object it stops over. Likewise, [ālaya] consciousness may acquire a celestial body to enjoy the fortune fruit of meritorious karma. It may then abandon the celestial body to enter into hell to accept the misfortune fruit of evil karma. As saṁsāra turns, various kinds of bodies are [successively] formed. [Ālaya] consciousness is like the white seed of a red or blue tulip or a puṇḍarīka flower. If one cracks open the seed, one will find no sprout, no flower, and no color. Only if the seed is planted in the ground and watered, will a sprout grow. In time flowers and fruits will thrive and flourish, with the flowers blooming in red or white, or various colors. The sprout and the colorful flowers are not inside the seed, but, without the seed, they cannot come into being. [Ālaya] consciousness abandons a dead body, including its fleshy frame, facial features, faculties, and sensory fields, because it no longer sees the convergence of their causes and conditions. With its special vision, hearing, smelling, tasting, and tactility, as well as its memory, [ālaya] consciousness knows the good and evil karmas one has done, according to which it will accept a requital body.

識棄身已,肉身容貌諸根諸入,識中不見因緣和合,識以妙視妙聞、聲觸味法及以念入,知已所造善惡等業以取身報,如蠶作繭,自作自纏,於中遷化;識亦如是,識自生身還自纏裹,自棄捨身更受餘報,由有種故有色香味,識棄捨身隨其所遷,諸根境界受及法界,皆悉隨之。如如意珠,隨其所在樂具皆隨,如日所在光明皆隨;識亦如是,隨其所遷,受覺與想及法界等皆悉隨之。

識棄捨身攝一切性,色因為身,無骨肉身,有諸根故,有受妙念知取善惡,如棗、石榴、菴羅、菴勒、鼻螺、渴竪、劫必他等種種之果,或辛或苦或酸或甜或醎或澁,味力各別,消熟所資,其功不一,及果壞已,味力隨種遷化而生。如是識種隨其所遷,受念善惡咸悉隨之,知棄此身受餘報身,故名為識;知善惡業知業隨我,知我持業遷化受報,故名為識;身之所為咸悉知之,故名為識。譬如風大,無形可取,無質可持,以因緣故作諸事業,表有風大,持冷持熱,運香運臭搖振林木,或鼓扇摧擊;如是識無形質,非視聽所取,以因緣故識相具顯,由識持身,身知苦樂,光色充盛行來進止,言笑歡憂事業昭著,當知有識。」

As a silkworm constructs a cocoon, binding itself by its own doing, so too does [ālaya] consciousness construct a body to bind itself. It will then abandon that body and transfer into a new body as the next requital. Because of a flower seed, there will be a new plant with colorful and fragrant flowers. Likewise, after [ālaya] consciousness has abandoned a body, wherever it goes, along with it goes the dharma realm, including faculties and sensory reception. Wherever a wish-fulfilling jewel is, it is accompanied by pleasing objects. Wherever the sun is, it is accompanied by bright light. Likewise, wherever consciousness transfers to, it is accompanied by the dharma realm, including sensory reception and perception. After abandoning a body, [ālaya] consciousness, without a body of flesh and bones, takes the cause of form as its body. It has faculties, sensory reception, and subtle thinking, and can grasp good or evil. Various kinds of fruits, such as dates, pomegranates, mangoes, and the like, may taste pungent, bitter, sour, sweet, salty, or tart. With a distinct flavor, each fruit serves a different purpose. After the fruit decays, its flavor will be reborn through the transformation of the seed. Thus, as the [ālaya] consciousness-seed transfers, it is accompanied by sensory reception, memory, and good and evil karmas. It is called consciousness because it knows that it has abandoned this body in order to accept the next requital body. It is called consciousness because it knows that it is accompanied by good and evil karmas and that, carrying these karmas, it transfers to accept [the next] requital. It is called consciousness because it knows all about what the body does. By analogy, the wind has no form to grasp and no mass to get hold of but, through causes and conditions, it can do karmas: The wind can carry cold or hot, carry fragrance or stench, shake the woods, or violently devastate anything in its path. Likewise, consciousness has no form or mass, and cannot be detected by sight or hearing. However, through causes and condition, the appearance of consciousness is revealed. Because one’s consciousness maintains one’s body, the body knows pain or pleasure. Looking radiant and energetic, one’s body can walk or stand, speak or laugh, and feel happy or sad. Seeing clearly the karmas done, we should know that there is consciousness."

M√°sodik tekercs 第2卷

[0182a12] 爾時會中有月實勝上童真,從座而起合掌白佛言:

At that time (爾時) in the assembly (會中), the youth Moon Reality Superior (月實) rose from his seat and joined his palms. He asked the Buddha:

「世尊!云何見色因?云何見欲因?云何見見因?云何見戒取因?」

World-Honored One (世尊), how does one see the cause of form (云何見色因)? How does one see the cause of desire (云何見欲因)? How does one see the cause of perception (云何見見因)? How does one see the cause of grasping certain precepts (云何見戒取因)?"

[0182a14] 佛告月實:

The Buddha told Moon Reality (月實):

「智見智境,愚見愚境,智者見諸姝麗美色,了知穢惡,唯是肉段筋骨膿血,大脈小脈大腸小腸,[月*冊]液腦膜腎心脾膽,肝肺肚胃生藏熟藏,黃痰涕唾髮鬚毛爪,大小便利薄皮裹之,不淨污露可畏可惡,凡所有色皆四大生,是為色因。

"The wise see objects wisely (智見智境); the foolish see objects foolishly (愚見愚境). When the wise see an attractive body, they understand that it is filth, only an assemblage of flesh bundles, tendons, bones, membranes, pus, secretion, and blood, with large veins, small veins, and hollow and solid organs, such as large intestine, small intestine, bladder, stomach, spleen, gall bladder, liver, brain, heart, kidneys, and lungs, as well as hair and nails. Also wrapped in a thin skin are abominable, disgusting impure discharges, such as bile, phlegm, mucus, saliva, feces, and urine. A form is composed of the (凡所有色皆) four domains (四大生), and they are the cause of form (是為色因).

[0182a20] 「月實!如父母生身,身之堅硬為地大,流潤為水大,暖熟為火大,飄動為風大,有所覺知念及聲香味觸等界,斯皆為識。」

Moon Reality (月實), taking the body born from parents as an example (如父母生身), its solidity is in the (身之堅硬為) earth domain (地大); its moisture (流潤為) in the water domain (水大); its warmth (暖熟為) in the fire domain (火大); and its motion (飄動為) in the wind domain (風大). Its perception (覺) and memory (念), as well as its sensory fields, such as sounds, scents, flavors, and tactile sensations, (聲香味觸等界) are all in the consciousness domain (斯皆為識)."

[0182a22] 月實童真復白佛言:

The youth Moon Reality next asked the Buddha:

「世尊!將死之時,云何識捨於身?云何識遷於身?云何識知今捨此身?」

"Why does one’s consciousness abandon the current body upon its death? How does it transfer into the next body? How does it know when to abandon this body?"

[0182a24] 佛告月實:

The Buddha told Moon Reality:

「眾生隨業獲報,識流相續持身不絕,期畢報終識棄捨身,隨業遷受。譬如水乳和,煎以火熱力,乳水及膩各各分散。如是,月實!眾生命盡以業力散,形骸與識及諸入界,各各分散,識為所依,以取法界及法界念并善惡業,遷受他報。

A sentient being (眾生) receives requital according to karma (隨業獲報), and the stream of consciousness continuously maintains each requital body. A life ends upon the exhaustion of requital, then [ālaya] consciousness abandons the body. It then moves on to accept [the next body] according to karma (隨業遷受). Using watery milk as an example (譬如水乳和), when it is heated with fire (煎以火熱力), milk, water, and fat will separate (乳水及膩各各分散). Thus (如是), Moon Reality (月實), when a sentient being’s life ends (眾生命盡) because of dissolution of the karmic force (以業力散), the physical form, consciousness, faculties, and their spheres all separate from one another (形骸與識及諸入界). As the only reliance (各各分散), [ālaya] consciousness (識為所依) then carries the dharma realm (法界), including memory and one’s good and evil karmas (界念并善惡業), and goes on to accept the next requital (遷受他報).

[0182b01] 「月實!譬如大吉善蘇,以眾良藥味力熟功和合,為之大吉善蘇,棄凡蘇性持良藥力,辛苦酸醎澁甘六味,以資人身,便與人身作色香味;識棄此身,持善惡業及法界等遷受餘報,亦復如是。

Moon Reality, taking the highly auspicious butter as an example, when [ordinary] butter is cooked with various good medicines, it turns into the highly auspicious butter with medicinal flavors and healing power. Shedding its ordinary quality, the butter now holds the strength of good medicine with six flavors: pungent, bitter, sour, salty, tart, and sweet. With its substance, aromas, and flavors, it can benefit one’s body. Similarly, after abandoning the body, [ālaya] consciousness, carrying its dharma realm and good and evil karmas, moves away to accept the next requital.

[0182b05] 「月實!蘇質如身,諸藥和合為大吉善,如諸法諸根和合為業,眾藥味觸資成於蘇,如業資識,服大吉善悅澤充盛,光色美好安隱無患,如善資識獲諸樂報;服蘇違法顏容變惡,慘無血氣色死士白,如惡資識獲諸苦報。

Moon Reality (月實), the substance of the butter is like one’s body (蘇質如身). Blending medicines with the butter (諸藥和合為大吉善), turning it into the highly auspicious butter is like joining sense objects and faculties to do karma (如諸法諸根和合為業). The medicinal flavors mixed into the butter are like good karma (眾藥味觸資成於蘇) that karma supports consciousness (如業資識). If one eats the highly auspicious butter, one will look robust, energetic, radiant, fine, and peaceful, without any trouble. It is like enjoying a pleasure-requital because good karma is stored in one’s consciousness. If one eats butter made with the wrong medicine, one’s features will turn grim, without healthy colors, chalky like the dead. It is like receiving a pain-requital because evil karma is stored in one’s consciousness.

[0182b10] 「月實!吉善寶蘇無手足眼,能取良藥色香味力;識亦如是,取法界受及諸善業,棄此身界受於中陰得天妙念,見六欲天、十六地獄,見己之身,手足端嚴諸根麗美,見所棄屍,云:『此是我前生之身。』復見高勝妙相天宮種種莊嚴,花果卉木藤蔓蒙覆,光明赫麗如新鍊金眾寶鈿飾。彼見此已心大歡喜,因大喜愛,識便託之,此善業人捨身受身安樂無苦,如乘馬者棄一乘一。譬如壯士武略備具,見敵兵至著堅甲冑,乘策驥駿所去無畏,識資善根棄出入息,捨界入身遷受勝樂,亦復如是,自梵身天爰至有頂,生於其中。」

Moon Reality (月實), the auspicious precious butter does not have hands, feet, or eyes, but it can retain the strength of the substance, aromas, and flavors of good medicines. In the same way, [ālaya] consciousness can retain one’s good karma and dharma realm. After abandoning the current body, it will manifest wonderful celestial vision through an interim body. It can see the six desire heavens (六欲天) and the sixteen hells (十六地獄). It can see its [interim] body with shapely hands and feet and fine sense organs. It also can see the abandoned corpse and recognize it as the body of its former life. It also can see tall magnificent celestial palaces with various kinds of adornments, surrounded by flowers, fruits, and trees, and covered with vines so radiant and gorgeous that they are like new gold chains set with jewels. Having seen these things, it will be very joyous. Because of great joy and love, [ālaya] consciousness will entrust itself to this [environment]. When a person with good karma abandons his body to assume another body it is peaceful and painless (此善業人捨身受身安樂無苦). It is like a horseman abandoning one horse to ride another (如乘馬者棄一乘一). It is like a warrior armed with military strategy. When the enemy troops approach, he puts on his sturdy armor and fearlessly rides off on his steed. Likewise, [ālaya] consciousness, supported with one’s roots of goodness, abandons the inhalation and exhalation of this body as well as its spheres, and moves away to experience fabulous pleasures by rebirth in heaven, whether a Brahma heaven or even the top heaven heaven in the form realm.

[0182b21] 爾時會中大藥王子,從座而起,合掌白佛言:「世尊!識捨於身作何色像?」

At that time in the assembly, Prince Great Medicine (大藥王子) rose from his seat and joined his palms. He asked the Buddha: "World-Honored One (世尊) What form and image does consciousness assume after it has abandoned the body?"

[0182b23] 佛言:「善哉!善哉!大藥!汝今所問,是大甚深佛之境界,唯除如來更無能了。」

The Buddha replied: "Very good! (善哉) Very good! (善哉) Great Medicine, what you now ask is in the great profound realm of a Buddha (大甚深佛之境界). Except for the Tathāgata, no one can understand. (唯除如來更無能了)"

[0182b25] 於是賢護勝上童真白佛言:「大藥王子所問甚深,其智微妙敏利明決。」

Then the youth Worthy Protector Superior said to the Buddha, "Prince Great Medicine’s question is very profound. His wisdom is wonderful, keen, and brilliant."

[0182b26] 佛告賢護:「此大藥王子,已於毘婆尸佛所植諸善根,曾於五百生中生外道家,為外道時,常思識義:識者云何?云何為識?於五百生不能決了,識之去來莫知由緒。我於今日為破疑網,令得開解。」

The Buddha told Worthy Protector: "This prince Great Medicine has planted his roots of goodness under Vipaśyin Buddha (毘婆尸佛). For five hundred lives, he was reborn in non-Buddhist families (五百生中生外道家). When he was a nonbeliever (為外道時), he often pondered the meaning of consciousness (常思識義): what consciousness is (識者云何) and why it is consciousness (云何為識). For five hundred lives, he was unable to solve his problem (五百生不能決了), unable to find clues as to the coming and going of consciousness. I will today shatter his web of doubts and make him understand. (我於今日為破疑網,令得開解)"

[0182c02] 於是賢護勝上童真,謂大藥王子言:「善哉!善哉!仁今所問微妙甚深,月實之問其義淺狹,猶如孾兒,心遊外境而不知內,正法希聞諸佛難遇,佛圓廣智無測深慧至妙之理,應專啟請。」

Then the youth Worthy Protector Superior said to Prince Great Medicine, "Very good (善哉)! Very good (善哉)! Your question is wonderful and profound. The meaning of Moon Reality’s questions (月實之問) is shallow and narrow (義淺狹), like a child whose mind wanders in the midst of external objects, not knowing his internal realm. It is rare to hear the true Dharma and it is hard to encounter a Buddha (正法希聞諸佛難遇), whose vast knowledge and profound wisdom are unfathomable. We should especially request the Buddha to give the utmost wonderful teachings."

[0182c06] 時大藥王子,見佛熙怡顏容舒悅如秋蓮開,踊躍歡喜一心合掌,而白佛言:

Seeing the Buddha’s radiant and pleasant features like an autumn lotus flower opening, Prince Great Medicine was exuberant and joyful. He joined his palms single-mindedly and said to the Buddha:

「世尊!我愛深法渴仰深法,常恐如來入般涅槃,不聞正法,而於五濁眾生之中,愚無所知不識善惡,於善不善、熟與不熟,不能覺了,迷惑輪轉生死苦趣。」

World-Honored One, I love the profound Dharma and I thirst for the profound Dharma. I always have the fear of the Tathāgata entering parinirvāṇa (如來入般涅槃) and of my not hearing the True Dharma (不聞正法). Then I would have to be among the sentient beings in the world of the five turbidities (pañca-kaṣāya, 五濁), too ignorant to know good versus evil, too ignorant to be aware of the good versus the evil and of maturity versus immaturity [of karma]. I would have to transmigrate in confusion through the painful journeys of birth and death."

[0182c12] 佛告大藥王子:「如來正法難遇難得,我於往昔為半伽他,登山自墜,棄捨身命,為求正法,經歷無量百千萬億種種苦難。大藥!汝所悕望皆恣汝問,我當為汝分別解說。」

The Buddha told Prince Great Medicine: "The true Dharma of the Tathāgata (如來正法) is hard to encounter and hard to acquire. In a past life, for the sake of half a stanza [of teachings], I climbed up a mountain and plunged down, abandoning my life. For the sake of the true Dharma (為求正法), I underwent immeasurable (無量) millions of koṭis (百千萬億) of various kinds of (種種) suffering and tribulations (苦難). Great Medicine (大藥), you may ask all the questions you wish. I will explicate them to you."

[0182c15] 大藥王子白佛言:「唯然奉教!世尊!識相云何?願垂開示。」

Prince Great Medicine said to the Buddha: "Affirmatively I accept Your teachings. World-Honored One, what is the appearance of consciousness? (識相云何) I pray that You will grant me an explanation."

[0182c17] 佛告大藥:「如人影像現之於水,此像不可執持,非有無辨,如芻洛迦形,如渴愛像。」

The Buddha told Great Medicine, "Its appearance is like a person’s reflection in the water. Indistinguishable as existent or nonexistent (非有無辨), it cannot be grasped. It is like the shape of a cloud, like an image of [tṛṣṇā] thirsty love (渴愛)."

[0182c18] 大藥王子白佛言:「世尊!云何渴愛?」

Prince Great Medicine asked the Buddha, "What is thirsty love?"

[0182c19] 佛言:「如人對可意色,眼根趣之,名為渴愛。猶持明鏡視己面像,若去於鏡,面像不見;識之遷運亦復如是,善惡業形與識色像皆不可見。 The Buddha replied, "When one’s eyes follow a pleasing sight, it is called thirsty love (渴愛). When one holds a mirror, one sees the reflection of one’s face. When the face in front of the mirror is gone, so is its reflection. The transference of [ālaya] consciousness is similar, and consciousness and good and evil karmas have no form or shape to see.

如生盲人日出日沒,晝夜明闇,皆悉不知;識莫能見亦復如是。身中渴愛受想不可見,身之諸大諸入諸陰,彼皆是識,諸有色體眼耳鼻舌,及身色聲香味觸等,并無色體受苦樂心,皆亦是識。

As a person who is born blind does not know sunrise, sunset, night, day, light, or dark, likewise one cannot see one’s consciousness. Nor can one see in one’s body thirsty love, sensory reception, perception, or memory. The [four] domains, the [six] faculties, and the [five] aggregates, constituting a sentient being, are all consciousness. The physical eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body, together with sights, sounds, scents, flavors, and tactile sensations, as well as the nonphysical experience of pain or pleasure, are all consciousness.

[0182c27] 「大藥!如人舌得食物知甜苦辛酸醎澁等,六味皆辨,舌與食物俱有形色而味無形,又因身骨髓肉血覺知諸受,骨等有形,受無形色,知識福非福果亦復如是。」

Great Medicine (大藥), for example, one tastes food with one’s tongue to detect all six flavors (六味): sweet, bitter, pungent, sour, salty, and tart. The tongue and the food have shapes and forms, but flavors are formless. One detects sensations because of one’s body, with its bones, marrows, flesh, and blood. The body has a form, but sensations are without form or shape (受無形色). Through one’s body one can know consciousness as well as the fortune fruit or misfortune fruit it holds (知識福非福果亦復如是)."

[0183a01] 時賢護勝上童真,禮佛雙足,白佛言:「世尊!此識可知福非福耶?」

At that time the youth Worthy Protector Superior bowed down at the feet of the Buddha and asked: "World-Honored One (世尊), can one see one’s consciousness and know one’s fortune or misfortune in store?"

[0183a03] 佛言:「善聽!非未見諦而能見識,識不可視,非如掌中阿摩勒果,識不在於眼等之中,若識在於眼等之中,剖破眼等應當見識。賢護!恒沙諸佛見識無色,我亦如是見識無色,識非凡愚之所能見,但以譬喻而開顯耳。賢護!欲知識之罪福,汝今當聽!譬如有人為諸天神或乾闥婆等,及塞建陀等鬼神所著。

The Buddha replied: "Hearken well! (善聽) No one can see consciousness without first seeing the truth. Unlike a mango in one’s palm, consciousness cannot be seen. Consciousness is not inside one’s sense organs (識不在於眼等之中), such as the eye (識不在於眼等之中). If consciousness were inside any sense organ (若識在於眼等之中), such as the eye (剖破眼等), one would be able to see it by dissecting the eye (應當見識). Worthy Protector (賢護), as Buddhas as numerous as the sands of the Ganges all see that consciousness is formless, so too I see that consciousness is formless. Consciousness cannot be seen by the ordinary and the foolish. It can be revealed [to them] only by analogy. Worthy Protector, to know one’s sin or merit stored in consciousness, you now should hearken. Suppose a person is possessed, whether by a deity, such as a gandharva, or by a spirit, such as a skandha.

賢護!於意云何?其為天等鬼神所著,其著之體求於身中可得見不?」

Worthy Protector (賢護), what is your opinion (於意云何)? Can one see the possessor, whether a deity or a spirit?"

[0183a11] 賢護白佛言:「不也!世尊!天等鬼神所著,其著之體無色無形,身內外求皆不可見。」

Worthy Protector replied to the Buddha, "No (不也), World-Honored One (世尊), the possessor, a deity or a spirit, has no form or shape (無色無形). One cannot see it inside or outside that person’s body (身內外求皆不可見)."

[0183a13] 「賢護!其為福勝諸大天神之所著者,即須好香花燒眾名香,香美飲食清淨安置,祭解供具咸須華潔,如是此識為福資者,便獲尊貴安樂之果:或為人王,或為輔相,或豪望貴重,或財富自在,或為諸長,或作大商主,或得天身,受天勝果。

[The Buddha continued] "Worthy Protector (賢護), if a person is possessed by a great deity with superb merit, he will receive fragrant flowers (香花) and choice incense, and will have aromatic fine food and drink, served properly with handsome clean offering paraphernalia. Likewise, because [ālaya] consciousness has a store of merits (如是此識為福資), one will receive [fortune] fruit in the form of dignity, peace, and happiness, whether as a king among men (或為人王), a state minister (或為輔相), a dignitary with reputation (或豪望貴重), a person in command of wealth (或財富自在), an elder (或為諸長), a merchant lord (或作大商主), or a god (或得天身) who enjoys splendid celestial life (受天勝果).

由識為福資身獲樂報,如彼福勝天神所著,得勝妙花香香美飲食,便即歡喜病者安隱,今得尊貴豪富自在,當知皆是由福資識身獲樂果。

One’s body receiving pleasure-requital because one’s consciousness has a store of merits is like a person possessed by a benign deity. When the deity receives an offering of wonderful flowers, choice incense, and aromatic, fine food and drink, he will be delighted and the possessed patient will be soothed. Therefore, if a person acquires command of rank and wealth in life, we should know that his body enjoys fortune fruit because his consciousness has stored merit.

[0183a21] 「賢護!其為富丹那等下惡鬼神之所著者,便愛糞垢腐敗涕唾諸不淨物,以此祭解歡喜病愈,其人以鬼神力隨鬼神欲,愛樂不淨臭朽糞穢;識以罪資亦復如是,或生貧窮,或生餓鬼及諸食穢畜生之中種種惡趣,由罪資識身獲苦果。

Worthy Protector (賢護), if a person is possessed by a sordid evil spirit, such as a pūtana (富丹那), which loves feces, spit, rot, filth, and other impure things, offering these to the spirit’s pleasure will suit that person. Because of the power of the spirit, the possessed patient follows its desires and loves impurity, stench, rot, and feces. Likewise, if [ālaya] consciousness is laden with sin, one will be reborn [as a human] in poverty or will take an evil life-journey of some kind, as a hungry ghost or an animal that eats filthy things.

[0183a27] 「賢護!勝上天神其著之體無質無形,而受種種香潔供養,識福無形受勝樂報亦復如是;富丹那等下惡鬼神,為彼著者,便受不淨穢惡飲食,識資罪業獲諸苦報亦復如是。

Worthy Protector (賢護), one who is possessed by a superior deity, a formless and shapeless (無質無形) entity, receives various kinds of fragrant (種種香) and pure offerings (潔供養). Similarly, one receives pleasure-requital because one’s [ālaya] consciousness is stored with meritorious karma (識福無形受勝樂報亦復如是). By contrast, one who is possessed by an evil spirit, such as a pūtana (富丹那), receives impure, filthy, gross food and drink. Similarly, one receives pain-requital because one’s [ālaya] consciousness is laden with sinful karma.

[0183b02] 「賢護!當知識無形質,如天等鬼神所著之體,供具飲食所獲好惡,如資罪福得苦樂報。」

Worthy Protector (賢護), we should know that a body possessed by a deity or a spirit receives fine or gross food and drink is like one who receives pleasure-requital or pain-requital for one’s merit or sin stored [in consciousness]."

[0183b04] 大藥王子白佛言:「世尊!云何見欲因?」

Prince Great Medicine asked the Buddha, "World-Honored One, how does one see the cause of desire (云何見欲因)?"

[0183b04] 佛言:

The Buddha replied:

「大藥!互因生欲,猶如鑽燧兩木互因,加之人功而有火生,如是因識,及因男女色聲香味觸等,而有欲生。譬如因花生果,花中無果,果生花滅;如是因身顯識,循身求識,識不可見,識業果生身便謝滅,身骨髓等不淨諸物咸悉銷散。

Great Medicine (大藥), desire is born from complementary causes (互因生欲), like two pieces of wood rubbed against each other by human effort to produce fire. Thus desire is born from consciousness (如是因識), together with (及因男女) male and female sights (色), sounds (聲), scents (香), flavors (味), and tactile sensations (觸). As an analogy, fruit is born from flower (譬如因花生果). However, there is no fruit in a flower. When the fruit is born, the flower has perished. Although consciousness is evident because of the body, it cannot be seen by searching throughout the body. When the [seed for the next] karmic fruit is born in consciousness, the body perishes. Bones, marrow, and impure things will all decompose along with the body.

又如種子持將來果味色香觸,遷植而生;識棄此身,持善惡業受想作意,受來生報,亦復如是。又如男女愛欲歡會分離而去,識業和合戀結愛著味玩貪悋,報盡分離隨業受報,父母因緣中陰對之,以業力生識獲身果,愛情及業,俱無形質,欲色相因而生於欲,是為欲因。

For example, carrying the form, aroma, flavor, and feel of the future fruit, a seed leaves the tree to grow. Likewise, [ālaya] consciousness abandons the current body, carrying good and evil karmas, sensory reception, perception, and thinking, to accept the next life as requital. The process is also like a man and a woman who go separate ways after their pleasure meeting of love and desire. Consciousness, joined with karma, engages in love, attachment, play, craving, greed, and stinginess. When the current karmic requital is exhausted, consciousness will accept the next requital according to karma. With the conditions of the parents matched during the intermediate state [after one’s death], karmic force will enable [ālaya] consciousness to acquire a body fruit [the karmic fruit]. Love and karma are both without mass or shape. Consciousness and form are the complementary causes for desire to arise. These are the cause of desire.

[0183b17] 「大藥!云何見戒取因?戒謂師所制戒,不殺、不盜、不邪婬、不妄語、不飲酒等行。取謂執取,是戒作如是見,因是持戒,當得須陀洹果、斯陀含果、阿那含果,以是因故獲於勝有,謂受人天等身,斯皆是有漏善,非無漏善。無漏之善無陰熟果,今此戒取是有漏種植之,於識執善惡業識不淳淨,煩惱因故受熱惱苦,是為見戒取因。」

Great Medicine, what is the cause for one to grasp the precepts? These precepts (戒) — no killing (不殺), no stealing (不盜), no sexual misconduct (不邪婬), no lying (不妄語), and no drinking alcohol (不飲酒) — are stipulated by a teacher. Grasping these precepts is caused by a [grasping] view that, because of observing these precepts, one will achieve holy fruits, becoming a Srotāpanna (須陀洹果), a Sakṛdāgāmin (斯陀含果), or an Anāgāmin (阿那含果). However, because of grasping, one will instead gain a good rebirth, assuming human form or celestial form. [Grasping these precepts] is goodness with discharges [of afflictions], not goodness without discharges, because goodness without discharges will not yield such a fruit, a body composed of the five aggregates. Therefore, grasping the precepts means planting an impure seed. Consciousness that holds both good and evil karmas is impure, and it suffers from feverish distress because of afflictions. This is the cause of grasping the precepts."

[0183b25] 大藥白佛言:「云何識取天身乃至取地獄身?」

Great Medicine asked the Buddha: "How does consciousness assume the form of a god or a hell-dweller?"

[0183b26] 佛言:「大藥!識與法界持微妙視,非肉眼所依以為見因,此微妙視與福境合,見於天宮欲樂嬉戲,見已歡喜,識便繫著,作如是念:『我當往彼。』染愛戀念而為有因,見已故身臥棄屍所,作如是念:『此屍是我大善知識,由其積集諸善業故,令我今者獲於天報。』」

The Buddha replied: "Great Medicine (大藥), [ālaya] consciousness in the intermediate state has extraordinary vision, which does not depend on the physical eye for sight. This special vision, joined with a fortunate condition, sees merrymaking with desire and pleasure in a celestial palace. Consciousness will delight in and be attached to what it sees, and will think: ‘I should go there.’ (『我當往彼。』) Impure love and attachment are the cause of being. When consciousness sees its dead body lying in the place for corpses, it will then think: ‘This corpse is my beneficent learned friend. Because it has accumulated good karmas, I now will receive the celestial-life requital.’ (『此屍是我大善知識,由其積集諸善業故,令我今者獲於天報。』)"

[0183c02] 大藥白佛言:「世尊!此識於屍既有愛重,何不託止?」

Great Medicine asked the Buddha, "World-Honored One (世尊), this consciousness deeply loves the corpse. Why does it not use it?"

[0183c03] 佛言:「大藥!譬如剪棄鬚髮,雖見烏光香澤,寧可更植於身令重生不?」

The Buddha said: " (大藥) taking the cut hair and beard as an analogy, although they are still black and lustrous, can you plant them on the body to make them grow again?"

[0183c05] 大藥白佛言:「不也!世尊!已棄鬚髮,不可重植於身令其更生。」

Great Medicine replied to the Buddha: "No (不也), World-Honored One (世尊), the abandoned hair and beard cannot be planted on the body to make them grow again."

[0183c06] 佛言:「如是,大藥!已棄之屍,識亦不可重託受報。」

The Buddha said: "Likewise (如是), Great Medicine (大藥), the corpse that [ālaya] consciousness has abandoned cannot be reused as the next requital."

[0183c07] 大藥復白佛言:「世尊!此識冥寞玄微,無質可取、無狀可尋,云何能持象等大身眾生?縱身堅固猶若金剛,而能貫入壯夫之身,力敵九象而能持之?」

Great Medicine further asked the Buddha: "This consciousness is invisible and profound, without any mass or shape to find. How does it maintain the large body of a sentient being, such as an elephant, which is hard, like vajra? How does it enter into and maintain the body of a strong man who can fight off nine elephants?"

[0183c11] 佛言:「大藥!譬如風大無質無形,止於幽谷或竅隙中,其出暴猛,或摧倒須彌碎為塵粉。大藥!須彌風大色相云何?」

The Buddha replied, "Great Medicine (大藥), the wind, without mass or shape (譬如風大無質無形), stays in a hidden valley or crevice. It can break out with violent force, breaking Mount Sumeru into dust. Great Medicine, what are the form and appearance of the wind that can destroy Mount Sumeru?"

[0183c13] 大藥白佛言:「風大微妙,無質無形。」

Great Medicine replied to the Buddha, "The wind is intangible (風大微妙), without mass or shape. (無質無形)"

[0183c14] 佛言:「大藥!風大微妙,無質無形;識亦如是,妙無形質,大身小身咸悉能持,或受蚊身或受象身。譬如明燈,其焰微妙置之於室,隨室大小眾闇咸除;識亦如是,隨諸業因任持大小。」

The Buddha said: "Great Medicine (大藥), as the wind is intangible (風大微妙), without mass or shape (無質無形), so too is [ālaya] consciousness (識亦如是) without mass or shape (妙無形質). However, it can maintain a body, whether large or small (大身小身), whether of an elephant or of a mosquito (或受蚊身或受象身). As a bright lamp dispels darkness in a large or small room, likewise consciousness maintains a large or small body according to karma."

[0183c18] 大藥白佛言:「世尊!諸業相性彼復云何?以何因緣而得顯現?」

Great Medicine asked the Buddha: "World-Honored One (世尊), what is the appearance of karma (諸業相性彼復云何)? Through what causes and conditions does it manifest (以何因緣而得顯現)?"

[0183c19] 佛言:「大藥!生諸天宮食天妙饍安寧快樂,斯皆業果之所致也。如人渴乏巡遊曠野,一得清涼美水,一無所得受渴乏苦,得冷水者無人持與,受渴乏者亦無遮障不許與水,各以業因受苦樂報。

The Buddha replied: "Great Medicine (大藥), one’s rebirth in a celestial palace to eat wonderful celestial food in peace and happiness is the appearance of a karmic fruit. As an analogy, two thirsty people wander in wilderness. One of them finds cool, good water; the other finds nothing and has to endure thirst and suffering. One of them acquires cool water, not given by anyone; the other in thirst is not obstructed by anyone from finding water. Each person receives pleasure-requital or pain-requital for karmic reasons.

大藥!應當以是見善惡業,如空中月白黑二分,又如生果由火大增熟便色異,如是此身由福增故生勝族家,資產豐盈金寶溢滿勝相顯盛,或生諸天宮快樂自在,斯皆善業福相顯現。譬如種子植之於地,果現樹首,然其種子不從枝入枝而至樹首,割析樹身亦不見子,無人持子置於枝上,樹成根固求種不見,如是諸善惡業咸依於身,求之於身亦不見業。如因種有花,種中無花,因花有果,花中無果,花果增進增進不見;因身有業,因業有身,身中無業,業中無身,亦復如是。如花熟落其果乃現,身熟謝殞業果方出,如有種子花果之因具有,如是有身,善惡業因備在,彼業無形亦無熟相。如人身影無質無礙,不可執持不繫著人,進止往來隨人運動,亦不見影從身而出;業身亦爾,有身有業,而不見業,繫著於身亦不離身而能有業。如辛苦澁殊味諸藥,能滌淨除一切病,令身充悅顏色光澤,人見之者知服良藥,藥味可取熟功無形,視不可見、執不可得,而能資人膚容色澤;業無形質能資於身,亦復如是。善業資者,飲食衣服內外諸資,豐饒美麗手足端正,形容姝好屋室華侈,摩尼金銀眾寶盈積,安寧快樂歡娛適意,當知此為善業之相。生於下賤邊地貧窮,資用闕乏悕羨他樂,飲食麁惡或不得食,形容弊陋所止卑下,當知此為惡業之相。猶如明鏡鑒面好醜,鏡像無質取不可得,如是識資善不善業,生人天中或生地獄、畜生等中。大藥!應當如是見業與識和合遷化。」

Great Medicine, this is the way to see one’s good or evil karma, which is white or black, like the two distinct phases of the moon in the sky. It is also like the color of a fruit, which changes as the fruit ripens with the power in its fire domain. Thus, because of abundance of merit, one is reborn into a noble family, with an outstanding physical appearance, plentiful assets, and an overflow of gold and treasures. Or one may be reborn in a celestial palace to enjoy happiness and ease. These fortunate conditions are manifestations of one’s good karma. As an analogy, a seed is planted in the ground, but fruits appear at the top of the tree. The seed does not go from branch to branch to reach the tree top, nor does anyone place the seed on a branch. One cannot find the seed by cutting open the tree trunk. Even if the tree is chopped down, one still cannot find the seed. The seed cannot be found as the tree is formed and its roots firm. Thus good and evil karmas depend on the body, but cannot be found in the body. As an analogy, the seed is the cause of the flower, but inside the seed there is no flower. The flower is the cause of the fruit, but inside the flower there is no fruit. As the flower and the fruit grow, neither growth shows its cause. Likewise, because of the body there is karma, and because of karma there is the body. When the flower falls at maturity, the fruit with its seed will appear; when the body expires at maturity, the karmic seed will leave it. As the seed is the cause of flowers and fruits, likewise is the body the cause of good and evil karmas. Karma has no shape, no appearance of maturity, like the shadow of one’s body, with neither mass nor obstruction. The shadow is not held by or fastened to a person, but it moves along with the person. Never has anyone seen the shadow coming out of his body. Likewise, there are body and karma, but karma cannot be seen as something attached to the body. Yet, without the body, there cannot be karma. As an analogy, medicine, which tastes pungent, bitter, or tart, can purge all diseases and make one’s body glow with healthy color and radiance, and people will know on sight that [the patient] has taken good medicine. The flavor of medicine can be experienced, but its curative merit is formless, cannot be seen, and cannot be captured. However, it can improve a person’s skin tone and glow. Likewise, good karma, which has no mass or shape, can enrich one’s body. One who is fortified with good karma is endowed with food, drink, and plentiful internal and external assets. One has facial features and shapely, normal hands and feet, lives in a luxurious house piled up with treasures, such as jewels, gold, and silver, and enjoys peace, happiness, and merriment at will. We should know that this is the appearance of good karma. By contrast, if one is reborn with repulsive features, stays in a squalid place in a fringe country, in poverty and lowliness, subsists on gross food and drink or has nothing to eat, lacks resources, envying others’ enjoyment, we should know that this is the appearance of evil karma. As a clear mirror displays the fineness or grossness of one’s face, the reflection in the mirror has no mass and cannot be captured. As [ālaya] consciousness has a store of good and evil karmas, accordingly one is reborn as a god or a human, or is reborn as an animal or a hell-dweller. Great Medicine, this is the way to see karma and [ālaya] consciousness transfer together."

[0184a24] 大藥言:「世尊!云何微識能持諸根,能取大身?」

Great Medicine asked: "World-Honored One (世尊), how does amazing consciousness acquire a large body and maintain its sense organs?"

[0184a25] 佛言:「大藥!譬如獵者,入於山林持弓毒箭而射香象,箭毒霑血毒運象身,支體既廢根境同喪,毒流要害身色青赤猶如淤血,毒殺象已便即遷化。於意云何?毒與象身多少大小,可得比不?」

The Buddha replied: "Great Medicine (大藥), as an analogy, a hunter goes into a mountain forest and shoots an elephant with a poisonous arrow. The poison on the arrow enters into the blood stream of the elephant, disables the body, and destroys its faculties. The poison is lethal and the body turns blue-red like clotted blood. Having killed the elephant, the poison is spent. What is your opinion (於意云何)? How does the quantity of poison compare with the size of the elephant’s body? Can they compare (可得比不)?"

[0184a29] 大藥白佛言:「世尊!毒與象身多少大小,其量懸殊不可為對,猶如須彌比之芥子。」

Great Medicine replied to the Buddha: "World-Honored One (世尊), the poison and the elephant have too wide a disproportion to compare quantity or size. It is like comparing a mustard seed with Mount Sumeru."

[0184b01] 「大藥!如是識棄此身以取諸根,棄此諸界隨業遷化,亦復如是。」

Great Medicine, likewise (如是), [ālaya] consciousness abandons the current body and its spheres and moves on to develop the faculties [of a new body] according to karma."

[0184b03] 大藥復白佛言:「世尊!云何微細之識任持大身而不疲倦?」

Great Medicine further asked the Buddha, "Why is the subtle consciousness not fatigued by maintaining a large body?"

[0184b04] 佛言:「大藥!須彌山王高八萬四千由旬,難陀、烏波難陀,二大龍王各遶三匝,二龍大息搖振須彌,內海中水咸變成毒。此二龍王長大力壯,和修吉龍、德叉迦龍,二大龍王亦與之等。於意云何?四龍王識與蚊蚋識寧有異不?」

The Buddha replied: "Great Medicine (大藥), Sumeru (須彌山), the king of mountains, stands at 84,000 yojanas (王高八萬四千由旬). The two dragon-kings (二大龍王) Nanda (難陀) and Upananda (烏波難陀) each circle it three times (三匝). They then shake Mount Sumeru with a huge breath (二龍大息搖振須彌), turning the waters of its surrounding sea into poison. These two dragon-kings are gigantic and strong, and the two dragon-kings Vāsuki and Takṣaka are their equals. What is your opinion (於意云何)? Is there any difference in quantity between the consciousness of any of the four dragon-kings and that of a mosquito?"

[0184b09] 大藥言:「世尊!四龍蚊蚋其識無異。」

Great Medicine replied: "World-Honored One (世尊), there is no difference between the consciousness of any of the four dragon-kings (四龍) and that of a mosquito."

[0184b10] 「大藥!如一小渧跋錯那婆,入四龍口四龍便死。於意云何?小渧藥毒、龍口中毒,何毒為大?」

Great Medicine (大藥), if a small drop of deadly poison enters the mouth of each of the four dragons, they all will die. What is your opinion? (於意云何) Between a small drop of deadly poison and the venom in the mouth of a dragon, which is stronger?"

[0184b12] 大藥白佛言:「龍口毒大,小渧藥毒甚為微少。」

Great Medicine replied to the Buddha, "The venom in the dragon’s mouth is stronger, and the strength of a small drop of poison is weaker."

[0184b13] 「大藥!大身眾生力敵九象,微妙之識無色無形,非分別量,隨業任持亦復如是。如尼瞿陀子極微細,種之生樹婆娑廣大枝條百千。於意云何?其子與樹大小類不?」

Great Medicine (大藥), even for a strong sentient being (大身眾生) that can fight off nine elephants (力敵九象), amazing consciousness (微妙之識), with neither form nor shape (無色無形), not measurable by quantity (非分別量), maintains its body according to karma. Although the seed of a banyan tree (尼瞿陀子) is tiny, after being planted, it can grow into a magnificent huge tree with hundreds and thousands of branches. What is your opinion (於意云何)? Are the seed and the tree of the same size? (子與樹大小類不)"

[0184b16] 大藥言:「世尊!其子與樹大小相懸,如藕絲孔比虛空界。」

Great Medicine replied, "World-Honored One (世尊), the seed (子) and the tree (樹) have a vast difference in size (大小相懸), like that between a hole in the lotus root and the domain of space."

[0184b18] 「如是,大藥!樹於子中求不可得,若不因子樹則不生。微細尼瞿陀子能生大樹,微細之識能生大身,識中求身身不可得,若除於識身則無有。」

Thus (如是), Great Medicine (大藥), the seed cannot be found in the tree (樹於子中求不可得). Yet, without the seed, the tree cannot be born (不因子樹則不生). As a tiny banyan seed can grow a huge tree, so too amazing consciousness can grow a huge body (大身). One cannot find consciousness in the body. Yet, without consciousness, the body cannot be (若除於識身則無有)."

[0184b21] 大藥復白佛言:「云何金剛堅固不可壞識,止於危脆速朽身內?」

Great Medicine further asked the Buddha: Why does consciousness, which is indestructible like an adamantine vajra, stay in a fragile quick-to-decay body?"

[0184b22] 佛言:「大藥!譬如貧人得如意寶,以寶力故高宇彫鏤,妙麗宮室園林欝茂,花果敷榮象馬妓侍,資用樂具自然而至;其人於後失如意寶,眾資樂具咸悉銷滅,如意神寶堅固真窂,縱千金剛不能毀壞,所生資用虛假無常速散速滅。識亦如是堅固不壞,所生之身速朽速滅。」

The Buddha replied: Great Medicine (大藥), as an analogy, a poor man acquires a wish-fulfilling jewel. By the power of the jewel, spontaneously appear resources and pleasure objects, such as ornately sculpted towers, splendid palatial mansions, lush gardens full of flowers and fruits, elephants and horses, and female attendants. Later, he loses the wish-fulfilling jewel, and all the resources and pleasure objects vanish. Although the wish-fulfilling jewel is so strong and durable that it cannot be destroyed by a thousand vajras, the resources it produces are false and impermanent, which quickly disperse and perish. Likewise, [ālaya] consciousness is strong and indestructible, but the body it produces quickly decays and perishes."

[0184b28] 大藥言:「世尊!柔妙之識,云何穿入麁鞕色中?」

Great Medicine asked, "World-Honored One (世尊), how does gentle consciousness (柔妙之識) penetrate a dense hard form?"

[0184b29] 佛言:「大藥!水體至柔,激流懸泉能穿山石。於意云何?水石之質鞕軟如何?」

The Buddha said: Great Medicine (大藥), water is a gentle substance, but its flow can penetrate mountain rocks. What is your opinion? How do you compare the quality of softness and hardness in water and rock (水石之質鞕軟)?"

[0184c02] 大藥言:「世尊!石質堅鞕猶若金剛,水質柔軟為諸樂觸。」

Great Medicine replied, "World-Honored One (世尊), the quality of a rock is hard, like vajra (金剛). The quality of water is soft, pleasant to the touch."

[0184c03] 「大藥!識亦如是,至妙至柔,能穿剛鞕大身之色,遷入受報。」

Great Medicine (大藥), Consciousness is like water, most wondrous and most soft, but it can penetrate a strong large body, accepting it as requital."

[0184c04] 大藥復白佛言:「世尊!眾生捨身云何生諸天中?乃至云何生於地獄等中?」

Great Medicine next asked the Buddha, "World-Honored One (世尊), after sentient beings have abandoned their bodies, how are they reborn in heaven, and how are they reborn in hell?"

[0184c06] 佛言:

The Buddha replied:

「大藥!眾生臨終之時福業資者,棄本之視得天妙視,以天妙視見六欲天,爰及六趣見身搖動,見天宮殿及歡喜園雜花園等,又見諸天處蓮花殿,麗妓侍遶笑謔嬉戲,眾花飾耳服憍奢耶,臂印環釧種種莊嚴,花常開敷眾具備設,見天天女,心便染戀歡喜適意,姿顏舒悅面若蓮花,視不錯亂,鼻不虧曲,口氣不臭,目色明鮮如青蓮葉,身諸節際無有苦痛,眼耳鼻口又無血出,不失大小便利,不毛驚孔現,掌不死黃甲不青黑,手足不亂亦不卷縮,好相顯現。見虛空中有高大殿,彩柱百千彫麗列布,垂諸鈴網,和風吹拂,清音悅美,種種香花莊嚴寶殿,諸天童子眾寶嚴身,遊戲殿內,見已歡喜微笑齒現如君圖花,目不張開亦不合閉,語音和潤,身不極冷亦不極熱,親屬圍遶亦不憂苦,日初出時當捨其壽,所見明白無諸黑闇,異香芬馥四方而至。見佛尊儀歡喜敬重,見已親愛歡喜,離辭猶如暫行,便即旋返安慰親知,不令憂惱有流法爾,生必當死勿以分別而生苦惱。

[0184c26] 「大藥!善業之人臨命終時,好樂布施,種種伽他種種頌歎,種種明白種種稱說正法之教,如睡不睡安隱捨壽。將捨壽時,天父天母同止一座,天母手中自然花出,天母見花顧謂天父:

Great Medicine, upon the death of a sentient being, if he has stored meritorious karma, he will abandon his original eyesight and acquire the wonderful celestial vision (天妙視). With the wonderful celestial vision (天妙視), he will see the six desire heavens (六欲天), the six life-journeys (六趣), and the movement of his body (身搖動). He will see celestial palaces (見天宮) with all amenities, and joyous gardens where flowers are always in bloom. He will also see beautiful goddess-attendants make merry in the lotus hall, wearing flowers and silk garments, adorned with bangles, bracelets, and other ornaments. Once he sees the goddess-daughters in a heaven, his mind will be filled with happiness and gratification as well as attachment. His features will become relaxed and joyful like a lotus flower. His gaze will not be disoriented, his nose not collapsed, and his breath not foul. His eyes will look bright and clear like green lotus leaves. The joints of his body will not be in pain. His eyes, ears, nose, and mouth will not ooze blood, nor will he lose control of feces or urine. His pores will not enlarge, nor will his hair stand on end. His palms will not be dead yellow, and his nails not blue black. His hands and feet will neither convulse nor contract. As a good sign, he will see a huge hall in the sky, lined with hundreds and thousands of colorful columns with beautiful carvings. The magnificent jeweled hall will be decorated with various kinds of fragrant flowers, and draped with nets, from which hang bells playing beautiful refreshing tones to gentle winds. Frolicking in the hall will be celestial youths adorned with jewels. Having seen these things, he will smile contentedly, showing his teeth like flowers in a painting. His eyes will be neither wide open nor closed. His voice will be soft, and his body neither too cold nor too hot. He will not be sad to see family members surrounding him. At sunrise, he will abandon his life. Then he will see light, not dark, with extraordinary fragrances coming from the four directions. He might even see, with delight and reverence, the honored visage of a Buddha. He will joyfully bid farewell as if to take a short trip. Then he will return to comfort his family and friends, helping them not to mourn the way existence flows, telling them not to have sorrow caused by differentiation, because where there is birth, there must be death. Great Medicine, a person with good karma, before his death, will delight in giving alms, in reciting various stanzas and praises, and in understanding various explanations and teachings of the true Dharma. He will abandon his life peacefully, not in sleep but as if in sleep. As the person is about to abandon his life, his celestial parents-to-be will be seated together on one seat. Flowers will naturally appear in the hands of his goddess mother-to-be. Seeing these flowers, she will say to his father-to-be:

『甚為福吉希奇勝果,天今當知,子慶之歡時將不久。』

‘What an auspicious, extraordinary victory fruit! You should know that a time is approaching for joyful celebration for a son.’

天母遂以兩手搖弄其花,弄花之時命便終盡。無相之識棄捨諸根,持諸境業棄捨諸界,持諸界事遷受異報,猶如乘馬棄一乘一,如日愛引光,如木生火,又如月影現澄清水,識資善業遷受天報,如脈風移速託花內。天父天母同座視之,甘露欲風吹花七日,寶璫嚴身曜動炫煥,天童朗潔現天母手。」

His goddess mother-to-be will then shake the flowers with her hands. As she plays with the flowers, the person’s life will end. His [ālaya] consciousness, formless and invisible, will abandon all faculties and their objects, carrying his karma and other spheres, and it will move away to accept a new requital. It is like a horseman abandoning one horse to ride another. It is like the sun directing its light. It is like wood producing fire. It is like the moon casting its reflection in clear water. His [ālaya] consciousness with a store of good karmas will accept a celestial life a requital. It will be swiftly delivered by [karmic] wind into a flower, and his celestial parents-to-be, seated together on one seat, will both look at the flower. After the wind of desire blows sweet dew on the flower for seven days, a bright clean god-child, adorned with jewels, will appear lively and radiant in the hands of his goddess-mother."

[0185a09] 大藥白佛言:「世尊!無形之識,云何假因緣力而生有形?云何有形止因緣內?」

Great Medicine asked the Buddha, "World-Honored One (世尊), how does formless consciousness (無形之識) bring a form into being through the power of causes and conditions? Can a form be found inside its causes and conditions?"

[0185a11] 佛言:

The Buddha replied:

「大藥!如木和合相觸生火,此火木中求不可得,若除於木亦不得火,因緣和合而生於火,因緣不具火即不生,木等之中尋火色相竟不可見,然咸見火從木中出。

Great Medicine! Fire is produced by rubbing two pieces of wood, but fire cannot be found in the wood. Without wood, fire cannot be produced. Fire is born from the convergence of causes and conditions. Without causes and conditions, fire cannot be produced. Examining the wood, one cannot find the appearance of fire. Yet one can see fire rising from the wood.

如是,大藥!識假父母因緣和合生有形身,有形身中求識不得,離有形身亦無有識。

Indeed (如是), Great Medicine (大藥), [ālaya] consciousness (識) brings a physical form into being through one’s parents as the conditions. Searching through one’s body, one cannot find consciousness. Yet, apart from one’s body, there is no consciousness.

大藥!如火未出火相不現,亦無暖觸諸相皆無。 Great Medicine, before the kindling of fire, the appearance of fire is not there. Nor are there such qualities as heat that can be felt. 如是,大藥!若未有身,識受想行皆悉不現。 Thus (如是), Great Medicine (大藥) without a body (未有身), there cannot be consciousness, sensory reception, perception, or mental processing (識受想行皆悉不現). 大藥!如見日輪光明照曜,而諸凡夫不見日體,是黑是白,黃白黃赤皆不能知,但以照熱光明出沒環運,諸作用事而知有日;識亦如是,以諸作用而知有識。」 Great Medicine (大藥), when ordinary beings see the bright light of the sun, they do not see the substance of the sun, whether it is black, white, yellow white, or yellow red. They know only that the sun, alternately rising and setting, radiates light and heat. They know the sun through its functions. Consciousness too is known by its functions."

[0185a22] 大藥白佛言:「云何為識作用?」

Great Medicine asked the Buddha, "What are the functions of consciousness (識作用)?"

[0185a23] 佛言:「大藥!受覺想行思憂苦惱,此為識之作用。復有善不善業,熏習為種,作用顯識。」

The Buddha replied to Great Medicine, "Sensory reception, perception, mental processing, thinking, and feeling anxiety, agony, or distress are functions of consciousness. Furthermore, habitual good and evil karmas become seeds stored in consciousness, which manifest as functions."

[0185a24] 大藥白佛言:「云何識離於身便速受身,識捨故身新身未受,當爾之時識作何相?」

Great Medicine asked the Buddha, "How does [ālaya] consciousness leave one body and quickly accept another body? If it has abandoned one body but has not yet accepted a new body, what appearance does consciousness assume during this interval?"

[0185a26] 佛言大藥:「如有丈夫長臂勇健著堅甲冑,馬疾如風乘以入陣,干戈既交心亂墜馬,武藝捷習還即跳上,識棄於身速即受身,亦復如是。又如怯人見敵怖懼乘馬退走,識資善業,見天父母同座而坐,速託生彼亦復如是。

The Buddha replied, "Great Medicine (大藥), as an analogy, a warrior with long arms, clad in sturdy armor, rides a horse, swift as the wind, into a battle formation and fights bravely with his weapon. Although he falls off his horse in a moment of inattention, he immediately jumps back on because of his good training in martial arts. Likewise, [ālaya] consciousness abandons one body and immediately accepts another body. It is also like a coward who, upon seeing the enemy, out of fear, immediately rides his horse to escape. Likewise, when [ālaya] consciousness with a store of good karmas sees its celestial parents-to-be seated together on the same seat, it quickly entrusts its rebirth to them.

大藥!如汝所問,識棄故身新身未受,當爾之時識作何相?大藥!譬如人影現於水中無質可取,手足面目及諸形狀與人不異,體質事業影中皆無,無冷無熱及與諸觸,亦無疲乏肉段諸大,無言聲身聲苦樂之聲,識棄故身新身未受,相亦如是。大藥!是資善業生諸天者。」

Great Medicine, you ask what appearance consciousness assumes during the interval after it has abandoned its old body but has not yet accepted a new body. Great Medicine, by analogy, a person’s reflection in the water has no mass to grasp. Yet its hands, feet, facial features, and other shapes are no different from the person’s. The reflection has no mass, nor does it do karmas. It has neither sense of hot or cold nor sense of touch. Nor does it fatigue or have flesh made with the four domains. Nor does it make sounds of speech, sounds of body, or sounds of pain or pleasure. The same is true for the appearance of [ālaya] consciousness after it has abandoned the old body but has not accepted a new body. Great Medicine, this explains how [ālaya] consciousness with a store of good karmas is reborn in heaven."

[0185b08] 大藥白佛言:「云何識生地獄?」

Great Medicine asked the Buddha, "How is [ālaya] consciousness reborn in hell (識生地獄)?"

[0185b09] 佛言:「大藥!行惡業者入於地獄,汝當諦聽!大藥!此中眾生積不善根,命終之時作如是念:

The Buddha replied, "Great Medicine (大藥), in regard to how those who have done evil karmas enter into hell, you should hearken. Great Medicine, sentient beings that have accumulated roots of evil will have this thought upon dying:

『我今於此身死,棄捨父母親知所愛,甚大憂苦。』見諸地獄及見己身應合入者,見足在上頭倒向下,又見一處地純是血,見此血已心有味著,緣味著心便生地獄,腐敗惡水臭穢因力,識託其中。譬如糞穢臭處,臭酪臭酒諸臭因力,蟲生其中;入地獄者託臭物生,亦復如是。」

‘I now die here with immense anxiety and suffering, abandoning my beloved parents, relatives, and friends.’ They will see hells and see themselves doomed to fall into them headfirst. They will see a place covered with blood and will relish its flavor on sight. Conditioned upon their appetite for blood, they will be reborn in hell. The way [ālaya] consciousness deposits itself in the midst of such conditions as putrid evil water and stinking filth is analogous to the birth of maggots through the power of such conditions as feces, filth, spoiled cream, and putrid liquor, in a stinking place. Likewise those who enter into hell are reborn there through foul things."

[0185b17] 賢護勝上童真合掌白佛言:「地獄眾生作何色相?身復云何?」

The youth Worthy Protector Superior joined his palms and asked the Buddha, "What forms (色) and appearances (相) do hell-dwellers assume? What do their bodies look like?"

[0185b18] 佛言:「大藥!其愛血地生地獄者,遍身血光身如血色,生湯隍者身如黑雲,生乳湯河者,身點斑雜作種種色體極軟脆,猶如貴樂孾孩之身,其身長大過八肘量,鬚髮身毛並長垂曳,手足面目虧曲不全,閻浮提人遙見便死。」

The Buddha replied, "Great Medicine (大藥), those who are reborn in hell because of their love of blood-covered ground will have bodies the color of blood, all radiating bloody light. Those who are reborn in a moat will have bodies like black clouds. Those who are reborn in a milk river will have bodies dotted in various colors, and their bodies will be very delicate, like an infant of nobility. Their bodies will measure more than eight elbows in height, with long head hair and body hair trailing behind. Their hands, feet, and facial features will be crooked and incomplete. People in Jambudvīpa will die if they see them in the distance."

[0185b23] 大藥白佛言:「地獄眾生以何為食?」

Great Medicine asked the Buddha, "What food do hell-dwellers eat?"

[0185b24] 佛言:「大藥!地獄眾生食無少樂,惶懼馳走,遙見鎔銅赤汁,意謂是血,眾奔趣之;又有聲呼:『諸有飢者可速來食。』便走向彼,至已而住以手承口,獄卒以熱銅汁寫手掬中,逼之令飲銅汁入腹,骨節爆裂舉身火起。

The Buddha replied, "Great Medicine (大藥), sentient beings in hell receive no pleasure from eating food. Running about with fear, they will see in the distance red molten copper. Mistaking it for blood, they will rush for it. They will also hear a call saying that the hungry can come quickly to eat. They will then go there and hold their hands as cups before their mouths. The hell warden will pour hot molten copper into their cupped hands and force them to drink it down into their abdomens. Their bones and joints will burst and crack open, their bodies entirely in flames.

[0185b29] 「大藥!地獄眾生所食之物,唯增苦痛無少安樂。地獄眾生苦痛如是,識不捨之亦不毀壞。身如骨聚識止不離,非業報盡苦身不捨,飢渴苦逼,便見園林花果敷榮廣博翠茂,見已喜笑互相謂言:

Great Medicine (大藥), the food eaten by sentient beings in hell only augments their suffering, without affording even a little comfort or happiness. Such are the agonies of sentient beings in hell! However, one’s [ālaya] consciousness never gives up, nor is it damaged. Even when the body is like a pile of bones, [ālaya] consciousness remains there, not leaving. Until the karmic requital is exhausted, the tormented body will not be abandoned. Pressed by the agony of hunger and thirst, they will see a lush green garden with an abundance of thriving trees, flowers, and fruits. Seeing this, they will laugh and say to one another,

『此園翠茂清風涼美,眾急入園須臾暫樂。』 ‘This lush garden is green and the wind is cool.’

樹葉花果咸成刀劍斬截罪者,或中破身分為兩段,或大叫呼四面馳走,獄卒群起執金剛棒,或執鐵棒鐵斧鐵杖,囓脣瞋怒身出火焰,斫棒罪者遮不令出,斯皆己業見如是事。獄卒隨罪者後,語罪者云:

The multitude will hasten into the garden, seeking a moment of pleasure. However, the tree leaves, flowers, and fruits will all change into knives and swords to hack and slash these sinners. While some of them will be hit and their bodies cut in two, others will scream as they run in the four directions. Wardens will mobilize, holding vajra clubs, iron clubs, iron axes, or iron rods. They will bite their lips in wrath, their bodies bursting flames. Forbidding the sinners to leave the garden, they will slash and batter these sinners, who experience these things because of their own karmas. Chasing after the sinners, the wardens will say to them,

『汝何處去?汝可住此,勿復東西欲何逃竄。今此園者汝業莊嚴,可得離不?』

‘Where are you going? You can stay here. How can you escape to the east or the west? This garden is adorned with your karmas. Is it possible to leave?’

[0185c11] 「如是,大藥!地獄眾生受種種苦,七日而死還生地獄,以業力故如遊蜂採花還歸本處。罪業眾生應入地獄,初死之時見死使來,繫項驅逼身心大苦入大黑闇,如被劫賊執捉將去,作如是言:

Indeed (如是), Great Medicine (大藥), sentient beings in hell undergo various kinds of suffering. They die every seven days and are reborn again in hell. Because of the power of karma, they are like worker bees that return to their original place after collecting honey from flowers. Sentient beings with sinful karma are doomed to enter into hell. As they begin to die, they will see death agents arrive, who will lasso their necks and pull them. As if being captured by bandits, they will experience immense suffering in body and mind as they enter vast darkness, wailing these words:

『訶訶,禍哉!苦哉!我今棄閻浮提種種愛好親屬知友,入於地獄,我今不見天路但見苦事,如蠶作絲自纏取死,我自作罪為業纏縛,羂索繫項牽曳驅逼將入地獄。』

‘Oh, oh! Disaster! Agony! I now abandon relatives, friends, and various kinds of loves in Jambudvīpa, to enter into hell. I now do not see the road to heaven but see wretched things. Like a silkworm that produces silk to bind itself to death, I am bound by my own sinful karma. With a noose fastened around my neck, I am dragged and driven into hell.’

賢護!罪業眾生生地獄者,苦相如是。」

Worthy Protector (賢護), such are the miserable appearances of sentient beings with sinful karma, being reborn in hell!"

[0185c20] 爾時賢護與大藥王子,聞說是已,身驚毛竪,俱起合掌作如是言:

Then (爾時), Worthy Protector (賢護) and Prince Great Medicine (大藥王子), having heard these words, were astounded, their hair standing on end. They rose together, joined their palms, and said:

「我等今者俱歸依佛,請垂救護,願今以此聞法功德,未脫有流處生死輪,不落三塗入於地獄。」

"We today take refuge in the Buddha and entreat for His rescue and protection. We pray that, because of the merit of hearing this Dharma, before we are liberated from the stream of existence under the wheel of birth and death, we will not go down the three evil life-paths, never into hell."

[0185c23] 賢護復白佛言:「欲有所請,唯願聽許。」

Worthy Protector further implored the Buddha, "I pray only that You will grant our wish."

[0185c24] 佛言:「如汝悕望,恣汝所問。」

The Buddha said, "You may ask anything you wish."

[0185c25] 賢護白佛言:「世尊!云何為積?云何為聚?云何為陰?云何為身不遷?」

Worthy Protector asked the Buddha, "What is accumulation (積)? What is gathering (聚)? What are the aggregates (陰)? What is the meaning of no transference into a body (身不遷)?"

[0185c26] 佛言:

The Buddha replied:

「賢護!智界、見界、意界、明界,以此四界和合成身,四界境識名之為積;聚謂六界六入,六入境三界,因二入因,即鬚髮毛爪皮肉膿血,涕唾黃痰脂[月*冊]髓液,手足面目大小支節,和合崇聚名之為聚,猶如穀豆麻麥,積集聚貯而成高大,謂之為聚。其地水火風空識,名為六界;眼耳鼻舌身意,名為六入;色聲香味觸法,名六入境,即貪瞋癡名三界因。又風黃痰亦名三因。二入因者,謂戒與信。又有二因,謂捨與施。又有二因,謂進與定。又有二因,謂善不善。

"Worthy Protector, the body is composed of four realms (四界和合成身): intellect (智界), perception (見界), mental faculty (意界), and ignorance (明界). Including these four realms in one’s consciousness is called accumulation (四界境識名之為積). Gathering refers to the six domains (六界), and the six faculties (六入) with their six corresponding objects. There are three causes of existence in the Three Realms (六入境三界), and there are two causes for understanding (因二入因). Gathering also means the assemblage of hair, beard, nails, skin, flesh, pus, blood, mucus, saliva, bile, phlegm, secretion, fat, marrow, and fluids, as well as hands, feet, face, and large and small joints. It is called gathering because it is like grain, legume, sesame, and wheat, collected and amassed into large piles. The six domains (六界) are earth, water, fire, wind, space, and consciousness (其地水火風空識,名為六界). The six faculties (六入) are eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mental faculty (眼耳鼻舌身意,名為六入); their six corresponding objects (六入境) are sights, sounds, scents, flavors, tactile sensations, and mental objects (色聲香味觸法,名六入境). The three causes of one’s existence in the Three Realms (三界因) are greed (貪), anger (瞋), and delusion (癡), while the three causes [of diseases] are wind, bile, and phlegm (又風黃痰亦名三因). The two causes (二入因) for understanding are precepts (戒) and faith (信); another two causes (又有二因) are equability (捨) and almsgiving (施); another two causes (又有二因) are energetic progress (進) and samādhi (定); and another two (又有二因) are good (善) and evil (不善).

其受想行識,此四名無色陰,受謂領受苦樂等相及不苦不樂之相,想謂知苦樂相,行謂現念作意及觸,識者是身之主,遍行諸體,身有所為莫不由識。不遷者,謂身語意淨證獲道果,此人死已識棄有陰,不重受有、不流諸趣,極樂而遷不復重遷,是名不遷。」

Sensory reception (受), perception (想), mental processing (行), and consciousness (識) are called the four formless aggregates (四名無色陰). Sensory reception (受) leads to experiencing pain, pleasure, or neither of the two. Perception refers to cognition of pain or pleasure. Mental processing refers to thinking, attention, and sensory contact. Consciousness is the lord of the body, pervading the entire body and directing all of its activities.

No transference [of one’s ālaya consciousness] pertains to one’s attainment of the bodhi fruit because one’s body, voice, and mind are purified. After death, one’s [ālaya] consciousness abandons the aggregates of existence and moves away joyfully. It no longer undergoes [karmic] existence, transmigrating through life-journeys. No more transference [into a karmic body] is called no transference."

[0186a13] 於是賢護與大藥王子,禮佛雙足白言:

Then Worthy Protector and Prince Great Medicine bowed down at the feet of the Buddha and said:

「世尊!佛一切智說此法聚,當於未來作大利益安樂眾生。」

"World-Honored One (世尊), this Dharma nugget pronounced by the Buddha, the Omniscient One, will bring great benefits, peace, and joy to sentient beings in the future."

[0186a16] 佛言:

The Buddha said:

「如來法聚常住非斷,一切智者知而不為,我經無量勤苦積集智光,今說此經,此正法日為諸眾生作大明照,德譽普流一切智海,為能調心流注者,說此經所在之處請誦解說,諸天、鬼神、阿修羅、摩睺羅伽,咸悉擁護皆來拜禮,水火王賊等怖皆不能害。

"The Dharma store of the Tathāgata abides for eternity, never ceasing. The omniscient one knows everything because I have developed wisdom light through immeasurable assiduity and suffering. I now pronounce this sūtra on this true-Dharma day (正法日) to shine brilliant light on sentient beings (眾生) and to let virtue and renown flow everywhere from the ocean of omniscience. I pronounce it for the sake of those who are able to control their mind streams. Wherever this sūtra is, wherever it is being recited or explained, gods, spirits, asuras, and mahoragas will all come to make obeisance and to give support. Water, fire, law, and bandits will not be able to do any harm.

諸比丘!從今已往於不信前勿說此經,求經過者慎勿示之,於尼乾子尼乾部眾諸外道中亦勿說之,不恭敬渴請亦勿為說;若違我教虧損法事,此人則為虧損如來。

Bhikṣus (比丘), from this day forward, do not pronounce this sūtra to nonbelievers. Nor should you show it to those who intend to find fault with this sūtra. Nor should you pronounce it to non-Buddhists, such as Nirgranthaputra (尼乾子) and the Nirgrantha group. Nor should you pronounce it to those who request it with disrespect. Those who disobey my instructions damage Dharma work and in effect damage the Tathāgata.

諸比丘!若有禮拜供養此經典者,應當恭敬供養是人,斯人則為持如來藏。」

Bhikṣus (比丘), if there are those who make obeisance and offerings to this sūtra, you should respect them and honor them with gifts because they uphold the Tathāgata store (Tathāgatagarbha如來藏)."

[0186a27] 爾時世尊而說偈言:

Then the World-Honored One spoke in verse:

    「當勇超塵累,  勤修佛正教,

    Be brave to transcend the burden of afflictions.
    Train assiduously in the true teachings of the Buddha.

     除滅死軍眾,  如象踐葦蘆,

    Annihilate the legions of death,
    Like the elephant trampling on reeds.

     持法奉禁戒,  專精勿虧怠,

    Uphold the Dharma, observe its precepts,
    And progress single-mindedly, without negligence or indolence,

     以棄生流轉,  盡諸苦有邊。」

    In order to cease the flow of rebirth, Reaching the edge of agonizing existence.

[0186b03] 佛說此經已,賢護勝上童真、大藥王子,并諸比丘、菩薩摩訶薩、天人、阿修羅、乾闥婆等,普大會眾,聞佛所說歡喜奉行。

After the Buddha pronounced this sūtra, the youth Worthy Protector Superior (賢護勝上童真), Prince Great Medicine (大藥王子), bhikṣus (比丘), and Bodhisattva-Mahāsattvas (菩薩摩訶薩), as well as gods, humans (天人), asuras (阿修羅), gandharvas (乾闥婆), and others (stb…等) in the huge assembly, having heard the Buddha’s words, rejoiced and reverently carried out the teachings.

    (右大唐永隆元年三藏地婆訶羅於東太原寺譯,出《大周錄》)。


Rövid összefoglalás

E A Tudat Feltárásának Mahāyāna Szútrája《大乘顯識經》 k√≠nai ford√≠t√°sa Divakara Mester (地婆訶羅, 613-687) munk√°ja. A tudat Mahayana Szutr√°j√°ban a M√©lt√≥ V√©delmezŇĎ nevŇĪ fiatalember megk√©rdezi a Buddh√°t arr√≥l, hogy milyen tudatoss√°g van √©s mi t√∂rt√©nik a hal√°l pillanat√°ban. Ebben a szutr√°ban a Buddha NEM a tudatr√≥l (vinnana) tan√≠t, amelyrŇĎl √°ltal√°ban a Pali Sz√ļtr√°kban is besz√©lnek (a 6. gondolkod√≥ tudat) - ez egy teljesen m√°s, melyet ebben a Sz√ļtr√°ban Buddha felfed: ez a nyolcadik tudat, az Alaya Vijnana. Ez√©rt nagyon fontos, hogy meg√©rtsd a kontextust, amikor e sz√ļtr√°t olvasod. Egy √°ltal√°nos k√©rd√©s, hogy tudom, ami ujj√°sz√ľletik? Ez a sz√ļtra v√°laszol erre a k√©rd√©sre. Ez a Nyolcadik Tudatoss√°g - az √ļjj√°sz√ľletett Alaya Vijnana - amely a szenzoros √©rz√©kel√©st (√©rz√©keink √°ltal fogadott inform√°ci√≥kat) a Dharma Birodalm√°val egy√ľtt hordozza, valamint az √©rz√©kszervi √©szlel√©st, melyeknek tev√©kenys√©gei a hal√°l pillanat√°ban ideiglenesen felf√ľggeszt√©sre ker√ľlnek, b√°r a mem√≥ria m√©g mindig jelen van (ami√©rt a hal√°l pillanat√°ban az emberek eml√©keiket villog√≥an kapj√°k). √Ėt √©rtelmi tudatoss√°got tan√≠t Buddha, valamint a gondolkod√≥ tudat (√©rtelem), ez a hatodik, a hetedik a k√∂zvet√≠tŇĎ tudat, vagy megt√©vesztett tudatoss√°g (√©rzelmi-, ego). Ezt k√∂vetŇĎen a nyolcadik tudat. Ez a sz√ļtra a nyolcadik tudatoss√°got tan√≠tja.

In the Mahayana Sutra of Consciousness Revealed, a young man by the name of Worthy Protector asks the question to the Buddha about what consciousness is like and what happens at the moment of death. In this Sutra, the Buddha is NOT teaching about the consciousness (vinnana) that is usually talked about in the Pali Suttas (the 6th thinking consciousness) ‚Äď it is a totally different consciousness that the Buddha will be teaching about here ‚Äď the 8th consciousness, the Alaya Vijnana. This is why it‚Äôs so important to understand the context when you are reading the Sutras and Suttas. A common question that I see is ‚ÄúWhat is it that gets reborn?‚ÄĚ This Sutra answers that question ‚Äď it is the 8th Consciousness, the Alaya Vijnana that is reborn ‚Äď carrying with it the Dharma realms of sensory reception (receiving information from our senses) PLUS sensory perception (perceiving sensory information), whose activities are temporarily suspended at the moment of death, though memory is still present (hence why people get the life review flashing before them at the moment of death). There are 5 sense consciousnesses + the thinking consciousness/intellect (the 6th consciousness) + the 7th Transmitting Consciousness + the 8th consciousness. This Sutra teaches about the 8th Consciousness.

Javasolt irodalom és források

1. Foguang Dacidian (Buddha's light dictionary, 佛光大辭典)
2. Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms (中英佛學辭典)
3. Online Buddhist Dictionary (在線佛學辭典).
4. ...
5. ...

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K√∂sz√∂netet mondunk minden bar√°tunknak, mindazon szerzŇĎknek, tan√≠t√≥knak, buddhist√°knak √©s harcmŇĪv√©szeknek, akik hozz√°j√°rultak a harcmŇĪv√©szet-t√∂rt√©neti-, buddhista-, b√∂lcseleti √©s egy√©b tan√≠t√°sokkal, √≠r√°sokkal, tanulm√°nyokkal, jegyzetekkel minden √©rzŇĎ l√©ny tan√≠t√°s√°hoz √©s tanul√°s√°hoz. Buddh√°k √©s Mesterek tan√≠t√°sait megosztani √©rdem, mindezen √©rdemeket felaj√°nljuk az √∂sszes Buddh√°knak. A Xing Long Tang elfogulatlan, p√°rtatlan, szektarianizmust√≥l mentes elv alapj√°n t√∂rekszik a Dharm√°t, a Chan hagyom√°nyvonal tan√≠t√°s√°t, a harcmŇĪv√©szeti st√≠lusok t√∂rt√©neteit megosztani. 武林一家! 阿弥陀佛!

各位朋友, 作者, 老师, 佛教徒和功夫爱好者, 请允许我向你们表示感谢, 感谢你们一直以来用功夫, 历史, 佛教, 哲学和各类教学, 文章, 研究和教义, 对教学和学习的支持。分享佛教和大师的教义非常有价值, 我们以此恭敬诸佛。《醒龙堂》 将依据不偏依, 不分宗派的原则努力分享佛法, 传承佛教思想和传统功夫。

Xing Long Tang | 2018.06 v1; elsŇĎ kiad√°s
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XING LONG TANG 醒龙堂 中国武术研究会 | Honorary President: ZHANG ERYU Grandmaster | Master: XIAO FENG | Contact us: master [at] rgm.hu
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